Nutri report


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  • Some plants, like the orchid, lack endosperm in their seeds. Endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch.
  • Nutri report

    1. 1.  Food an edible substance made up of a variety of nutrients that nourish the body Two Categories: a. Plant b. Animal
    2. 2.  where the food eaten by human beings,including meat, originates Basic requirement for human survival Three very good reasons why to increase intake of plant foods: › 1. more readily available › 2. more economical › 3. more healthful
    3. 3.  Derived from the seed of grasses Important cereal grains: › Corn › Wheat › Rice › Barley › Rye › Oats
    4. 4. Corn or maize,first grown by American Indians most truly American cereal › Sweet corn  Developed by hybrid breeding  High quality and suitable for human consumption › Yellow corn rich in carotene (provitamin A), zein ( an incomplete protein of low biological value), and starchWheat is grown in temperate climates of countries contains gluten (a highly nutritious protein)
    5. 5. Rice Principal cereal food commodity of Asians Grown in moist tropical or semitropical climates › Bran of the rice  removed by polishing or milling to make the rich kernel more palatable,lowered nutrional value of rice  rich in thiamin(can be preserved only if the unhusked rice is parboiled)
    6. 6. Barley Hardy plant and is the oldest known cereal Used in soups and as flour for infants who may be allergic to wheat Used as malt and as food for livestockRye Grown in cold northern climates Used in making rye bread
    7. 7. Oats Eaten mostly in the form of cooked oatmeal,contain slightly more protein,Ca,and fat than any other cooked cereal Used mainly as food for livestock
    8. 8.  pods, the seed case of peas,beans, or lentils Have almost twice as much protein than cereal grains used as meat substitute › Dried peas  22% protein because of their low moisture content › Fresh peas or cooked dried ones  6% to 8% protein
    9. 9.  Average serving of legumes= 1/3 as much protein as an average serving of meat An incomplete protein unless combined with at least complementary protein such as corn or rice
    10. 10. Peanut Not a true nut but a beanlike legume,rich in oils and protein 1 pound of peanut provides more protein(but incomplete) than a pound steak,more carbohydrate than a pound of potatoes,approximately as much fat as pound of butter  Double virtue 1. high in food value 2. have long shelf-life
    11. 11. Soybean Most important legume Dry,whole bean contains 40% protein and 20% fat Soy can be used as a flour in bread or as a breakfast food
    12. 12.  Edible,more or less succulent,products of seed-bearing plants › Fleshy fruits  Have numbers of seeds in the center of their pulp such as apples and pears › Stone fruits  Contain a single stone or pit such as peaches,cherries, and apricots
    13. 13.  Fruit-vegetables › Known as vegetables but really are fruits such as tomatoes,peppers,okra,squash, and avocadoes Fruits like banana,fig,coconut,date and breadfruit  Are staple articles of food for people of the tropics• Apple is the most popular fruit and next to it are the citrus fruits—oranges, lemons,limes and grapefruit
    14. 14.  Fruits are good sources for: › Vitamin C › Cellulose  Decreases the time of passage of waste products through the large intestine › Pectin  Assists in formation of jelly › Fructose and glucose
    15. 15.  Citrus fruits and peaches yield an alkaline ash(fully oxidized in the body) Plums and cranberries yield an acid ash( used in conjunction with a low-calcium dieatary regimen to create a urinary environment less conducive to formation of kidney stones
    16. 16.  May be any part of the plant, the leaf stalk,leaves or the roots. Greatest part of it is water, therefore it is sensitive to weather changes and tend to spoil quickly › Vitamins most commonly found in vegetables  Ascorbic acid,B complex vitamins,provitamin A › Minerals most commonly found in vegetables  Calcium and Iron
    17. 17.  Potatoes › tubers(plant’s swollen underground root stems) › Contain 75% to 80% water and yield 70 to 90kcal/100g,most of which is from starch
    18. 18.  Derived from the Persian word ―shakar‖,which was derived from a Sanskrit word meaning small grains or pebbles Used as a food preservative in ancient times Manufactured by plants from water and air by photosynthesis Extra supply of sugar in plants is converted into starch and stored for future use (e.g. potato),converted into fats and oils (e.g. nuts) or converted into protein (e.g. beans)
    19. 19. Sucrose found on extracts from sugar cane,sugarbeets,sorghum and sugar maples
    20. 20.  Found in fruits and seed of plants such as poppy and sunflower seeds,soybeans,corn,cotton,peanuts, coconuts, and olives › Corn oil and Safflower oil  Good sources of unsaturated fatty acids(desirable in reducing elevated serum cholesterol levels) › Peanut Oil  Used for shortening Food odor source such as in onion
    21. 21.  Best source of protein of high biological value
    22. 22.  Animal product Composed of: › Muscle › Connective tissue › Fat Important source of energy
    23. 23.  Rich in: › Phosphorus › Niacin › Riboflavin*Red meat  source of iron*Pork  rich in thiamine Organ meat › Significant nutritional value › Liver  More vitamins and iron
    24. 24.  Doesn’t increase the amount of nutrients in the meat produced Prevent deficiencies Improve food conversion efficiency › Lower cost production
    25. 25.  Fresh  other form › Curing, smoking, seasoning, cooking, or any combination of these processes Limited amounts of cereal, soybeans products and milk products › Improve the binding qualities
    26. 26.  Preserve product Enhance flavour and texture Convenience of item Concentrates the content of: › Protein › Minerals › Vitamins Reduces fat
    27. 27.  whole grain products, like whole wheat › Poor keeping qualities  Subject to infestation  Decay rapidly due to action of bacteria
    28. 28.  Bran layer › Fibrous outer husks  Cellulose and hemi cellulose Aleurone layer › Some protein, niacin, iron › Outer layer of endosperm Endosperm › Inner portion Starch and some proteins Germ › Found at one end of a kernel › B complex vitamins, iron, and vitamin E
    29. 29. aleurone
    30. 30.  Makes white wheat flour Bran, aleurone, and germ are removed › To prevent rancidity › Prolong storage time Since the three parts/layers are lost, the law is requiring that white wheat flour is to be added with: › Thiamin › Riboflavin › Niacin › Iron
    31. 31.  Refined wheat flour › Composed of:  70 – 80% starch  7.5 – 14% protein
    32. 32.  One loaf of bread contains: › 40% thiamine › 20% niacin › 15% riboflavin › 25% iron*recommended dietary allowance
    33. 33.  Honey,raw sugar,brown sugar and white sugar are practically the same nutritionally.
    34. 34.  Heating raw milk 60 c in order to destroy any pathogenic microorganisms that maybe present.Canning uses heat processing time based on microbial deathFreezing principle behind use of refrigeration. Low temperature=slows growth of microorganisms
    35. 35.  Advantages such as increased storage time,decreased home preparation time,ensure food safety and enhanced overall product and edibility Disadvantages such as destruction of some nutrients,increases cost,decreased taste appeals for some person
    36. 36.  U.S department of agriculture USDA oversees the safety and accurate labeling of meat and poultry products. USDA activities complement those of food and drug administration (FDA).
    37. 37.  Fabricated foods-Complex mixtures of ingredients specifically designed for a particular use and may or may not resemble existing foods. Ex: dairy subtitutes- non dairy creamer egg subtitutes w/o cholesterol meat subtitutes-soy bean base meal replacement beverages and bars
    38. 38.  Mixtures of two or more foodstuffs other than seasoning Ex: liquid meals Prepared breakfast Snack foods
    39. 39.  They must contribute 5% or more of any recommended nutrient requirement Should contain nutrients similar to those they resemble Caloric content should be determined by intended use
    40. 40.  Food labeling program designed by FDA is to provide nutrition informationIngredient labeling all food labels must have the basic info: legal names of products Net weight including packaging medium such as water in canned vegetables Name and location of the manufacturer Ingredients listed on descending order by weight
    41. 41.  Number of servings,number of calories followed by amount of protein,carbohydrate and fat per serving. Eight indicator nutrients: protein,vit. A,C, thiamin,riboflavin,niacin,calcium and iron. Other vitamins and minerals are optional.
    42. 42.  United states recommended daily allowances-represents the amount of nutrients needed every day by healthy people plus a 30%-50% excess to allow for individual variations. Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) 3 categories of USDRA › Used for conventional food: adults and children 4 or more years of age › Used for special dietary foods: infants uder 4 years of age and pregnant or lactating women