having been finished to have been finished 被动 having finished to have finished 主动 完成式 finished 无 to be finishing 进行式 being finished to be finished 被动 finishing to finish 主动 一般式 不定式 (finish) 过去分词 (finish) -ing 形式 (finish) 非谓语 动词
【典型例题】 1 ． ( 北京 2000, 单项填空 )The picture _______ on the wall is painted by my nephew. A. having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung 2 ．（ NMET97 ，单项填空） The Olympic Games,______in 776 B.C., did not include women players until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing B C
【知识点拨】 1 ．不定式作定语 ① 不定式作定语常用于不定代词或被 the first/next/only/last 等修饰的名词和其他一些名词、代词之后。其中，不定式的一般式通常表示一个将来或经常性的动作，完成式则表示该动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。 例如： ② 如果作定语的不定式与被修饰的名词有动宾关系 , 在不及物动词后通常要加上适当的介词 . 例如： She is always the first (one) to come and the last to leave. Let's first find a room to live in / to put the things in. We have nothing to worry about. (=There is nothing for us to worry about.)
③ 不定式作定语修饰一个在逻辑上是其宾语名词时 , 若在句子中能找到该不定式的逻辑主语 , 则该不定式多用主动表被动，否则，用被动式。 例如： I have a lot of things to do today. ( I ... do ... things) Have you got anything to say at the meeting? ( you... say ... anything) Here is a letter to be taken to Mr. Li.
2 ． -ing 分词作定语 ① 单个的 -ing 分词作定语一般前置 , 说明名词的性质、特征或用途等 ,-ing 短语作定语一般后置；强调动作的单个 -ing 分词也常后置。 例如： a sleeping car ( = a car for sleeping ) a sleeping child ( = a child who is sleeping ) the boy standing there ( = the boy who is standing there ) The girl singing is my classmate.
② -ing 分词作定语一般要求其动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生或是在说话时该动作正在进行，否则，要用从句作定语。 例如： Do you know the boy talking ( = who is talking ) to the teacher? Did you notice the boy sitting ( = who was sitting ) at this desk yesterday? 比较： 误： He is the man visiting our class yesterday. 正： He is the man who visited our class yesterday.
3 ． -ed 分词作定语 -ed 分词作定语一般表示一个被动或已完成动作 ,-ing 分词表示一个主动或正在进行的动作 ,-ing 分词的被动式则表示一个正在被进行的动作。 4 ．像定语从句一样，分词作定语也有非限制性的，其作用相当于一个非限制性定语从句。 例如： a developed/developing country He is a student loved by all the teachers. The building being built will be the third Teaching Building of our school. 例如： The students, wearing their school uniforms, marched into the playground. The substance, discovered almost by accident, has greatly changed the world.
【知识过关】 1. The computer center,______last year, is very popular among the students. in the school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened 2. Most of the artists ____ to the party were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited 3. There was a terrible noise _ the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed 4. Do you know the boy_______ under the big tree? A. lay B. lain C. laying D. lying D A B D
5. Are you going to attend the meeting __ tomorrow? A. to be held B. being held C. will be held D. held 6. I like most of the books _____ in this _______ house. A. publishing, publishing B. published, published C. published, publishing D. publishing, published 7. This is one of the questions ____ at the meeting now. A. to discuss B. to be discussed C. being discussed D. discussed 8. Would you please give me a piece of paper _______? A. to write B. to write on C. to write with D. to be written A C C B
非谓语动词作状语 【典型例题】 1 ． (NMET98, 单项填空 )European football is played in 80 countries, _______ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make 2 ．（ NMET96 ，单项填空） _______ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose 3 ．（ MET90 ，单项填空） Tom kept quiet about the accident _______ lose his job. A. so not as to B. so as not to C. so as to not D. not so as to A C B
1 ．不定式作状语 ① 不定式作状语常用来表目的、结果等。 注：表目的的不定式还常与 so as 或 in order 连用，构成 so as (not) to do 和 in order (not)to do 结构，其中 so as (not) to do 不能用于句首。 例如： We eat to live, but we don't live to eat. ( 目的 ) What has he said to make you so happy? ( 结果 ) 例如： To get there in time, we got up very early. = In order to get there in time, we got up very early. = We got up very early (in order/so as) to get there in time.
② 不定式可用于作表语或补语的形容词之后作状语。 ③ 不定式常与 too 或 enough 连用，在句中作状语。 例如： I'm sorry to hear that. Be careful not to catch cold . The man is easy to get along with. I don't think the man hard to get along with. The boy is too young to go to school/ to be sent to school. = The boy is not old enough to go to school/ to be sent to school
④ 不定式有时用于 so...as to do sth. 结构中作状语。 ⑤ 有时，不定式还可修饰一个句子，表明说话人的态度。常见的这类不定式有 to tell you the truth, to be honest, to be frank, to be fair, 等。 Will you be so kind as to help me with the work? 例如： To tell you the truth, I don't like the film.
2 ． -ing 分词和 -ed 分词作状语 ① -ing 分词和 -ed 分词作状语修饰谓语，多说明动作发生的背景、方式或伴随情况。如果在逻辑上句中的主语与分词有主谓关系，用 -ing 分词，有动宾关系则用 -ed 分词。 例如： We enjoyed ourselves in the park, singing and dancing. Built in 1900, the house is now 100 years old.
② -ing 分词和 -ed 分词都可作原因或时间状语 , 其作用相当于一个相应的状语从句。如果在逻辑上句中的主语与分词有主谓关系，用 -ing 分词，有动宾关系则用 -ed 分词。 Being so poor in those days, they couldn‘t send the boy to school.( 原因 ) Born in a poor family, the boy could not go to school. ( 原因 ) Hearing the bad news, she burst into tears. ( 时间 ) Seen from the hill, the park looks more beautiful. ( 时间 )
3 ． -ing 分词有时可作结果状语。 5 ．如果不定式或分词表示的动作在谓语动词表示的动作之前发生，该不定式或分词用完成式。 4 ． -ed 分词有时用作条件状语，其作用相当于一个条件状语从句。 Her husband died in the war, leaving her a widow with three children. We got up very early, arriving at the hospital ahead of time. Given more time, we could have done it much better I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble. Having never/Not having met the man before, I couldn't recognize him at first. Having finished my homework, I went to play football.
<ul><li>She set out soon after dark __ home an hour later. A. arriving B. to arrive </li></ul><ul><li>C. having arrived D. and arrived </li></ul><ul><li>2. “Can‘t you read?” Mary said _____ to the notice. A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointing </li></ul><ul><li>3. _______ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received </li></ul><ul><li>D. Having not received </li></ul>D A C
4. She is upstairs _______ letters. A. writes B. is writing C. write D. writing 5. The secretary worked late into the night, _______ a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing D B
学好分词的关键何在 NMET99 年有一道单项选择题是这样： When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door_____.“Sorry to miss you ； will call later” ． A ． read B ． reads C ． to read D ． reading D
一、分词作状语时，句子的主语是分词的逻辑主语，当逻辑主语是分词表示的动作的执行者时，用现在分词。 例如： 1)“Can you read?” Marry said angrily pointing to the notice. (93 年 NMET ) 2)The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, adding that he had enjoyed his stay here.(94 年 NMET )
当逻辑主语是分词表示的动作的承受者时，用过去分词。 如果分词表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前，则用现在分词的完成式。 例如： 3) Given move attention , the trees could have grown better ． (90 年 NMET ). 4) Encouraged by his parents, Li Ming studies English hard ． 例如： 5) Not having received a reply, he decided to write again ．
但要注意以下两点： 1 ．分词的逻辑主语与句子的主语必须是同一个人或物。例如： Looking down from the top of the mountain , the whole city could be seen ． Looking down from the top of the mountain , we could see the whole city. ( 分词短语作状语 ) When we looked down from the top of the mountain , we could see the whole city ( 状语从句 ) ×
2 ．分词用作垂悬状语时，可以不受上述规则制约，是约定俗成的说法。例如： A ． generally (specially, strictly, roughly) speaking 一般地 ( 特殊地，严格地，粗略地 ) 说。 B ． Judging from (by) ：根据…判断 ① Strictly speaking, it isn't a correct answer ． ② Generally speaking, Cats don't eat grass ． ③ Judging( 不用 Judged) by her looks ． She is a doctor ．
二、分词作定语时，被修饰的词是分词的逻辑主语，当逻辑主语是分词表示的动作的执行者时，用现在分词，当逻辑主语是分词表示的动作的承受者时，用过去分词。 例如： 分词作定语时，相当于一个定语从句。上面例句可分别为： ① Do you know the boy lying under the big tree? (89 年 NMET ) ②Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa ． (90 年 NMET ). Do you know the boy who is lying under the big tree ? Most of the artists who were invited to the party were from South Africa ．
现在分词的完成式 (having done) 通常不作定语。 例如： The students having handed in their papers must leave the classroom ． The students who have handed in their papers must leave the classroom ． ×
三、分词作宾语补足语时，宾语是分词的逻辑主语。当宾语是分词表示的动作的执行者，用现在分词；当宾语是分词表示的动作的承受时，用过去分词。 ① It was so cold that they help the fire burning all night ． (91 年 NMET ) ②He had his leg broken in the match yesterday ． (86 年 NMET )
四、分词作表语时，句子的主语是分词的逻辑主语，如果表示 “ 特征 ” 用现在分词；表示 “ 状态 ” 则用过去分词。有时，也可以这样判断：如果主语是人、通常用过去分词、主语是物多用现在分词。 ① This news sounded encouraging ． (85 年 NMET ) ②The glass is broken ． ③ The book is very interesting ． ④ She was surprised at the news ．