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Type of assessment


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Type of assessment

  1. 1. Type Of Assessment Definition Example Advantages Disadvantages Ways to Improve Performance- based Assessment -Involve studentsinthe performance of tasks that are as authenticas possible andthatare ratedby qualified judges. (Norrisetal,1998) Characteristics: 1. Studentsmake a constructedresponse 2. They engage inHOTS, withopen-endedtasks. 3. Tasks are meaningful, engagingandauthentic. 4. Tasks call for the integrationof language skills. 5. Both processand productare assessed. 6. Depthof a student’s masteryisemphasized overbreadth. -Listeningandspeaking - Dramatisation - Debate - Oral interview - Group performance 1. Language elicitedand volunteeredbythe studentcan be personalizedand meaningful. 2. Task can approachthe authenticityof real life language use. 3. Highercontentvalidity isachievedbecause studentsare measuredin the processof performing. 4. Comesclose to getting authenticcommunication 5. Measuresstudents’ abilitiestorespondto real-lifelanguagetasks 6. Counteractsnegative washback effectsin standardizedtesting,like bias 1. Time consuming 2. Expensive 4. Difficultto distinguish between formal and informal assessment. 5. Reliability, practicality and test securitymay be problematic Teachersshould: 1. State the overall goal of the performance. 2. Specifythe objectives (criteria) of the performance indetail. 3. Prepare studentsfor performance instepwise progressions. 4. Use a reliable evaluationform,checklist, or rating sheet 5. Treat performancesas opportunitiesforgiving feedbackandprovide that feedbacksystematically. 6. If possible,utilize self and peerassessments judiciously. Portfolios Practicality- low Reliability- Mod Face validity- high Content - A purposeful collection of students’workthat demonstratestheir efforts,progress,and achievementsingiven areas. Balley(1998) 1. Introductory section - Overview - Reflective essay 2. AcademicWorks Section - Essaysand compositions(draft, final) 1. Fosterintrinsic motivation, responsibility and ownership. 2. Promote student- teacherinteractionwith the teacheras facilitator. 3. Individualize learning- celebrate uniquenessof each student. 1. Varietyin designcanbe difficultto assess 2. Issueswith logistics 3.Limited reliability 4Questionable 1. State objectivesclearly. 2. Give guidelinesonwhat materialstoinclude. 3. Communicate assessmentcriteriato students. 4. Designate time inthe classfor portfolio development.
  2. 2. validity - high Washback -high Authenticity - High CRADLE Collecting -purpose of the portfolioneedtobe clearlyspecified Reflecting - journal, self- assessment Assessing - evaluate qualityand developmentovertime Documenting - demonstratingstudent achievement Linking -student-teacher, parents,community, peers Evaluating - time consumingbut fulfillingprocess - Report,projects, presentation - Poetryandcreative prose - Artwork,photos, newspaper/magazine clippings - Audio/Video recordingsof presentations, demonstration - Sample of bestwork - Notesonlectures - test,written homework 3. Personal Section - Journals - testscore - photographs -personal items 4. AssessmentSection - Evaluationbypeers - Self-evaluation 4. Provide tangible evidence of astudent’s work. 5. Facilitate critical thinking,self-assessment and revisionprocesses 6. Offeropportunitiesfor collaborative workwith peers 7. Permitassessmentof multiple dimensionsof language learning validity 5. Time consuming 5. Establishperiodic schedulesforreviewand conferencing. 6. Designate anaccessible place to keepportfolios. 7. Provide positive washback-givingfinal assessment. Journals Practicality- low Reliability- Mod Face validity- Mod Content validity - high - Log of one’sthoughts, feelings,reaction, assessments,ideas,or progresstowardsgoals, usuallywrittenwith little attentionto structure,form,or correctness. - Language learning logs - Grammar journals: error logs - Responsestoreadings - Strategies-based learninglogs - Self-assessment reflections - Diariesof attitudes, feelings 1. Learnerscan articulate theirthoughtswithoutthe threatof beingjudged. 2. Teacherscan become betteracquaintedwith theirstudents- cater individualneeds. 3. Practice in writing fluently 4. Using writingasa “thinking”process 1. Journals are too free a formto be assessed accurately. 2. Difficultto setup criteria for evaluation. 3. The conceptof free and 1. Sensitivelyintroduce studentstothe conceptof journal writing. 2. State the objective of the journal. 3. Give guidelinesonwhat kindof topicsto include. 4. Carefullyspecifythe criteriaforassessingor gradingjournals. 5. Provide optimal
  3. 3. Washback -high Authenticity - High 5. Emphasizingstudent’s ownvoice. 6. Teacher can give variousfeedback. unfettered writingis anathema. feedbackinyour responses. 6. Designate appropriate time framesand schedulesforreview. 7. Provide formative, washback-givingfinal comments. Conference Practicality- low Reliability- Mod Face validity- high Content validity - high Washback -high Authenticity - High Interview Practicality- mod Reliability- Mod Face validity- high Content validity - high Washback Conferencingisa standardpart of process approach to teaching writing,inwhichthe teacher,ina conversationabouta draft,facilitatesthe improvementof the writtenwork. - Commentingon draftsof essaysand reports - Reviewingportfolios - Respondingto journals - Advisingona student’splanforan oral presentation - Givingfeedbackon the resultsof performance ona test Examples: -What didyoulike aboutthiswork? - What do youthink youdid well? - Howdoesit show improvementfrom previouswork?Can youshowme the improvement? - Are there things aboutthiswork that youdon’tlike?Are 1. One-on-one interaction betweenteacherand students. 2. Teacher’sabilityto directfeedbacktowarda student’sspecificneeds. 3. Intrinsicallymotivating. 4. Positive washback. 1.Time consuming 2.Subjective to grade 3. Typically not scored 1. Beginwithfriendly, anxiety-lowering,“small talk”. 2. In the warm up stage, use relativelysimple questions. 3. Continue withlevel- checkand probe questions,butadaptto the intervieweeas needed. 4. Frame questionssimply and directly. 5. Focuson onlyone factor foreach question. Do not combine several objectivesinthe same question. 6. Be preparedtorepeat or reframe questionsthat are notunderstood. 7. Write downwith friendlyandreassuring closingcomments.
  4. 4. -mod Authenticity - mod there thingsyouwould like toimprove? - Didyou have any difficulties? Self andpeer assessment Practicality- mod Reliability- low Face validity- mod Content validity - high Washback -high Authenticity - High Listeningtask - Listeningtotv/radio and checking comprehensionwith partner. - Askingwhenyou don’tunderstand. Speakingtask - Ratingsomeone’soral presentation - Detectinggrammar error Readingtask - Readingpassage with self-check comprehension questionsfollowing - Vocabularyquiz Writingtask - Revisingwrittenwork on yourown - Revisingwrittenwork witha partner - Proofreading - Journal 1. Direct involvementof studentsintheirown destiny 2. The encouragementof autonomy 3. Increased motivation because of their engagement 4. Helpcreate a communityof learners. 5. Improve the product 6. Helplearnerstobe reflective. 1. Subjectivity 2. Students may be either too harshon themselvesor too self- flattering. 3. They may not have necessary toolsto make an accurate assessment. 4. They may not be able to discerntheir ownerror 1. Tell studentsthe purpose of the assessment. 2. Define the taskclearly. 3. Encourage impartial evaluationof performance or ability. 4. Ensure beneficial washbackthroughfollow- up tasks.