Well this is my first presentation in the slide share. In this presentation i have mentioned about the concept of water quality and guidelines for it in with the perspective to human health and its management in Nepal.
Suggestion and feedbacks are really welcome.
Concept of Water quality
& its Guidelines
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-Water is an essential nutrient for all forms of life which maintains fluid &
-Access to safe drinking water is a basic right of human.
-(MDG 7) on drinking-water was met globally in 2010.[except by 48 least
developed countries] Source:WHO-drinking water
-Human beings need about (2.5-3) lpd for survival.
-Water makes about 60% of human body.
-In 2015, 91% of the world’s population had access to an improved
drinking-water source, compared with 76% in 1990.
-1 in 9 people world wide do not have access to safe and clean drinking
-Nearly 1 out of every 5 deaths under the age of 5 worldwide is due to a
water-related disease. Source:https://thewaterproject.org/water_stats
WHO-Water Fact Sheet
Historic Milestones in Drinking Water History
• 400 B.C.: Hippocrates emphasizes the importance of water quality to
health and recommends boiling.
• 1804: The first municipal water filtration works opens in Paisley,
• 1890s: Chlorine is proven an effective disinfectant of drinking water.
1902: Belgium implements the first continuous use of chlorine to
make drinking water biologically "safe".
• 1974:The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was established to protect
the quality of drinking water in the U.S. This law focuses on all waters
actually or potentially designed for drinking use, whether from above
ground or underground sources.
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History of Water Supply in Nepal
• While going back to history, the populations of Kathmandu Valley was not high. People
in used to take water from the available natural sources near their homes. However,
because of rapid population growth the existing water resources were not enough to
feed the people and thus, government realized to provide drinking water for the people
in the Kathmandu valley and thus established a systematic development of water supply
system with the name PANI ADDA (PANI GOSWARA) unit in 2029 BS.
Sources of water in Nepal
• Rain water- Purest form of water. Obtained from roof catchments & stored in tanks.
• Surface water- Nepal is very rich in surface water consisting of thousands of
rivers,streams,ponds & lakes.
• Ground Water- Found abundant in the aquifers of Terai & Kathmandu. But found limited
in the populated hill regions(like Kathmandu) because of the lower permeability of the
indurated and crystalline rocks. Eg.wells,springs,spout
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• Free from pathogens (disease causing micro-organisms)
• Contain no chemical compounds or by-products (even at very low
concentrations) that may have health hazards (short term or long
term) to the consumers
• Free from suspended solids, colour (ie water should be fairly clear
with very low turbidity and very little or no colour), offensive odor and
• Usable for domestic purposes.
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Daily Demand of Water-350 million litres
Daily supply of Water- 130 million litres
(fluctuates according to the season)
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In this situation,
Can we be assure of water quality???
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The study shows that the water sources in the Kathmandu valley are badly contaminated
with E.coli & Coliform bacteria.
Location of River PH TDS(mg/dl) DO(mg/l) BOD(mg/l)
Mahakali at Pancheswor (FWDR) 8.8 110 5 2
Karnali at chisapani (FWDR) 8.9 264 10.5 1.5
Bheri at Chatagaon (MWDR) 7.8 208 9.3 1.1
Seti at Ramghat(WDR) 8.2 222 9.3 2
East Rapti at sauraha (CDR) 7.8 213 8.7 2.5
Arun(EDR) 6.5 200 9.1 2.1
Kankai(EDR) 7.7 60 8.7 2
Mechi (EDR) 8.3 30 8.9 1.8
WHO Guideline 6.5-8.5 100 >5.0 3
Water Quality of Rivers during dry season ,1998
Source:Department of Hydrology and Meterology,1998(CBS:A Compendium on Environment
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Arsenic Map of Nepal, WHO 1999
A person suffering from arsenicosis
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More than 90% people consume water from ground water in the
Tarai Region .
Drinking Water Guideline by WHO
Al 0.2 mg/l
NH3 1.5 mg/l
Cl 250 mg/l
Zn 3 mg/l
Mn 0.5 mg/l
E-coli, Coliform bacteria,virues -
Ar 0.01 mg/l
Cr 0.05 mg/l
Pb 0.01 mg/l
F 1.5 mg/l
Cyanide 0.07 mg/l
NO3 50 mg/l
Cd 0.03 mg/l
Gross α activity 0.1 Bq/l
Gross β activity 1.0 Bq/l
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Group Parameter Unit Maximum Concentration Limits
Taste & Odor
Total Dissolved Solids
Would not be objectionable
Total Coli form
95 % in sample
Note : * These standards indicate the maximum and minimum limits.
** Figures in parenthesis are upper range of the standards recommended.
-Environment Statistics of Nepal 2008, Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission Secretariat, Central Bureau of
Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal
National Drinking Water Quality Standard
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Status of Bagmati river at different time intervals
15 years ago
5 years ago
After Bagmati cleanup campaign
Human Health & Water quality
In developing countries, as much as 80% of illnesses are linked to poor water and
In Nepal, an estimated 15000 children die each year due to diarroheal diseases, caused by
poor environmental sanitation and lack of access to quality water supply.(UNICEF)
Nevertheless, water quality alone is not enough to ensure the benefits of human
health.Three additional requisites must be met: quantity, continuity and
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Water Quality and Diarrhoeal Disease
Water Related Disease by Region, 2000
Mountain (645992) Hill (3230701) Tarai (3239288)
OPD visit as % of total population
Water washed disease as % of total OPD visit
Water borne disease as % of total OPD visit
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Reasons for water quality Degradation
• Haphazard disposal of wastes near the source of water.
• Discharge of industrial effluents near the water resource.
• Encroachment of water sides .
• Watershed degradation and water induced disasters.
• Increase in use of chemicals for agricultural purpose.
• Presence of leakage and rusting of water pipes.
• Presence of sewage pipe nearer to drinking water pipe.
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• Enforcing compliance of the laws and their effective implementation.
• Proper settlement planning and industrialization.
• Law enforcement to protect the land from encroachment & effective
implementation of building codes.
• Integrated watershed protection & water induced disaster forecasting
• Cleaning campaign for the existing rivers should be run frequently.
• Putting Sewage pipes as far as possible from the drinking water pipes &
checking the status of water pipes regularly.
• Educating people about water quality and its effects on human health.
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List of organizations involved in water quality assessment
• Department of Water Supply and Sanitation(DWSS):To plan the development of water
quality monitoring & surveillance program through its Water quality section located in 75
• National Academy of science and Technology(NAST):The Environment research faculty
provides water quality analysis service of water samples from different sources.
• Environment & Public Health Organization(ENPHO): ENPHO laboratory is accredited by
Nepal Bureau of Standard and Metrology (NBSM) under the NEPLAS system based on ISO
17025 and is audited for quality control both by internal and external auditors.
• Nepal Environmental & scientific services(NESS): first accredited
laboratory in Nepal and since its establishment(1992) it has been
providing various analytical services and specialized facilities.
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1. WHO-drinking water ,Progress on sanitation and drinking-water
2.State of Alaska-drinking water history
3. Guidelines for drinking water quality,WHO Geneva 2010;4th edth.
4.Environmental Statistics of Nepal, 2008
5.WaterAid-Water quality standard and testing policy,2011
6.Water In Crisis-spotlightNepal
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