Learning transfer


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  • small capacity of working memory, many small bites of learning, digested over time, may be more efficient than large blocks of time spent in workshops. The key is getting people to pay sufficient attention to new ideas, something the“e-learning” industry has struggled with.. Perhaps any behavior change brought about by leaders, managers, therapists, trainers, or coaches is primarily a function of their ability to induce others to focus their attention on specific ideas, closely enough, often enough, and for a long enough time.
  • “ A tremendous amount of brain power is wasted every day because managers still think their job is to tell people what to do,” he says. But, in reality, “workers know much more about the work they are doing than the boss does.” Being told what to do can actually sap their motivation for the job. “The suggestions managers and co-workers typically make are always a crap shoot: You scramble for ideas and hope that one will fit,”Mr. Rock says. “The problem is that, even if you do have a winning idea, the person still won't do it because the suggestion came from you. So, in a sense, it is a game you don't want to win.”
  • Formal learning—riding the bus—is great for novices. It’s useful to have help getting the lay of the land and getting to the destination. Training departments are very talented at setting up bus routes. Informal learning, what the bicyclists do, is most appropriate for people who already know the territory. They want tips on the new shortcuts and the essence of a topic. They want to plug the holes in their knowledge, and they won’t sit still for bus rides to their destinations. Here’s the irony: The cyclists are the high performers. Raising their performance 5 percent blows the roof off. (Whereas raising the performance of novices 5 percent doesn’t even register.) When it comes to learning, most corporations are spending the most money where it will do the least good.
  • Work is a demanding, pressure-packed, rats-inthe- maze race with the clock to get the job done. Home is a comfortable, private space for sharing time with family and individual interests. Neither work nor home, a World Café is a neutral spot where people come together to offer hospitality, enjoy comradeship, welcome diverse perspectives, and have meaningful conversations. Shared spaces encourage dialogue.
  • You’re going to spend your entire life learning so you might as well get good at it. Embracing mindfulness is your first step. You’ll need to be flexible, look at things through different lenses, reflect on what you see, try new things, run thought experiments, and pay attention. A mindful person often cuts off the mindless auto-pilot of aimless living
  • Is it possible that the learning and development profession might enjoy such dramatic advancements? What could happen that would catapult us to an entirely new plateau of results? And where is that breakthrough most likely to occur
  • as entering activities in a planner or adhering to a checklist, is the best kind of management. If employees create mechanisms to help them remember new behaviors or to eliminate inappropriate behaviors, that’s a more powerful tool than most external influences
  • Space learning events over time. One change that many organizations have implemented is to space learning events to create opportunities for application and then coming back to report, evaluate, and be reenergized. Create buddy systems or support groups. At the conclusion of any learning event, buddy systems can be created or lunch groups established to keep the implementation of learning moving forward by meeting on a regular basis. Coach online or by telephone. A regularly scheduled telephone call from someone available to discuss implementation steps or any challenges that a participant has encountered has been shown to greatly increase the degree of implementation. Encourage mentorships. Similarly, someone inside the organization who can mentor another employee performs a valuable service. By periodically touching base, a mentor shows interest in his or her participant’s progress and offers assistance when needed. Initiate job discussions. A manager or supervisor who regularly provides reminders to practice new behavours
  • in the implementation and follow-up process. While the benefits of having a mentor call every week or two to discuss an employee’s progress is obvious, email is a more economical vehicle to reach participants. An email can serve as a friendly reminder, ask for a brief assessment of progress, and encourage participants to plan their next steps to meet commitments made during the learning process. By combining email contact with telephone contact, refresher sessions, and the opportunity to complete further assessments, such as 360-degree feedback surveys, you enhance Phase 3’s potential for success. You can aggregate and analyze the data compiled through those processes in many ways. You can find out which participants are following through with their commitments; you can analyze the type of goals or commitments participants are selecting (and ignoring); and you can evaluate those goals and provide more challenging ones at a later date. Comparing the effectiveness of one training or development intervention with another is also now possible.
  • Learning transfer

    1. 1. Growing People in theOrganisational Hothouse Presented by - Graham Hart Leadership by Design
    2. 2. Overview Introduction Up close growth is unique! Best potatoes grow in the dark Planting the seed doesn’t guarantee the fruit
    3. 3. According to the ASTAD reportingon the industry 2005/6What are we doing? What seems to be working?  35 hours per employee  High level investment in learning  3% of payroll costs ASTAD  Measurement and 2004 demonstration of effectiveness  Learning can provide  Alignment with Business strategic value to the and individual needs enterprise in business  Provision of a broad range outcomes and human of internal/external capital formal/informal learning opportunities  Learnings alignment with  C level involvement and business is indicated by sponsorship integration, proactivity  Significant investment in and responsiveness non-learning performance enhancing initiatives
    4. 4. Common issues in organisations How do we get our people more engaged? Why is change difficult? Why aren’t we more innovative? Why don’t our people put into practice what they learn in training? Why can’t we grow people fast enough?
    5. 5. Learning definitions are changing! McGill et al. (1992) ability of an organization to gainArgyris (1977) defines insight andorganizational learning understanding from as the process of experience through "detection and experimentation, correction of errors observation, analysis, and a willingness to examine both successes and failures.
    6. 6. learning ideas are not progressing asquickly as our knowledge of how thebrain works!“More may have been learned aboutthe brain and the mind in the 1990s,than during the entire previous historyof psychology and neuroscience.”Antonio R. Damasio, 2005
    7. 7. Up close growth is unique “There are more possible ways to connect the brain’s neurons than there are atoms in the universe.” John Ratey, ‘A Users Guide to the Brain’ (2003)
    8. 8. Automation and prediction“The brain is constantly trying toautomate processes, thereby dispelling themfrom consciousness; in this way, its work will becompleted faster, more effectively and at a lowermetabolic level.Consciousness, on the other hand, is slow, subjectto error and “expensive.”Gerhard Roth, ‘The Quest to Find Consciousness,’ (2004)
    9. 9. We perceive what we sense plus whatwe predictPredictionmeans that the neurons involved in sensing becomeactive in advance of actually receiving sensory input.When the sensory input does arrive, it is comparedwith what was expected.... Prediction is not just one ofthe things your brain does.It is the primary function ofthe neocortex, and the foundation of intelligence.”Jeff Hawkins, ‘On Intelligence’ (2004)
    10. 10. The brain needs to see a happy face“The brain needs to see a happy faceand to hear occasional laughter to cement it’s neural circuitry. The encouraging sounds of ‘Yes! Good! That’s it!’ help to mark a synapse for preservation rather than pruning.”Thomas B Czerner, ‘What makes you tick’, (2001)
    11. 11. Attention Density Shapes Identity You’ve probably had the experience of going to a training program and getting excited about new ways of thinking, only to realize later that you can’t remember what the new ways of thinking were. Were the ideas no good in the first place or did you just not pay enough attention?
    12. 12. Productive Thinking is the link Focus on solutions type thinking Change comes from different thinking Design needs to take account of frequency of attention
    13. 13. “Ideas are like children,we like our own the best”Chinese fortune cookie, 2005
    14. 14. Benefits of Executive Coaching Training + Coaching 88% increase Productivity Training alone 22.4% increase Development Adapted from Public Personnel Management Vol 36 Issue 4A 1997 study of 31 public-sector managers by Baruch College researchers GeraldOlivero, K. DeniseBane, and Richard E. Kopelman
    15. 15. Best potatoes grow in the dark 80 %of job know-how from informal 20% formal Is informal learning on the corporate radar?
    16. 16. Training functions don’t devotemuch effort to helping cyclists. Informal learning happens outside of class. There’s no curriculum and no certificate of completion. Informal learning includes things like trying and failing, asking a neighbour, reading a book, or watching television.. It’s how we make sense of things. Informal and formal learning are the end points of a continuum (Buses and cycles)
    17. 17. Trends in blending LeadershipDevelopment approaches•Customise Executive education internally orthorough consultants and Universities•Focus on long term strategic needs and visions•Increasing focus on technological skills andknowledge•Use Action Learning formats•Concentrate on Individual development plans
    18. 18. Doesn’t need to be a Rolls Royce Implement the right amount and type  IDP, interaction with peers, decision-making authority turning around a struggling business. More the better  Leading another functional areas, Executive Coaching, Mentoring :Moderate but not too much  People Management external Consultants  Technical internal Line Managers  Off site Conferences/Seminars : External Senior Executives  General Business: Internal
    19. 19. Conversation creates knowledge.  Workers come together to share, nurture, and validate the tricks of the trade. Neither work nor home, a World Café is a neutral spot where people come together to offer hospitality, enjoy comradeship, welcome diverse Home is a Work is a demanding, perspectives, and comfortable, privatepressure-packed, rats-in have meaningful space for sharing time the- maze race with the conversations. with family andclock to get the job done. individual interests.
    20. 20. Can’t have water-coolerconversations if you remove them! Good architecture and space planning facilitate learning.. The design of the workplace is an important component of productivity, yet architects create corporate buildings with the hierarchical floor plans and grid layouts from a previous era Corporate efforts to reduce one-time costs and maximize usable space backfire, because they hamper the work of the building’s inhabitants for as long as it stands.
    21. 21. Business meetings used to come inone flavour: dull New approaches create meetings that people enjoy, often organized in scant time and at minimal cost. Unconferences are characterized by: ● no keynote speaker or designated expert ● breakthrough thinking born of diversity ● having fun dealing with serious subjects ● emergent self-organization ● genuine community, intimacy, and respect.
    22. 22. Best potatoes grow in the dark Offer choices to individuals Create opportunities for interaction Improve the quality of conversations Get attention at meetings Help people learn how to manage their own learning Time trumps perfection Give them more decision making Encourage IDP’s Help people focus some thinking time on the future
    23. 23. Planting the seed doesn’t guaranteethe fruit Phase 1 consists of all the activities that happen prior to someone physically 26 Phase 1 10 attending a session. That includes articles and books to read, questionnaires to be completed, or data to be collected. Phase 2 describes the learning event 24 85 itself. The event may be two hours in length or three months long. It may Phase 2 involve participants congregating in the same room or participants communicating via video-conferencing or some other form of distance learning. Phase 3 begins after the learning event. It includes the subsequent activities that are designed to reinforce and strengthen 50 Phase 3 5 the application of the learning.
    24. 24. Linking needs with evaluation Needs Program Assessment Objectives Evaluation Business Impact Business 4 Needs Objectives Impact 4 Job Performance Application Application 3 Needs Objectives 3 2 Skill/Knowledge/ Learning Learning 2 Attitude Objectives Deficiencies 1 Satisfaction Reaction 1 Preferences Objectives
    25. 25. To improve Phase 3A new environment must be created that provides periodic reminders to participants about:  the learned behavior  and encourages that behavior’s use
    26. 26. Effective Phase 3 efforts are characterised byimplementations in which Any desired new behaviours are made specific Participants make clear, public commitments to complete a task by a certain time Participants know that there will be a consistent mechanism that holds them accountable Participants are regularly reminded to plan for the next phase of implementation Obstacles are anticipated, plans are put in place to overcome those obstacles, and vaccinations are prepared to prevent backsliding or having individuals’ efforts gradually diluted Good measurement tools are available to let managers and administrators of the learning process monitor the progress of the individual and group
    27. 27. To improve Phase 3Space learning events over timeFormal sessions should be viewed as punctuationmarks, not the textCreate buddy systems or support groupsCoach online or by telephoneEncourage mentorshipsInitiate job discussionsEncourage employees to manage themselves
    28. 28. Email represents an enormous breakthrough,indeed it may be our miracle drug. An email can serve as  a friendly reminder  ask for a brief assessment of progress,  encourage participants to plan their next steps to meet commitments made during the learning process. By combining email contact with telephone contact,refresher sessions, and the opportunity to completefurther assessments, such as 360-degree feedbacksurveys, you enhance Phase 3’s potential for success. You can aggregate and analyse the data compiledthrough those processes in many ways.
    29. 29. In summary Up close growth is  Put individuals at the unique centre of their thinking and solutions Best potatoes grow in  Leverage the 80% the dark informal blend Planting the seed  Invest in Phase 3 doesn’t guarantee the fruit
    30. 30. Interested in leadership?Then why not sign up forour newsletter atLeadership by Design