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Understanding waterproofing

This presentation gives an overview of the critical elements of waterproofing. What is waterproofing? Why waterproof? Where to apply waterproofing? Types of waterproofing.

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Understanding waterproofing

  1. 1. ThePrinciples ofWaterproofingGraceConstructionProducts 1
  2. 2. Understanding the Critical Elements of Waterproofing What is Waterproofing? Why Waterproof? Where to Apply Waterproofing? Wh A l W fi ? Types of Waterproofing 2
  3. 3. What is Waterproofing? 3
  4. 4. Waterproofing vs Damp-proofing Often the terms Waterproofing and Damp-proofing are incorrectly interchanged. According to ASTM definitions: • Waterproofing is the treatment of a surface to prevent the passage of liquid li id water i th presence of h d t ti pressure. t in the f hydrostatic • Damp-proofing is the treatment of a surface to retard the absorption of moisture in the absence of hydrostatic pressure. Virtually all building envelopes, particularly below-grade areas and plaza decks, encounter hydrostatic pressure from water during their lifetime. lifetime Therefore, the use of a quality waterproofing system is essential y g y to preserve the water-tightness of the building envelope. 4
  5. 5. Waterproofing As Vapour Barrier Is it important that a waterproofing membrane also be a vapour barrier? Many waterproofing products are vapour barriers. Some are not. Unimpeded water vapour will pass through concrete. 5
  6. 6. What Is A Quality Waterproofing System? A waterproofing system which prevents the passage of liquid water in the presence of hydrostatic pressure. Protection as necessary. A drainage system that reduces hydrostatic pressure. Accessory products which complement, attach and detail the waterproofing and drainage. 6
  7. 7. Why Waterproof? 7
  8. 8. Why Waterproof Your Structure? The problem – substrates shrink, move and crack. Rain water or building run-off Soil Gravel backfill Foundation wall High water table Floor Perimeter P i t Base drainage system Footing Normal water table 8
  9. 9. Water Ingress Mechanisms Ground level Water table Seepage through joint or crack 50% RH, 20oC Wetting & drying Permeation Permeation Wick action Salts in drainage Permeation P ti 9
  10. 10. How Water Can Penetrate Concrete Structures? Honeycombs Concrete Structure Large voids g Cracks Joints Capillary action p y Hydrostatic y sucks water into pressure forces pores water into poresPenetration through OpeningsP t ti th hO i Penetration through Concrete P t ti th hC t 10
  11. 11. Intrinsic Cracks 1 Plastic settlement 2 Plastic shrinkage 3 Early-age shrinkage 4 Crazing 3 5 Alkali aggregate 3 reaction 6 Shear 4 2 2 7 Flexural 9 3 1 8 Thermal Shock 7 5 9 Kickers 1 6 10 Tie Holes 10 3 3 8 3 2 9 3 7 3 3 11
  12. 12. Why Waterproof Your Structure? Liability issues Structural integrity Consequential damage Provide additional usage space Unexpected water sources (grade, sewer lines)There may be a tendency to select and install a waterproofing system that hasa lower initial cost. This may result in lower performance standard. y pIn addition to initial cost, attention should be given to the cost of repairing orreplacing waterproof system failing prematurely and to other costs associatedwith the failure. Singapore Standard CP82:1999 12
  13. 13. Where to ApplyWaterproofing? 13
  14. 14. Where To Apply Waterproofing Positive Side Waterproofing Negative Side Waterproofing Blind Side Waterproofing Interior applications Interior Applications Exterior Applications External applications Positive / blind side waterproofing Negative side Positive side waterproofing waterproofing 14
  15. 15. Positive Side Waterproofing Positive side is same side of the structure as the source of the water. Designed to stop water before it has a chance to enter the structure and cause structural damage. Typically the most effective solution. ® Silcor Liquid Waterproofing Preprufe® Pre-applied Waterproofing 15
  16. 16. Negative Side Waterproofing Interior side opposite the water pressure side of the structure Most commonly used in • Remedial work • Elevator pits • Tank liners Waterproofing Membrane 16
  17. 17. Blind Side Waterproofing Positive side applied prior to installing the structural walls or slabs. Typically inaccessible once the structure is complete. In many cases this is the only positive side waterproofing option. 17
  18. 18. Interior Applications Positive Side Waterproofing Negative Side Waterproofing • Split Slabs • Elevator pits • B th Bathrooms • R t fit Retrofit • Laboratories • Mechanical rooms • Kitchens • Fountains • Planters 18
  19. 19. Exterior Applications Positive Side Waterproofing Blind Side Waterproofing • Foundation walls • Soil retention systems • Plaza decks • P t walls Party ll • Tunnels • Cut and cover tunnels • Parking decks • Under slab • Balconies • Elevator pits • Bridge decks • Underpinning • Planters • R fi Roofing 19
  20. 20. Types of Waterproofing 20
  21. 21. Types of Waterproofing Sheet Membrane Waterproofing • Lose laid – PVC, HDPE, etc. • Bonded – self-adhesive, hot applied , pp Liquid Waterproofing • One or two component • A li d b h d b spray Applied by hand, by • Hot applied, cold applied Bentonite Waterproofing Metal Oxide Waterproofing Cementitious Waterproofing 21
  22. 22. Waterproofing – Sheet Membrane or Liquid? Advantages Disadvantages Controlled, guaranteed Laps thickness Robust, self-reinforced Complex detailingSheet Membrane No mixing or specialist equipment q p Trafficked immediately Seamless Variable thickness Good for complex geometries Cure timeLiquid q Quick Q i k coverage with spray ith Mixing and spray equipment application Minimal substrate preparation 22
  23. 23. Bentonite Waterproofing Bentonite panels Geotextile encapsulated HDPE / Bentonite Reactive systems • Rely on water to activate and to remain active i ti 23
  24. 24. Metal Oxide and Cementitious Primarily Portland cement- based materials Positive and negative side applications Inflexible, subject to cracking Low cost 24
  25. 25. Summary What is Waterproofing? • Prevention of water and vapour ingress Why Waterproof? • Structures crack and move • Subject to water pressure at some time in life cycle Where to Apply Waterproofing? • Positive or negative • Positive preferred Types of Waterproofing • Sheet membrane, liquid, Bentonite, cementitious 25
  26. 26. Questions?Contact 26