REVIEW: RADIO &
DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP,
BOND NETWORK EVENT: 7
OCTOBER 2002 [incomplete draft
report]
by
GRANT GODDARD

www.g...
INCOMPLETE DRAFT REPORT

The workshop was held at NCVO, 8 All Saints Street, London N1 from
2pm to 5pm. It was the first r...
INCOMPLETE DRAFT REPORT

3.1.2 Population speaks perfect Burundi, whereas the urban population tends
to mix in Swahili and...
INCOMPLETE DRAFT REPORT

3.5

Reach vulnerable populations

3.5.1 We produce a number of programmes for women, young child...
INCOMPLETE DRAFT REPORT

publicising an event and letting others know about positive work being
done elsewhere either by o...
INCOMPLETE DRAFT REPORT

general and the second day will be on radio soaps for conflict
resolution.
3.9.4 We want to produ...
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'Review: Radio & Development Workshop, BOND Network Event, 7 October 2002' [incomplete draft report] by Grant Goddard

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Incomplete draft report of notes from the Radio & Development Workshop organised by BOND in London on 7 October 2002, written by Grant Goddard in October 2002.

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'Review: Radio & Development Workshop, BOND Network Event, 7 October 2002' [incomplete draft report] by Grant Goddard

  1. 1. REVIEW: RADIO & DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP, BOND NETWORK EVENT: 7 OCTOBER 2002 [incomplete draft report] by GRANT GODDARD www.grantgoddard.co.uk October 2002
  2. 2. INCOMPLETE DRAFT REPORT The workshop was held at NCVO, 8 All Saints Street, London N1 from 2pm to 5pm. It was the first radio development event to be hosted by BOND (a network of 270 UK-based voluntary organisations working in international development and development education) and OneWorld Radio (whose online radio network linking broadcasters with NGOs launched earlier this year). The event was attended by about 50 delegates from NGOs (Help The Aged, ActionAid & Amnesty International), broadcasters (BBC World Service, Radio Netherlands & Passion For The Planet) and media trainers (Goldsmiths College). The atmosphere was very positive and a lot of information was shared. 1. Welcome & Introduction Jackie Davies of OneWorld Radio http://www.oneworld.net/radio introduced the event. 2. NGOs & Radio Stations In The North Glen Tarman of OneWorld International http://www.oneworld.net explained the work of his organisation. 3. NGOs, Radio & The South Francis Rolt of Common Ground Productions http://www.sfcg.org talked about his organisation’s use of radio in the process of conflict resolution and for health education in Africa. He identified best practices for radio: 3.1 Identify target audiences and draw themes and ideas from the local context 3.1.1 In Burundi, when we made programmes that specifically addressed the rural population, we only used presenters whose Burundi was classical (that means rural) and whose accent was rural. Otherwise our target audience in rural areas would have switched off. We started a new radio soap in Crimea in the Ukraine entitled “Our Street.” We identified the urban youth as our target audience because they are most vulnerable to joining and then being manipulated by the criminal gangs that control economic life in Crimea. The point is - we don’t try to establish programmes that we think will be useful, but ones that people in that society think will be useful. The issue of criminal gangs in Crimea is not one that I would have come up with. I was thinking along the lines of a more straightforward Ukrainians versus Tartars soap and trying to look at ways that they might resolve their differences. It took the writers some time to convince myself and others that criminal gangs are really at the root of the xenophobia, prejudice and negative stereotyping that leads to tensions between Tartars and Ukrainians. So that this is really a much more important issue to tackle. Review: Radio & Development Workshop, Bond Network Event: 7 October 2002 [incomplete draft report] ©2002 Grant Goddard page 2
  3. 3. INCOMPLETE DRAFT REPORT 3.1.2 Population speaks perfect Burundi, whereas the urban population tends to mix in Swahili and French. This stresses the importance of speaking from the local perspective. 3.2 Root programmes and production in local culture 3.2.1 The theme tune to our Indonesian soap opera is not the type of song that you or I would think of as being very catchy. This was written by local musicians, pre-tested with the target audience, and re-written in response to the target audience’s comments. So it is something that the audience likes, will accept and will understand. And it doesn’t matter what you or I think. It doesn’t even matter what the writers think. We put the scripts through the same process of pre-testing. So the drama is made, produced, acted and recorded by Indonesians for Indonesians. We had to really argue the case for radio soaps with some of the older members of the advisory committee which advises the writers. Like intellectuals everywhere, some of them view soap operas with a very jaundiced eye. 3.3 Provide equal access for all parties 3.3.1 In Sierra Leone, war is multi-polar so we have been careful to employ a representative cross-section of the population, not only that but to ensure that we have a big mix of rural and urban voices. One way of ensuring that everyone gets to speak, and it also reinforces the habit amongst the producers of making sure that the most number of viewpoints are given. 3.3.2 In Burundi, where the conflict is essentially bi-polar, Studio Ijambo is staffed by almost equal numbers of Hutu and Tutsi. It is not very easy to maintain that kind of balance, but it has been essential to the balance of the programmes and it is important as a demonstration of our commitment to balance and equal access. Until a couple of years ago, very few other NGOs or international organisations in Burundi had even thought about this as the issue. When they checked, three years ago, they found that almost all their staff were Tutsi, who make up 15% of the population. 3.4 Measure the impact of programmes during and after broadcast 3.4.1 We pre-test all programmes, particularly soaps as they tend to reach much larger audiences and offer a longer term impact. We tend to go through a number of focus groups of 10 to 15 people who are usually homogenous. So, for example, in Indonesia, when we were pre-testing the soap opera there, we tried it out separately on members of an Islamic school and on residents of the community living under a train bridge in central Jakarta, as well as on five other different groups. What these groups told us fed directly into the last re-write of the six pilot episodes and persuaded the writers to make some major changes. Review: Radio & Development Workshop, Bond Network Event: 7 October 2002 [incomplete draft report] ©2002 Grant Goddard page 3
  4. 4. INCOMPLETE DRAFT REPORT 3.5 Reach vulnerable populations 3.5.1 We produce a number of programmes for women, young children and youth in addition to other minority and majority groups. In Burundi and Sierra Leone, programming for youth reaches those most at risk in choosing the option of violence. And the new soaps both in Ukraine and in Indonesia are targeted at youth. 3.5.2 In Liberia and Sierra Leone, children produce shows for children. In Liberia, one of the first shows the children did involved going to interview [head of junta] Charles Taylor and they asked him a question that no journalist had dared ask him before, which concerned his new mistress. [delegate: “Did he answer it?”] He did, amazingly, and he didn’t chop anyone’s head off. 3.5.3 In several countries, we also produce shows on women's issues. In Angola we make a programme that is targeted at and gives a voice to refugee women. 3.6 Local capacity building 3.6.1 This is implicit in the all other points I have made. Peace depends so much on the capacity of a society and its individuals to analyse and to act in positive ways. Since April 2000, Search For Common Ground in Macedonia has managed a three-year project to build bridges in the new Balkans, which spans Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Montenegro, Roma and Kosovo to promote greater inter-cultural awareness and understanding. The radio part of the project facilitates co-operation across the languages that divide radio stations in Macedonia. Programmes are in Macedonian and Albanian. The objective of the project is to circumvent the segregated nature of the media and to construct bridges across ethnic and linguistic barriers to help eliminate prejudice, fear and mistrust. 3.7 Consider how media can enhance other projects 3.7.1 Conflicts are extremely complicated, so that media by themselves are unlikely to have more than a limited impact. As in life, it is the accumulation of experiences and ideas that matter and affect us. People can listen to a radio programme and say: “Yes, but that’s just theory. That’s all very well for her, but she’s not going to be where I live.” We apply radio to all projects. 3.7.2 In Burundi, we use radio to promote aspects of the Women’s Peace Centre’s work, the youth project and the work done by other NGOs in the realm of conflict resolution. In Liberia, radio goes hand in hand with theatre productions. Radio is a valuable tool in strengthening the activities of other projects and in multiplying the effect of an event by Review: Radio & Development Workshop, Bond Network Event: 7 October 2002 [incomplete draft report] ©2002 Grant Goddard page 4
  5. 5. INCOMPLETE DRAFT REPORT publicising an event and letting others know about positive work being done elsewhere either by ourselves or by other organisations. 3.8 Partner with other organisations 3.8.1 Partnering is essential. In Sierra Leone, in May 2002, the elections were held and were a source of potential conflict, even despite the peace deal having been signed. In the past, elections have led to conflict in Sierra Leone because the results have been delayed, people have assumed that some parts of the country have voted one way, rumours have started flooding the country and led to conflict. Our Talking Drum studio is partnered with five ethnic radio stations that give them almost total coverage of the country. This partnership led to national coverage for the first time. Usually they simply operate as independent FM radio stations. For the elections, the partners begged, borrowed or rented 14 satellite phones, 62 cell phones, 4 landlines and 2 vehicles. And they deployed 120 people – everyone from journalists to office assistants – across the country to gather the election results at each polling centre. So one person had five polling centres to cover, either on foot or by bicycle. And then they phoned in the results to centres in Freetown, where they were collated and then distributed to the five radio stations by telephone and broadcast the same day. This is the first time that has happened in Sierra Leone. This had an enormous impact. It limited the ability of the National Election Commission to manipulate or change the results, both of which could have led to a resurgence of violence. The whole effort only cost $25,000. Most people I have spoken to in Sierra Leone believe that the cost of $25,000 prevented the potential for a resurgence in violence during the elections. This radio partnership still exists and, having had their first success, they plan to do other things in common. 3.9 Future Projects 3.9.1 We want to do a survey of attitudes amongst journalists and media workers in Africa and Europe to set up a baseline survey. One of the problems with media work in conflict resolution, and of media work in general, is the difficulty of evaluating it. How do you say: “We broadcasted this. So many people listened. And such and such a percentage changed their behaviour as a result.” It is really hard. One way is start out with a baseline survey. We are working with a lot of other organisations and academics on evaluation methodologies. 3.9.2 We are developing manuals and modules – one on “How To Do Radio Soaps For Conflict Resolution”, one on “How To Do News & Current Affairs For Conflict Resolution” and one on “Magazines & Feature Programmes.” I hope that these will be on CD-ROM and on the internet. 3.9.3 With the BBC World Service Trust, we are organising a national conference on radio soaps next year. One day will be on radio soaps in Review: Radio & Development Workshop, Bond Network Event: 7 October 2002 [incomplete draft report] ©2002 Grant Goddard page 5
  6. 6. INCOMPLETE DRAFT REPORT general and the second day will be on radio soaps for conflict resolution. 3.9.4 We want to produce a number of contemporary programmes that can be syndicated to English-language radio stations throughout the world. One of the problems of conflict resolution radio is that there are very few examples of it in languages that are accessible to English-speaking people. So we thought that by producing contemporary programmes, we can help people understand the ideas of conflict resolution, and also reach journalists and people working in the media. 4 Karen Merkel, Director of Education, BBC World Service Trust http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust , explained the BBC’s work promoting development issues through innovative use of the media. 5 Mary Myers, DFID consultant on radio http://www.dfid.gov.uk , discussed development radio in Africa and the radio projects funded by DFID. 6 Francesca Silvani of InterWorld Radio http://www.interworldradio.org explained the service provided. 7 Mixing It Up… Radio, Development & The Internet 8 Radio & Development Discussion Grant Goddard is a media analyst / radio specialist / radio consultant with thirty years of experience in the broadcasting industry, having held senior management and consultancy roles within the commercial media sector in the United Kingdom, Europe and Asia. Details at http://www.grantgoddard.co.uk Review: Radio & Development Workshop, Bond Network Event: 7 October 2002 [incomplete draft report] ©2002 Grant Goddard page 6

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