Closing the Carbon Cycle for Sustainability - Peter Eisenberger (October 15, 2012 @ Oxford University)

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Closing the Carbon Cycle for Sustainability - A Key Strategy for Environmental Protection, Energy Security, and Economic Development - Peter Eisenberger (October 15, 2012 @ Oxford University)

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  • The main message of my presentation is that one cannot have sustainability without us hunans Closing the Carbon Cycle , by which is meant the carbon in our fuel comes from the air just as the carbon for the energy of life comes from the air. This promotes sustainability because there is no net impact on the planets carbon balance , the input to energy being the air is more equitably distributed promoting energy security and economic development. The green power fund can provide the market stimulus to trigger this virtuous cycle.
  • Read it – 1 what does it mean practically to close the carbon cycle 2 review the current view of how to address the threat of climate change – conservAationand renewables –will not avert climate risk 3 nor will it address the underlying poor distribution of fossil fuel sources and the lck of energy security anmd conflict that arise form it 4 we propose to address all thoiseconbscerns by being able to get co2 form the air as input to making our hydrocarbon fuels 5 describe our technology to do that
  • Snapshot of carbon cycle Note positve input of humans of 6 gigatonnes of carbon about 24 gigatonnes of co2 Note large fluxes of co2 between the land and air and the sea and air – natural balance today is to reduce co2 –global cooling period Note today 3-2 gigatonnes of our contribution adsorbed by rest of system that will change over time could aggravate problem grealty –would effecively double the rate of increase- nature changes the balance on its own and destructively so But even in this fortunate situation our current approach will not work
  • Too small Maybe bullet or two
  • Bathtub explanation –will not solve climate problem or address underlying energy security and economic development components of sustainability
  • What are the options? What are the useful products and fuels we can create
  • Tech pathways to harvest atmosphere—create value in closed loop
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  • Closing the Carbon Cycle for Sustainability - Peter Eisenberger (October 15, 2012 @ Oxford University)

    1. 1. Closing the Carbon Cycle for SustainabilityA Key Strategy for Environmental Protection, EnergySecurity, and Economic DevelopmentPeter EisenbergerColumbia University & Global ThermostatOXFORD UniversityOctober 15 2012
    2. 2. Table of Contents• Closing the Carbon Cycle• Current Approaches• A Sustainable Solution: Energy from Atmospheric CO2• Global Thermostat Technology Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 2
    3. 3. THE CHALLENGES WE FACE• MEETING BASIC NEEDS+ OF 9 BILLION PEOPLE – ENERGY SECURITY • LOCALLY PRODUCED GLOBALLY AVAILABLE • 5-10X SUPPLY • SUSTAINABLE – ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT • OVERCOME DEVELOPED/DEVELOPING COUNTRY DIVIDE • ELIMINATE POVERTY – CLIMATE CHANGE PROTECTION • CLOSE THE CARBON CYCLE • FLEXIBILITY TO ADJUST ATMOSPHERIC CONCENTRATION CLOSING THE CARBON CYCLE IS NEEDED AND CO2 FROM AIR IS PART OF IT
    4. 4. Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 4
    5. 5. OBSERVATIONS• CARBON CYCLE NOT CLOSED – OCEAN SEQUESTERING CO2- ABOUT 1% – CHANGES SIGN WITH TIME • ESSENTIAL TO HAVE LONG TERM STABILITY• HUMAN CONTRIBUTION – ONLY 3% OF CO2 FLUX – UNIDIRECTIONAL • NO LONG TERM STABILITY• PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1-3 % EFFICIENT SOLAR ENERGY – FITNESS - RESILIENCE NOT EFFICIENCY• HUMAN DESIGNED SOLAR – MORE EFFICIENT AND MORE RESILIENT – COST
    6. 6. Current Approaches to Manage Our Carbon“Wedges” approach a good start… – Sensible, diversified strategy based on existing pathways – Portfolio of renewable energy and efficiency technologies – Potential to keep CO2 below 500ppm (still 2x pre-indust. level)But may not be enough to avoid climate change… – Depends on continued net natural absorption rate – Does not address 2000’s already elevated emissions – Underestimates projected growth rate by factor of two – No solution past 2055Climate will change destructively on its own – Earth history has many climate disasters – New York City under a 1 mile high ice sheet A safe, effective, and affordable solution to climate change is still urgently needed Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 6
    7. 7. Emissions Scenarios… Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 7
    8. 8. Future Atmospheric Concentrations… Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 8
    9. 9. What Carbon Negative Can Achieve… Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 9
    10. 10. The Cost of Atmospheric CO2… Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 10
    11. 11. The Need for Going Carbon Negative…Carbon Neutral is not enough Business as usual – Neutralizing new and existing emissions does not prevent atmospheric concentration of CO2 from further increasing – It doesn’t solve the climate risk problem (reducing atmospheric concentrations below 500 ppm) 7 Wedges (aggressive renewable energyCarbon-Negative Required use, efficiency, point- source sequestration) – To reduce atmospheric concentrations faster than the Negative Carbon natural absorption rate Technology (such as Global – To achieve a safe level of CO2 Thermostat) with aggressive concentration renewable energy Air Capture Can Make Going Carbon Negative Possible Pacala and Socolow, Science, Vol 305, 8/13/2004, Pg 969. Note: 7 Wedges refers to the seven stabilization wedges, created by Wigley, Richels & Edmonds, necessary to achieve an atmospheric concentration of CO2 of 500 ppm by 2125. Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 11
    12. 12. A Sustainable SolutionClose the carbon cycle –CO2 from air to make theenergy we need-ENERGY SECURITY FOR ALL ̶ CO2 FROM AIR AND HYDROGEN FROM WATER ̶ PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION TO FUEL POWERED BY THE SUN ̶ INPUTS MORE EQUABLY DISTRIBUTED-CONTROL HUMAN CO2 INPUT TO CARBON CYCLE ̶ TEMPERATURE CONTROL ̶ VARY STORAGE AND RECYCLEGREEN ENERGY FUND STIMULATES ECONOMIC GROWTH ̶ STIMULATES TRANSITION TO CLOSING THE CARBON CYCLE ̶ MONETIZE THE CO2 SO IT IS A VALUABLE AND NOT A POLLUTANT Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 12
    13. 13. OUR CARBON BASED SPECIES CAN CLOSE THE CARBON CYCLE• A BI-DIRECTIONAL CARBON BASED ENERGY PROCESS – ENERGY SOURCE • INPUT CO2 FROM THE AIR AND HYDROGEN FROM WATER • PRODUCED USING SOLAR ENERGY • RELEASING CO2 AND WATER WHEN COMBUSTED• TWO PROCESSES – BIOMEMETIC/ ALGAE + SOLAR+ CO2 FROM AIR – INDUSTRIAL/ ELECTROLSIS +SOLAR + CO2 FROM AIR
    14. 14. Renewable 95: Closing the Carbon Cycle CONVERTING CO2 FROM AIR & HYDROGEN FROM WATER TO 95 OCTANE GASOLINE Water Vapor and CO2 CO2 Capture &Hydrogen Conversion 95 Octane Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 14
    15. 15. GT Project with Algae Systems GT is developing a fully-integrated biorefinery through a partnership with Algae Systems • Produces carbon negative transportation fuels (diesel, jet, etc) • Treats municipal wastewater and produces drinking water • Generates green electricity and biochar fertilizers CO2 Fuels, Algae Fuel Solar Dewatering Electricity & Production ProductionEnergy Biochar Waste water Treated Drinking Desalination Wastewater Water This unique combination of technologies provides critical municipal services while producing energy in an embodiment that is As Green As It Gets Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 15
    16. 16. CO2 FROM AIRELECTROLYSIS :HYDROGEN FROM WATER The Production of Methanol is a Proven Technology + co2+3H23H2 COCCCO2CO2 • CO2+3H2 TO CH3OH +H20 – The above reaction is exothermic, DH298=-49.47 kJ/mol • – This reaction is faster than conventional methanol processes that use synthesis gas (CO + H2)
    17. 17. CO2 and Methanol to Gasoline Process Chemistry Has BeenCommercially Proven with Favorable Energy Characteristics 3H2O 3H2 + 3/2O2 CO2 + 3H2 CH3OH + H2O CH3OH n-CH2- + H2O _______________________________ 3H2O + CO2 n-CH2- + 3/2O2 + 2H2O overall reaction H373 K= 40.79kJ/mol heat of vaporization of water at 100 C Hreaction = -49.47kJ/mol heat of reaction to form methanol Hreaction = -48.32kJ/mol heat of reaction for methanol to gasoline
    18. 18. MAKE GEOTHERMAL ELECTRICITY FROM CO2 FROM AIR • Extracts heat 50% faster than with water- based geothermal • Does not require pumps or pumping • Can generate power with conventional technology (e.g., turbines) • Can store energy – Ideal for energy storage (e.g., less than 2-minute response time) – No separate storage technology required • Provides grid management capability – Baseload, firming or peaking power – “Firms up” wind or solar power • Produces carbon-negative power
    19. 19. Geothermal Electricity + CO2Collaboration with Green Fire Energy – Uses CO2 instead of water – 20-50% of circulating CO2 sequesteredUsing CO2 captured by Global Thermostat – Location flexibility of air capture – Economic advantage of locating near use – Increased geothermal locations accessibleProduces Carbon Negative electricity Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL Page 19
    20. 20. TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS• POWERED BY SUN – ESSENTAILLY UNLIMITED SOURCE• LIQUID FUEL PRODUCT STORES ENERGY – ADDRESSES INTERMITTENCY OF SOLAR ENERGY• LOCALLY PRODUCED GLOBALLY – ENERGY SECURITY FOR ALL• DROP IN TECHNOLOGY – MINIMIZES INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS• ENERGY EFFCIENT AND RESILIENT – “COST” IS THE ISSUE
    21. 21. “COST” OF ENERGY• “COST” = PRIVATE COST+ EXTERNAL COST=SOCIAL COST – PRIVATE COST=WHAT YOU PAY AT THE PUMP OR FOR ELECTRICITY – EXTERNAL COST ARE THOSE NOT REFLECTED IN MARKET • SUBSIDIES • HEALTH LIABILITIES • ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES/CLIMATE CHANGE • ENERGY/ OIL-RELATED DEFENSE EXPENDITURE • NEGATIVE ECONOMIC IMPACT• “COST”FOR CLOSING THE CARBON CYCLE=SOCIAL COST – NEEDS TO BE FULL LIFE CYCLE COSTS – NEEDS TO ACOUNT FOR EXTERNALITIES – NEEDS TO BE FROM A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE – NEEDS TO BE EQUITABLE DISRIBUTED
    22. 22. THE SOCIAL COST IS MUCH GREATER THAN THE PRIVATE COSTS• MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research “The true social cost is almost three times the amount that appears on our utility bills.”• International Centre for Technology Assessment. ” Such external costs push the true price of gasoline as high as $15.14 a gallon”
    23. 23. COST OF THE TECHNOLOGY TO CLOSE THE CARBON CYCLE• COST OF CO2 FROM THE AIR/GALLON(10KG) – .01X COST/TONNE ( UNCOMPRESSED) • $1.00. FOR $100/TONNE CO2 • $.50 FOR $50/TONNE• COST OF HYDROGEN BY ELECTROLYSIS/GALLON(1KG) – CE/KWHR X50KWHR/KG +CAPEX • $4.00 FOR 7CTS/KWHR • $1.50 FOR 2CTS/KWHR• COVERSION TO FUEL AND DELIVERY VIA EXISITING PROCESSES – $1.50 /GALLON• TOTAL COST TODAY!! – $3.50 – $6.50/GALLON• HYDROGEN AND FUEL VIA ALGAE-CAN IT BE LOWER COST – SUN SEPARATES HYDROGEN AND COMBINES IT WITH CO2 TO PRODUCE HYDROCARBONS – CAPEX FOR ALGAE GROWTH – CONVERSION INTO FUEL• ELECTROYLSIS ECONOMICALLY VIABLE AT 2CTS KWHR OF ENERGY WITH TODAYS SYSTEM – STRANDED ELECTRICITY TODAY – NO NEED FOR NEW INFRASTRUCTURE-LOW BARRIER TO ENTRY
    24. 24. THE SOLUTION YES THERE IS A SILVER BULLET• WE KNOW HOW TO GET HYDROGEN FROM WATER• WE KNOW HOW TO GET CO2 FROM THE AIR• WE HAVE AN ACCEPTABLE SOLAR EFFCIENCY – 5X NATURE -10X ACHIEVABLE• THE CLOSING THE CARBON CYCLE “COST” – “COST” =COST OF TECHNOLGY – AVOIDED EXTERNAL COSTS OF TODAYS APPOACH + NEW EXTERNAL COSTS – NEW EXTERNAL COSTS VERY LOW • NO POLLUTION –FUEL IS CLEAN • NO COSTS FROM POOR DISTRIBUTION OF INPUTS • NO COSTS FROM CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS• CAN COST $6.50/GAL AND STILL BE ECONOMIC – PROVIDE $3.00/GAL REBATE TO CONSUMERS ( – LESS “COST” THEN FOSSIL ENERGY “SOCIAL COSTS” OF 10.00/GAL
    25. 25. CLOSING THE CARBON CYCLEFOR ENERGY, ECONOMIC, AND CLIMATE SUSTAINABILITY 25
    26. 26. How GT Technology Works “GT CARBON SPONGE” Patented Carbon Sponge: porous block coated with proprietary amine sorbents Ambient air and/or flue gas goes through and binds to sorbent Carbon Sponge lowers into sealed chamber Low temperature process heat releases pure CO2 gas for collectionPipes to algae, etc. And the cycle restarts… Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 26
    27. 27. Technology Operation Ambient air OR Monolith Step 1Air-flue gas blend Contactors + Air Input Sorbent GT Module “Cartridge” • GT uses Corning Adsorption monolith contactors Phase similar to those in your cars tailpipe • Contactors provide high surface contact areas at low Regeneration pressure drop Phase • Enables movement of large volumes of air with effective contact of CO2 at low cost • 40 minute cycle Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 27
    28. 28. Technology Operation Ambient air OR Monolith Step 2Air-flue gas blend Contactors + CO2 Capture Sorbent GT Module “Cartridge” • GT sorbents proven Adsorption highly effective by Phase Georgia Tech - confirmed by SRI, BASF, and NETL • BASF process to deposit immobilized Regeneration amines in pores of the Phase contactor walls at high loading • Dramatically reduces heat required compared to liquid Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL based CCS 28
    29. 29. Technology Operation Monolith Step 3 Contactors + Regeneration Sorbent GT Module “Cartridge” • CO2-rich sorbent is Adsorption heated with low- Phase temperature process heat (90-105C) steam • CO2 is collected and sorbent is regenerated Regeneration • CO2 can be stored or Phase used in multiple commercial applications • 4 - 10 minute cycle 105C Steam CO2 Collection Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 29
    30. 30. CO2 Adsorption Breakthrough CurvesEffect of loading & production validationGlobal Thermostat Confidential 30
    31. 31. Monolith Durability Test• Stability Run – 400, 30 minute adsorptions 35 700 followed by four minutes y = 0.0001x + 26.457 R2 = 0.0002 of CO2 removal by 30 600 steam stripping CO2 Captured 25 500• Equation in the upper ppm CO2 in Air, Temperature (K) CO2 Captured (g/cycle) right fits the CO2 20 CO2 in Air 400 working capacity data: CO2 removed each 15 Temperature 300 cycle-x is the number of the run 10 200• The small and positive 5 100 coefficient means the results are essentially 0 0 unchanged, e.g., stable 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Cycle # performance Global Thermostat Company Confidential Page 31
    32. 32. Technology Partners Partner Activity Relationship TermsSRI International Pilot plant operation and R&D; lab testing Contract R&DBASF Sorbent development/supply; lab testing Strategic SupplierCorning Monolith development/supply Strategic SupplierLinde Carburetor Pilot/EPC Contractor/Customer EPC Contractor/CustomerGeorgia Tech Sorbent R&D; contactor testing Contract R&DVirgin Atlantic Renewable jet fuel Commercialization partner, customerCarmagen System design, engineering, optimization Contract consultingEngineeringSummit Power Project engineering Project development fee Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 32
    33. 33. Third Party ReportsDetailed Third party reports completed by: • Den Norsk Veritas (Global risk and technology assessment firm) • Linde (Leading world supplier of industrial gases and engineering services)Reports validate technology and aggressive cost curve advancements.Third-party reports from Linde & Veritas confirm technology and cost trajectoryGlobal Thermostat Company Confidential Page 33
    34. 34. Closing the Carbon Cycle is KeyFor Sustainable Carbon-Based Life: Close the Carbon Cycle…Need Direct Air Capture̶ Carbon for a sustainable renewable energy future̶ Flexibility to provide sources and sinksNeed Negative Carbon̶ Climate SecurityNeed a Carbon Market/Green Energy Fund̶ Global Economic Sustainability Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL Page 34
    35. 35. The Global Thermostat Carbon dioxide concentration decreasing ENERGYAtmosphere 800

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