Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Production And Quality


Published on

Production And Quality

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Production And Quality

  1. 1. Production and Quality 1 BTEC Business
  2. 2. What is Production? <ul><li>Production is the process of taking resources and changing them into products </li></ul><ul><li>These resources could be either raw materials or component parts </li></ul><ul><li>Production can take place within the primary, secondary or tertiary sector </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Production? <ul><li>Where ‘inputs’ are processed and turned into ‘outputs’ </li></ul><ul><li>When raw materials or components are processed - we call it ‘adding value’ </li></ul><ul><li>Careful planning is needed in any production method (arrival of materials at correct stage in process) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples of Adding Value <ul><li>Dairy farmers can add value to their milk by processing their own products, such as cheeses, yogurt, butter, ice cream, and farm-bottled milk </li></ul><ul><li>Many consumers will pay a premium for locally produced, high-quality dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Organic certification may also help </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of Adding Value <ul><li>Biz/ed’s Virtual Factory is an excellent source of information on production </li></ul><ul><li>Go to: </li></ul><ul><li>Navigate your way to the factory floor/production/theories for more </li></ul>
  6. 6. Production and Quality 2 BTEC Business
  7. 7. What is Quality? <ul><li>Quality is about the characteristics of a product or service that help satisfy customers’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Customers’ expectations are vital </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses can manage expectations </li></ul>
  8. 8. What’s Involved? <ul><li>The following may all be part of ensuring a quality product/service: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Best practice benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Total Quality Management (TQM) </li></ul><ul><li>Warranties </li></ul>
  9. 9. Quality Assurance <ul><li>Setting standards </li></ul><ul><li>Applying the standards across a business’ activities </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteeing that these standards will be met </li></ul>
  10. 10. Best Practice Benchmarking <ul><li>Targeting improvements to what a business organisation does so that: </li></ul><ul><li>The best in the field is identified </li></ul><ul><li>Their standards are copied and applied </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts are made to exceed these standards </li></ul>
  11. 11. Total Quality Management (TQM) <ul><li>Quality standards are set </li></ul><ul><li>The whole process of meeting customers’ needs is analysed </li></ul><ul><li>Every activity carried out is important </li></ul><ul><li>The entire organisation is responsible for quality (departments, units, individuals) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Warranties <ul><li>To reassure customers, firms sometimes offer warranties, especially on products </li></ul><ul><li>Warranties cover a fixed time period </li></ul><ul><li>During this period faulty goods will be repaired or replaced </li></ul><ul><li>Warranties can offer free service agreements </li></ul>
  13. 13. Production and Quality 3 BTEC Business
  14. 14. More on Quality <ul><li>The Production and Quality 2 Presentation looked at the work of Juran and Crosby, two of the main theorists behind TQM </li></ul><ul><li>We need to note the contribution made by another key thinker: </li></ul><ul><li>W. Edwards Deming </li></ul>
  15. 15. Who was Deming? <ul><li>Much over-looked in his native USA </li></ul><ul><li>Deming helped Japanese firms in the 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>He inspired many other management thinkers </li></ul>
  16. 16. Deming’s 14 Points <ul><li>We don’t need to know them all, but some are worth reading from a ‘quality’ perspective: </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t rely on mass inspection to achieve quality. Cut inspection by building quality into the product in the first place. Point 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of work standards (quotas) on the factory floor; Encourage leadership rather than management by numbers. Point 11 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deming’s 14 Points <ul><li>And finally…. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut out slogans and targets asking for zero defects and higher productivity. These only cause bitterness, as most of the reasons for low quality and low productivity are to do with the system, not the fault of the workforce. Point 10 </li></ul>
  18. 18. National and International Standards <ul><li>Bodies that exist to promote quality: </li></ul><ul><li>International Standards Organisation (ISO) issues global standards, including ISO 9000 </li></ul><ul><li>British Standards Institution (BSI) sets quality standards for British industry </li></ul><ul><li>British Toy and Hobby Association (for example, covering a trade or set of markets) </li></ul>
  19. 19. ISO 9000 Benefits <ul><li>Businesses, can base their activities (products and services offered) on requirements that are accepted widely across the globe </li></ul><ul><li>As these standards have a worldwide acceptance, consumers are served with an increasingly wide choice of products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Technology becomes compatible across most business organisations </li></ul>
  20. 20. ISO 9000 Benefits <ul><li>A wider choice of suppliers meeting ISO Standards means greater competition which benefits consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Greater understanding of what’s required to compete globally gives developing countries the information they need to decide what to produce </li></ul><ul><li>We all benefit from wider use of international standards as the transport systems, machines and tools we use (for example) become safer </li></ul>
  21. 21. Summary of ISO 9000 Benefits <ul><li>Controls quality </li></ul><ul><li>Saves money </li></ul><ul><li>Makes for satisfied customers </li></ul><ul><li>Is widely used globally </li></ul><ul><li>All types of organisation covered </li></ul><ul><li>All sectors and markets included </li></ul>
  22. 22. Production and Quality 4 BTEC Business
  23. 23. Training and Development <ul><li>The session on Production and Quality 3 discussed the following: </li></ul><ul><li>TQM is about setting quality standards </li></ul><ul><li>This means analysing the whole process of meeting customers’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>The whole of an organisation is responsible for quality </li></ul><ul><li>So every activity carried out is important </li></ul>
  24. 24. Training and TQM <ul><li>We looked at the 14 Points of Deming, the ‘godfather of quality’. The key messages for training and development are that: </li></ul><ul><li>Transforming a business is everybody’s job </li></ul><ul><li>There should be constant improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is important, not management </li></ul>
  25. 25. Training and TQM <ul><li>To achieve constant improvement business organisations need to set up: </li></ul><ul><li>A vigorous programme of education and self-improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Job-oriented training in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Teamworking across departments </li></ul>
  26. 26. Training and TQM <ul><li>Given what you know about TQM, which of the following training events (next slide too) are most/least useful? </li></ul><ul><li>Job rotation days when staff from different departments swap jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Be a Better Manager’ day, when managers get intensive training on how to control their teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Social events where people from different departments are encouraged to mix . </li></ul>
  27. 27. Training and TQM <ul><li>‘ Name and shame’ sessions to stop repeated errors by individuals and teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer skills training in lunch breaks. </li></ul><ul><li>Business finance sessions where all staff get some basic financial training, to understand how the business is performing. </li></ul><ul><li>League tables of product defects and the teams or departments responsible. </li></ul>