Avoiding Extinction


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Avoiding Extinction- Green Economics Institute Oxford University UK, July 2013

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  • Very good and gracious presentation Graciela. Keep it up.
    I think is it essential and need of the hour that people working in this field across the planet should join hands to formulate more powerful and visual presentations - from all fields and sources -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IipwQryubIE, and the one video by Sir Attenborough
    You being at Columbia University have best advantage in launching such co operative movement.

    My id is arkundapur at yahoo dot com
    Best wishes,
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
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Avoiding Extinction

  1. 1. Avoiding Extinction Graciela Chichilnisky Columbia University New York Global Thermostat LLC Green Economics Institute Oxford University UK July 2013 TEDx Buenos Aires - UTN May 4 2013
  2. 2. Human Dominated World Human Beings are today the largest geological force in the planet We are changing the planet’s atmosphere, its body of waters, and the complex web of species that makes life on earth Climate Change
  3. 3. Global Risks • Climate Change • Biodiversity Extinction • Clean Water scarcity • Life in the Seas going extinct Avoiding Extinction
  4. 4. URGENCY Why are we being called to respond to The Climate Question
  5. 5. Catastrophic Risks • Global sea level raise threatens the survival of 43 island nations • Polar Caps melt - accelerating warming trend • Record breaking tornadoes, floods, droughts and devastating fires • 30 million climate migration in 2011 • National Security at Risk US Pentagon 2009 Oceans - the origin of life – going extinct
  6. 6. Are Humans Next? • Need Action Now • Waited too long • Industrial economies 20% of world population cause most of world’s C02 emissions Energy from fossil fuels 45% of global emissions 89% power plants fossil – $55Trillion infrastructure Clean Energy is the Only Solution
  7. 7. So far Western economics • Lacks connections between people • Lacks connections between economy and environment • Lacks connections across generations Sustainable Development requires building connections WHY?
  8. 8. Because humans dominate the planet • For the first time in recorded history • Following an era of rapid globalization Humans dominate Planet Earth • We are connecting and changing the planet’s atmosphere, its bodies of water, and the complex web of species that makes life on Earth
  9. 9. This means natural resource limits • As we reach natural resource and environmental limits The survival of humankind is at stake • Need connections with the ecology, between people and with the future of our species Can Western Economics adjust? Can Markets become Sustainable?
  10. 10. Sustainable Economics How to do it
  11. 11. The Missing Signal • If we destroy all trees & make toilet paper our economy improves – why? • Because Toilet Paper has Market Value & Trees do not. We lack Market Prices New Market prices = New Values New costs and New benefits The Carbon Market Provides the Missing Signal
  12. 12. Emission Limits are the basis of Carbon Market How does it Work CHANGES THE ENTIRE GLOBAL ECONOMY $25/TON EMITTED CARBON PRICES ARE THE Missing Signal Carbon Makes Clean Energy profitable Dirty Energy expensive and Undesirable Dirty pays clean – ZERO overall costs
  13. 13. Carbon Market Links to Global Economy Everything is made with energy Economic growth = Energy Use Link to Energy Carbon Market provides Missing Signal New Market Prices = New Values All clean products more valuable
  14. 14. Where are We? What comes Next?
  15. 15. Economy, the Earth and our Species • Need to develop connections with the earth’s resources, between people and with the future of our species Basic needs • The Basic Needs of 80% of Humankind who live in developing nations – over 1Bn people below Basic needs living with <$2 /day • Undermined by resource intensive economics: over-extraction of raw materials from the poorest nations in Africa and Latin America • Resources exported and over-consumed by 20% of world population in the industrial world
  16. 16. What to do? • Changing International Law • Changing Economics We just have to do it • For the survival of our Species
  17. 17. Changing Economics is Key HOW? New Types of Markets New Economics over Time • Provide Missing Connections • Between People, with the Environment, • Between the Present & the Future
  18. 18. New GDP • Carbon market changes notion of economic progress • Of two identical nations • The one using clean energy has a larger GDP
  19. 19. New Markets to Value Global Commons • Carbon Markets - value the atmosphere • Water markets – value oceans and clean water globally • Biodiversity markets– the value of forests & life Create new GDP Must be adopted NOW as required by G20 Chichilnisky: UNESCAP 2010 The Oscar Wilde Moment
  20. 20. The Global Commons New Economics From maximizing profits to economic progress that ensures survival of our species
  21. 21. Technology Urgently Needed to put all this in practice • To Reduce Carbon from the Atmosphere • In a Profitable Way • To support and Create Political Will The Word needs Energy CLEAN ENERGY FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS
  22. 22. Global Thermostat Pilot Plant, SRI International - Menlo Park California February 2011
  23. 23. What is a Carbon Negative Solution Global Thermostat Company Confidential Page 23 Carbon Neutral is not enough • Neutralizing emissions does not prevent further increases in atmospheric CO2 • Even the most aggressive efficiency improvements and renewables adoption are unlikely to keep CO2 concentration at the generally agreed 450ppm to avoid catastrophic climate risk Negative Carbon is the solution1 • Air capture enables direct and rapid reduction of CO2 concentration • GT allows for the capture of even more CO2 than we are loading into the atmosphere or that the earth’s systems can absorb – Negative Carbon GT’s technology directly reduces carbon concentration in the air, making carbon negative possible 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 CO2PartsperMillion(PPM) Reducing CO2 Concentrations in the Atmosphere Business as Usual Constant Growth Wedges Approach / Stabilization Global Thermostat Hazardous Level 450 ppm 1 United Nations Headquarters, New York, November 12, 2009. Presentation by G. Chichilnisky on"The Rising Tide at Copenhagen: A Win-Win Solution for Industrialized and Developing Nations"
  24. 24. Closing the Carbon Cycle • GT Technology Captures Carbon from Air • Inexpensive: Uses Low Process Heat • Cogenerates Power Production withCarbon Capture • The More Power is Produced – the More Carbon is reduced • Makes Coal Plants Carbon Negative • Makes Solar Power Plants even more Carbon Negative
  25. 25. GT’s Air Capture Technology Three-Step Process Produces Concentrated CO 2 Stream Step 1 Air Input Transport and Injection Compression Other Applications Key to GT’s technology is cogeneration using low temperature process heat to capture CO 2 Subsequent steps are shared by all CO 2 capture methods though pipelining costs can be reduced by co-locating where CO 2 is stored or used Step 2 CO 2 Capture Step 3 CO 2 Regeneration
  26. 26. Absorbing CO2 Pipes to oil well or algae UP
  27. 27. Releasing CO2 Pipes to oil well or algae ponds DOWN
  28. 28. Applications & Markets for Captured CO2 Global Thermostat Company Confidential Page 28 Storage Enhanced Oil Recovery* Algae-Based Biofuels* Hydrogen- Based Fuels Products cement, fertilizer, plastic s, greenhouses *EOR and Algae-based biofuels represent most significant opportunities for commercial applications of CO2 captured using GT’s technology
  29. 29. Unique Advantages of GT’s Technology Measurable advantages over other forms of carbon capture Low-Cost Provider •Powered by low cost & widely available process heat Scalable Design •Modular design adapts to different sized applications Carbon Negative Solution •An energy or industrial plant can capture even more CO2 than is emitted – a carbon negative solution Flexible Integration • Fossil, renewable, nuclear plants, industrial plants, (cement, steel) – anywhere heat is available
  30. 30. First GT Pilot Plant at SRI - October 1, 2010 Global Thermostat Company Confidential Page 30
  31. 31. Second GT Commercial Demo at SRI March 1, 2013
  32. 32. In Daphne Alabama USA 2013 Third GT plant Commercial Demo Algae Systems IHI Global Thermostat Company Confidential Page 32 Desalination CO2 Waste water Algae Production Dewatering Fuel Production Fuels, Electricity & Biochar Treated Wastewater Drinking Water • Produces carbon negative transportation fuels (jet fuel) • Treats municipal wastewater and produces drinking water • Generates green electricity and Biochar fertilizers Provides critical municipal services while producing energy As Green As It Gets Solar Energy
  33. 33. A Vision of a New Economy • Very conservative about Natural Resources • Very innovative about Knowledge Knowledge Based