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COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
A Research Report submitted to CCS University Meerut for the partial fulfillment MA degree
M.A. ECONOMICS
Submitted By :
Gorav Gopal Singh
RG1501910133
Submitted to:
DR. REENA SINGH
HOD
Department of Economic
M.M.H. COLLEGE, GHAZIABAD
2015-2017
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
Acknowledgement
With Regard to this Report , I would like to thank each and every one who offered help, guideline and
support whenever required . They have been my consistent source of strength during my M.A.
Economics Study.
First & Foremost, I would like to thank Associate Professor DR. REENA SINGH for guiding me during
the project. Her unquenchable thirst for excellence also taught me immensely about approaching
research problems in common.
I would also like to thanks my team in this report , Jhui, Deepak , Irfan, Geeta , Fraha, Gunjaan who
were always present to help me out whenever I got struck during project completion and keep me
motivated to do better.
My whole hearted gratitude to My parents for their constant encouragement, love , wishes and
support.
Above all, I thank Almighty Krishna who bestowed his blessings upon me.
This Project wouldn’t have been possible without you all , thank you very much.
Gorav Singh
M.A. Economics 2nd
Sem
Roll No. (RG1501910133)
FATHER’S NAME – Gopal Singh
M.M.H. College, Ghaziabad
DATE:
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Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 : COMPUTER APPLICATION 5
COMPUTER AND ITS HISTORY 5
HARDWARE , SOFTWARE AND WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM 12
MS OFFICE & DATA ANALYSIS 23
CHAPTER 2 : ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 27
FDI IN INDIA’S RETAIL - RESEARCH 28
FDI POLICY 29
SURVEY & REPORT WRITING 36
SAMPLE SURVEY AND GRAPHS 44
CHAPTER 3 : BIBLIOGRAPHY 45
SOURCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY 46
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CHAPTER 1
COMPUTER
AND
ITS HISTORY
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Computer & Its History
EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS AND COMPUTER GENERATIONS
Computers are electronic device used for calculation and logical operations. It manipulates
data according to a set of instructions. The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called
programmes makes computers extremely versatile, which distinguishing them from calculators.
Speed, memory and accuracy are the three major features of the computers. Today’s computers are
developed over the past fifty years.
In 1900s a series of complex mechanical devices were used to perform the basic operations
of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.(they were constructed from gear wheels, levers,
and pulleys). In 1823, Charles Babbage, an English mathematician, designed a mechanical computing
machine for automatic computation of mathematical tables. He called this ‘machine difference
engine’. This was designed to accommodate sixth-degree polynomials and 20-digit numbers. The
only arithmetic operation to be performed was addition. This machine was not completed and the
project was abandoned in 1842. Later, many modest difference engines were successively designed
and built. In 1834, Charles Babbage thought of a much more powerful mechanical computer. He
called it as ‘analytical engine’. This was a general purpose programmable machine. Its components
were similar to those of modern computer. It contained the following components.
1) An arithmetic unit called ‘mill’ where calculations were performed. It is capable of addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division.
2) A memory to store data and intermediate results. It consisted of decimal counting wheels. Its
capacity was one thousand 50-digit decimal numbers.
3) A mechanism consisting of gears and shafts to transfer data and results between store
(memory) and mill (ALU). It was just like a control unit.
4) Input and output devices. Babbage proposed to supply numerical information either by
punched cards or by manually setting counter wheels. It was intended to get the output data
either printed on paper or punched on cards.
The analytical engine was not completed. Babbage died in 1871. He was the first man to give
the concept of programmable machine having components similar to a modern computer, and hence
he is called ‘Father of modern computers’.
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In 1890 Herman Hollerith developed Jacquard’s punched cards for the purpose of
computation. This invention is known as Hollerith desk. It consist of a card reader which sensed the
holes in the cards, a gear driven mechanism which could count and a large wall of dial indicators to
display the results of the count. The first electronic computer using vacuum tubes was designed and
built in the late 1930s by John V Atanasoff at lowa state University. It was a special purpose
computer for solving simultaneous linear equations. It used about 300 valves. In 1943, a much larger
electronic computer called ‘Colossus’ was built in England. It was developed for code breaking.
COMPUTER GENERATIONS
Over the past five decades, digital computers have gone through five generations of
development. This division is primarily by the major changes in hardware technology and software.
Most features introduced in earlier generations have been passed to the later generations. The latest
generation computers have inherited all the good features of computers of the earlier generations. A
short description of the various computer generations is given below.
First generation (1946-1954)
The first generation computers used vacuum tubes as CPU components. The high cost of
vacuum tubes prevented their use for main memory, less costly but slower devices such as mercury
delay lines were used for memory. Electrostatic (CRT) memories have also been used in the first
generation computers. Whirlwind I, a first generation computer, constructed at MIT, was the first
computer to use ferrite core memory. Machine language or assembly language (developed in early
50’s) was used for programming. Fixed-point arithmetic was used. Magnetic tape/magnetic drum
were used as secondary memory. There was no concept of operating system. Punched cards and
paper tape were invented to feed programs and data and to get results.
The first electronic digital computer ENIAC (Electronic Numeral Integrator and Calculator)was
completed in 1946.It used vacuum tubes as components for CPU and memory. Punched cards were
used for data entry and getting results. Separate memories were used for programs and data, which
made entering and altering programs an extremely tedious task. John von Neumann proposed
‘stored program concept’ in 1946, according to which programs and data were to be stored in the
same high-speed memory. This principle was used in other computers of the first generation. Some
other examples of first generation computers are: EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer,
1951), UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer,1951), IBM’s 701 (1953), IBM 704 (1955), etc.
Second generation (1955-1964)
The second generation computers used transistors in CPU, I/O processors and other
electronic components. Transistors was invented in 1948 at AT and T Bell Laboratories and it
gradually replaced vacuum tubes in electronic components and devices. The major features are;
1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
2) Magnetic ferrite-core memory was used as main memory which is a random access
nonvolatile memory. The memory capacity of the 2nd
generation computers was 1K bytes.
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3) Magnetic disk memory was also developed during this period. Magnetic disks and magnetic
tapes were used as secondary memory.
4) The high level languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, and ALGOL were developed.
5) Hardware for floating point arithmetic operations was developed.
6) Index registers were introduced which increased flexibility in programming.
7) Punched cards continued during this period also.
8) Eg:-IBM 1620(1960), IBM 7090 (1960),IBM 7094 (1962)
Third generation (1965-1974)
The development of integrated circuits in CPU, I/O processors and other electronic
components was the hallmark of the 3rd generation computers. In the beginning, magnetic core
memory was used as main memory. The size on memory was about 4M bytes. Later, semiconductor
memories replaced magnetic core memories. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon
chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
Semiconductor memories used LSI technology. Introduction of microprogramming, parallelism and
pipelining were other developments.
When a CPU contains more than one functional units and each functional unit performs a
part of the disk independently, this technique is called pipelining. The CPU of a multiprocessor
system contains more than one processor. In multiprogramming, the computer handles more than
one program simultaneously. While executing a program I/O processes are involved. I/O operations
are slow process. While I/O operation of one program is being performed, computer takes up
another program for execution. When data becomes available, the computer goes back to the
previous program. Thus it handles multiple programs simultaneously. In a multiuser system, more
than one user work on the different terminals of the computer simultaneously. Examples of third
generation computers are: IBM/370 Series (1970), CDC 7600(1969), PDP 11 (1970 16 bit computer),
etc.
Operating system for multiprogramming, and multiuser systems were developed. Database
management, multiuser application, online systems like airline reservation, interactive query system,
automatic industrial control, etc. emerged during this period.
Fourth generation (1975-present)
The 4th
generation computers use microprocessor(s) as CPU, memory, I/O processors, supporting
chips, controllers, etc. also use ICs (LSI and VLSI chips). The latest microprocessors contain 3 to 20 million
transistors. One chip cache memory 8 KB to 64 KB are provided. One chip second level cache 256 KB to 2
MB are provided. The processing speed, packing density
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and integration of many components other than CPU into a microprocessor are increasing
day by day. Earlier, cache, MMU (Memory Management Unit), etc. were on separate ICs.
Now-adays all such components and CPU are packed into a single IC of the microprocessor.
Thousands of integrated circuits were built into a single silicon chip called Very Large Scale
Integration (VLSI) technology. This technology allowed a complete processor to be
fabricated on a single chip known as microprocessor. Examples of microprocessors are
Pentium, PowerPC, Alpha, MIPS, SUNSPARC, etc.
The operating systems being used are UNIX, WINDOWS, SUN’S Solaries, etc. 4GL
Languages like ORACLE, SYBASE, etc. are being used for database management. Expert
systems using artificial intelligence have been developed. Today computers are widely
used in industrial control, instrumentation, consumer appliances, research work, analysis
and design, games, banking services, offices, military equipment, education,
communication and so on.
Fifth Generation
The 5th
generation computers are expected in the near future. The main features
are;
 The computers will use ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration).
 The microprocessor will contain first level cache, second level cache, MMU,FPU,
multiple pipelines, MMX pipeline, etc.
 Microprocessors will use ‘data flow’ architecture in place of von Neumann
architecture.
In Neumann architecture, instructions are executed in a sequential order. The
processor fetches one instruction at a time. If data is available the instruction is executed.
If data is not available, the processor waits till data is obtained from the memory. Then it is
executed.
In ‘data flow’ computer the processor fetches 20 to 30 instructions in advance in
sequential manner and puts them in an instruction pool. Now, the processor checks the
first instruction. Suppose its data is not available, the processor goes to the 2nd
instruction.
Suppose the 2nd
instruction requires the result of the 1st
instruction, then the processor
goes to the 3rd
instruction. So the instruction is executed. Finally, it again checks up those
instructions which were not executed for want of data. When data become available they
are executed in the next turn.
 Computer will use extensive parallel processing such as pipelining, multiprocessing
system, etc.
 Natural languages will be used as source languages. ie. Programming will give
commands in English or any other language.
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 Intelligent programming will be used. In such a system the programmer will tell
the computer what to do, he will not tell how to do. This will be done by the
computer. Intelligent software will be used for this purpose.
 Artificial intelligence will be used.
 Computers will be multimedia, knowledge based systems, and will have improved
human-machine interfaces. They will accept spoken commands as well.
 Today multimedia computers, microprocessors with data flow design, multiple
pipelines, expert systems, special processors for dedicated applications are
available. Generally, some features of next generation computers appear in the
previous generation. This is the process of technical developments. Some persons
put the computers of 1991 onward in the 5th
generation.
Artificial Intelligence
A machine with reasoning, learning and logic capability that resemble those of
human being can be said to possess artificial intelligence. Expert systems in use are the
examples of artificial intelligence.
Artificial system appears to be a mysterious machine. It is, however, an electronic
device with no brain. In fact a machine cannot think as we think. It gives its expert opinion
based on the information which has already been fed into it. It selects one out of many
opinions depending upon input data and information. The selection is based on certain
logical functions. The machine is designed to perform on such logical functions. PROLOG
and LISP are suitable computer languages for artificial intelligence. The examples of expert
systems are medical diagnostic packages, packages for repair and maintenance, training,
scientific analysis, engineering design, etc.
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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
Earlier, computers were classified as Microcomputers, Minicomputers, Mainframes (large
computers) and Super computers. This classification is no longer used. Low-cost small digital
computers are known as micro computers. Portable computers, personal computers PCs (single-user
desktop computers), computers for dedicated applications such as industrial control,
instrumentation, appliances control, etc. come under the category of microcomputers.
Minicomputers were more powerful than microcomputers. They were multiuser system.
Mainframes are very powerful large computers. They are rarely used. They are being replaced by
computer network. Examples of some mainframe computers are IBM’s ES2000, ES9000, DEC1000,
DECVAX9000, CDC Cyber 2000V. etc.
Today computers are classified as notebook computers (laptop computers) Personal Digital
Assistant (PDA, also known as Palmtop computer), Desktop computers PCs), workstations, servers,
and supercomputers. Laptop or Notebook computers are personal portable computers. Their power
supply is from batteries. They can be connected to a computer network. They use 32-bit processor
specially designed for them.
Desktop Computers
Desktop computers are single user PCs. They use 32-bit processors like Pentium III, Celeron,
PowerPC, etc. Their RAM capacity is, generally, 16 to 32 MB. They are used at homes, cyber cafes,
shopping malls, business institutions, offices, etc.
Workstations
Workstations are more powerful desktop computers used by engineers, scientists and other
professionals. They are used for numeric and graphic intensive applications. They are expensive
computers and generally employed to run complex programs and display both work in progress and
get results. Their hard disk and RAM capacity is more powerful than desktop computers. When a
computer is connected to a network, it becomes a node on the network and is referred to as a
workstation.
Servers
Servers are powerful computers. A number of PCs and terminals are connected to a server
through a communicating network. They have large disk and RAM capacity. A low-end server
contains one microprocessor whereas a high-end server may contain more than one microprocessor.
Supercomputers
They are the most powerful computers. They are used for complex computations. They are
used for weather forecasting, in aerodynamics, seismology, atomic, nuclear and plasma analysis; for
weapons research and development; sending rockets into space, etc. Examples of supercomputers
are Cray-1(1976), Cray-2 (1985), Cray X-MP(1983), etc.
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Computers can also be classified as Digital computers, Analog computers and Hybrid
computers. Digital computers work on the principle of binary mathematics. In binary mathematics all
calculations are represented through ‘0’ and ‘1’. They can not only perform mathematical problems
but also combine the bytes to produce desired graphics, sounds, images and other such commands.
They are the commonly used computers.
An analog computer processes analog signals. An analog signal is a continuous
quantity. The analog systems carry out arithmetic and logical operations by manipulating and
processing data which we input such as the weight, temperature, voltage, power density, etc. Analog
computer measures continuous electrical or physical magnitude like voltage, pressure, water flow,
etc. The computing units of Analog computers are able to react immediately to changes in the input
variables. They can perform very complex arithmetic operations faster with cent percent accuracy.
They are used for some specific scientific and engineering purposes. Today these works are done by
digital computers.
A Hybrid computer system is one in which the characteristics of both digital and analog
computers are combined. In a hybrid computer the digital and computers are interconnected in such
a way that data can be transferred from digital to analog and vice versa. For example, the heart
beating rate of a heart patient can be measured can be measured continuously with the help of
analog part of the computer and the statistics relating to these measurement may be highlighted in
the form of digits supplied by the digital part of the system. Thus such a hybrid system provides both
the flexibility and speed.
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Hardware, Software and Windows Operating System
Components of Personal Computer
Computer technology has undergone profound changes since the first generation computer. The way
present day motorcar differs from its original v ersion, the computer we use today is totally different
from its first make. There are various types of computers for various purposes,
e.g. supercomputers for high level multi-tasking precision jobs. The most commonly used computer
nowadays is the Personal Computer. We shall restrict our discussion to the Personal Computer. By size
three types of Personal Computers are now available – Desktop, Laptop, and Palmtop or Notepad. By
configuration all three are more or less same – they differ only in size and capacity as well as the add-on
features.
An exploded view of a modern desktop personal computer and peripherals
1. Scanner 2. CPU (Microprocessor)3. Primary storage (RAM)
4. Expansion cards (graphics, etc.) 5. Power supply 6. Optical disc drive
7. Secondary storage (Hard disk) 8. Motherboard 9. Speakers
10. Monitor 11. System software 12.Application software
13. Keyboard
16. Printer
14. Mouse 15.External hard disk
Hardware
Means the physical parts of the computer, which are mainly of the following types:
1. The Motherboard and the CPU – Processor Memory Chip
2. Input output Device (and their Control Cards)
3. Information Storage Device (and their Control Cards)
4. Other Accessories (optional)
Looking at any personal computer system we usually see three things – the Computer inside a cabinet, a
Video Monitor, a Key Board, a mouse, and sometimes a Printer. Many other accessories may be fitted to
the computer - Joysticks, Light pen, Modem, and even Sound Recorder, Camera, Speaker, Projector, etc.
in Multi-media systems. We shall make a brief description of these components. But before that we
must note the basic physical configuration of a personal computer system, which consists of three
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stages of operations – input of information, processing of information, and output of the results or
processed information.
1. The Motherboard and the Central Processing Unit (CPU)
A computer is truly speaking the CPU-base memory chip as the essential function of a computer, that is,
processing information is done by it. But it cannot perform alone without input and output devices. In
the present architecture of personal computer, the three essential parts of the physical configuration,
namely input devices, processor, and output devices, are fitted to a board called the Motherboard.
Besides the CPU, the motherboard also has many other slots for fitting extended memory chips, the
storage device, control cards, input and output device control cards and their input output por ts (plug
in points). All these are assembled and fitted to the motherboard. There is also another part called the
SMPS, which transforms the voltage of electrical power supply as per requirement of various control
cards. It should be remembered that there is also a small battery fitted to the motherboard which keeps
the basic charge necessary for keeping some system information within the CPU -base memory, even
when we switch off the power supply. In desktop computer all these are kept inside the Computer
Cabinet – now available in the form of Tower Casing for the desktop.
Memory of Computer - ROM and RAM : We must not confuse the meaning of the term ‘Memory’
with storage. It is memory that works to process information. The CPU -base memory chip receives
electro-magnetic pulses and processes them to generate further electro-magnetic pulses. But for
processing the information in the form of electro -magnetic pulses it must have stored within itself
some prior information. That is, for example, it must be given prior information about how to recognise
the sources (device) and take the input information and also must be given prior information to know
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wh ere to give the output information. These information, called the BIOS or the Basic Input Output
System, are written within the CPU-base memory at the time of manufacturing and cannot be erased.
There are also other instructions stored which are necessary to optimise the function of the processor
by allocating its location spaces for different types of operations. For example cache memory is used by
the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. The cache is a
smaller and faster memory which stores copies of the data from the most frequently used main
memory locations. Hence, this memory is called the ROM (Read Only Memory), as it cannot be erased.
The operation of the computer with simultaneous loading and processing of large volume of data or
information, would clearly be restricted if the space of RAM is not sufficient. So, one important factor
determining the work efficiency of a computer is its RAM size –
how much information it can load at a time. This is called
memory usage. Information is measured in unit called Byte. A
byte is a formation of 8 bits of binary characters of 0 and 1. Note,
in decimal system of measuring size of information
1000 byte =1 kilo byte or 1 KB; 1000 KB = 1 Mega byte or 1 MB;
1000 MB= 1 Giga byte or 1 GB, and so on comes tetra byte,
peta byte, and exa byte, etc. However, in binary system used
to measure memory, I KB =1024 byte and it proceeds on the base of 1024. The RAM in the form of cards
attachable to the specified slots in the motherboard is now available in capacities of 512MB or 1024 MB
[usually called 1 GB RAM]. In earlier versions of personal computer, RAM of even 256 KB was sufficient.
Nowadays, since many of the software programs being quite large, [which are loaded in RAM during
execution] use a lot of memory, and hence a minimum of 1 GB RAM is desirable for ho me computers.
2. Storage Device
The computer memory (i.e. brain) must remain free as far as possible for quick processing.
So, except some basic information about system configuration, like where from to receive
(input) electro-magnetic pulses and where to send (output) the processed results, no other information
is stored in the ROM. For storing information, data, program commands for logical operations, etc.
many devices are available, which may be attached to the computer motherboard (and from which
information can be loaded to RAM and processed as and when required by the CPU). Theses are –The
Hard Disk, which is run by a Hard Disk Drive ( HDD), fitted (called mounted) to the motherboard inside
the computer cabinet, and hence called non removable disk; the CD or CD and DVD (Optical) Disk Drive
fitted with the mo therboard of the computer, where one can insert and remove CD or DVD disks, which
are called removable disks, and Pen Drives which are called USB (Universal Serial Bus) mass storage
device that can be attached to and removed from the USB ports of the mothe rboard. Earlier we used
to have the Floppy Diskettes, which may be inserted to the Floppy Diskette Drive (FDD) for reading and
writing of information. Usual size of Hard Disks now available ranges from 80 GB and above; the CD has
capacity of 720 MB, DVD h as 4 GB and PEN Drives have capacity from 2 GB to 16 GB. The storage
devices allow us to write data on it as well as erase data from it repeatedly (except for CDs and DVDs
which are not re -writeable or RW)
3. Input Output Device
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We have discussed the memory of the computer, which works with information, and the device to store
information. Now these information are to be fed to the computer (Input) and also, we are to get the
processed information or result (output). The primary input device is the Keyboard. It is attached to the
computer through a cord in the specific port provided in the motherboard. Whenever you press any key
of the keyboard and then press the Enter key an input, correct or incorrect, goes to the computer CPU.
However, there are many ot her input devices – e.g. the computer can read input from the Hard disk,
CD/DVD or Floppy Diskettes, Modem, Mouse, Joystick, etc. Again one computer can give input/output
to another if they are connected through a ventral computer (called server) as done in LAN (Local Area
Network) or by other types of networking. All these input devices, except the Keyboard, can act also as
the output device to receive the results. However, the Touch-Screen Keyboard acts as both input and
output device. Amongst the output devices we have two specific instruments – one is the Video
Monitor, which constantly displays the results of processed input in the screen to monitor you through
your work. It also helps you see the command, or data inputs you are giving to the computer, but not
all. The other is the printer, which prints the results in paper, if you give command to the computer to
do so.
4. Other Accessories and Ports
There are many other accessories (peripherals), which can be fitted to the computer. A Mouse helps
you giving inputs (commands) without the keyboard in quick and easy way just by clicking mouse
button, provided you are using a mouse compatible menu driven program. A modem (sound frequency
modulator and demodulator) can translate sounds into electro magnetic pulses and the vice-versa.
Personal computers also have a small speaker built in the computer cabinet, which can generate
sounds. Cameras, Sound Recorders and Players as well as Projector to project images, Scanner to read
images can also be fitted to personal computers.
For fitting all these devices, there are external ports of the motherboard, which you may see at the back
of the computer cabinet as well as a few at the front. These ports are of several types – most common
nowadays are USB ports. The others are serial Com (communication) ports (say for fitting a PS/2 mouse
or a keyboard), or LPT (line printer) ports used in earlier computers for fitting the dot-matrix line
printers. There are also ports for connecting the speakers/recorders, telephone lines or network cables.
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Software
These are the structured information and commands, which can be fed into the computer, usually
through the internal Hard Disk or External disks. There are various types of software, which may be
classified as follows:
1. Disk Operating System Software
2. Language Software
3. Application Software
4. Utility Software
It should be noted that these software are to be made according to the functions we desire the
computer to perform. The basic of all these is the Operating System Software. Note that the computer
can only recognise electro-magnetic pulses in two binary states, 0 and 1. Therefore, all information
should be expressed in terms of combinations 0 and 1 so as to make them understandable to computer,
which is called Machine Level Language. This will be almost practically impossible. So, for writing
programmes a unified system of codification is followed to represent our alphabets and numbers –- this
is known as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). The binary and hexadecimal
equivalent of the ASCII codes are converted following the codification into machine-level language
recognisable by the computer. There is another system of codification known as Unicode system.
1.Disk Operating System Software
As mentioned earlier, after ROM Booting the CPU of personal computer searches for Hard Disk or CD in
respective drives in sequence for the Operating System to be installed in its RAM. The operating system
is to be provided by either of these two disks, and hence it is called the Disk Operating System (DOS).
From this DOS software the CPU reads and loads into its memory the basic commands of the operating
system. Then with its help it knows what to do with the commands (as defined under DOS) you enter
them. It also knows how to execute commands written in the application programmes, which we may
run. There are various types of DOS software –-
most common is the Microsoft DOS known as MS
-DOS. Others are Linux, Macintosh, etc.
We shall restrict ourselves to MS -DOS
environment only.
Nowadays you don’t have to learn DOS
commands to operate the compute r.
Almost all the commands, like, open, run, close,
exit, copy (read), paste (write), delete, etc., which
you would usually require to give, now come
under Microsoft DOS Windows as Menu Driven
with Icons and Menus displayed in
window screens in the Monitor. These you may select by single mouse click or select and run by double
mouse click in quick succession.
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Note that the operating system software provides only the basic operational rules for working and also
optimising the functions and the overall system management. With it you can define and operate the
machine, but really cannot do any other jobs that are to be done by application programme within the
environment of the operating system. Hence, remember, an application program or software that runs
under one DOS may not run under another DOS as such.
DOS Booting: As mentioned earlier, when you switch on the computer, after the ROM Booting, the
computer CPU searches for an operating system. If any operating system is present in the Hard Disk or
in a CD in CD drive, the CPU will automatically read it and load it into its RAM memory and keep it
resident there. This is called System Booting. Note that every time you switch on the computer there
will be Booting in two steps –- ROM Booting and then Operating System Booting. Only after this is
completed you can start working with your PC.
The DOS (Windows) Operation Instructions
Switching On and Turning Off: Switching on is quite simple. In the front of desktop computer cabinet,
the power on button (also a smaller button for restart) is there. After it is switched on and comes to the
beginning stage, when the operating system is loaded properly, the monitor screen will display the
initial Windows display screen, as one shown above. Beginner should study carefully note this screen.
First thing every beginner must learn is how to switch off [Shut down] the computer. At the lower left
corner of the Monitor display screen, there is the Start Button displayed. On placing the mouse cursor
there and clicking the mous e, one will see the Turn Off Menu. Just select and click Shut Down from the
menu. [You can also do this using keyboard cursor keys (arrow marked) and Tab key and pressing Enter
key]. After working, the computer must always be properly shut down by selectin g and clicking Turn
Off. If for some reason the computer hangs, press for once the keyboard keys CTRL+Alt+Del together to
evoke the Task Manger to end the current task. In case even this fails, keep the Computer Power button
pressed for sometime, till the computer is switched off. Never forget to finally Switch Off also the UPS
(Uninterrupted Power Supply).
Program Icons: In Windows operating system, Icons shown on the monitor screen represent the
programs or features that are stored in the computer hard d isk. But all are usually not shown on the
screen, as that would make the screen clumsy. We keep only those, which are most frequently used.
Other programmes, features, documents etc. may be found in their respective locations (folders and
files), which we will discuss later.
Mouse Operation: Beginners using computer for the first time should practice using the mouse –
moving the mouse to move the cursor as shown in the monitor screen and placing it on icons and then
clicking the left button of the mouse to select the icon [on clicking the icon would become highlighted].
Double clicking the left mouse button would open the program or feature. Just double click an Icon, or
select one through the Start Menu and click open it.
Exit or Quitting a Program: Next, beginners should note how to close and exit from the programme or
feature, once loaded, and come back to the initial screen once again. Usually in all menu-driven
programs and operational features, at the top left corner there is X mark
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button. Placing the cursor there and clicking the left mouse button will close the program or the
feature. Alternatively, from the top Menu-Bar, the File Menu may be clicked and the submenu under
File menu will show the Exit button, which may be clicked to exit the prog ram. [Using keyboard also you
can do this by pressing Alt+F, as may be defined in the program]
File Management Operations of Copy, Paste, Delete, Rename, etc. : One of the principal functions of the
operating system is file management – that is, sorting, arranging, and storing information in specified
locations in the storage devices like hard disk, CD, Pen Drive, as well sending information to other
devices like Printer, Sound Speakers, etc. This we will discuss later, under the section on information
management.
2. Language Software
Next in the hierarchy is the language software like BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, C+, C++, Java, etc.
in the MS-DOS environment. Once the operating system is loaded into its memory (called resident), the
CPU can now recog nise and load further into its memory the language software when you put these
either in the CD/DVD or in the HDD and run them by entering the necessary command to the computer
using your keyboard. These language software are nothing but a group of structured commands to
design some logical operations, as may be desired –- e.g. such simple commands may be, “if so then do
this”, “Go To”, “If Then”, etc.
The language software is used to write the desired application programs. Earlier, one has to write these
programs and use every time the Language Interpreter to run the program, which translates the
programme language into machine level language recognisable by the computer. Now, with each
language program, we have the Compiler, which transforms the program written into the machine level
language.
3. Application Software
The application packages are structured programs (commands) to do some specific common operations.
For example, writing and printing it (as you used to do with typewriters) is one such common operation.
Therefore, for doing this job, various application software are made e.g. WordStar, Word Perfect, MS-
Word, Pagemaker, Ventura etc. These are called Editor programs. Similarly, drawing and painting
software are there – Autocad, AutoSketch, MSDraw, Coreldraw, Paintbrush, etc. There are series of
software specifically used in various disciplines –- perhaps in all disciplines and spheres of work. In social
sciences the most widely used application software, besides the Editor software, are fo r the Database,
and Spreadsheet. Database software does huge database management more quickly and efficiently, e.g.
–- sorting, selecting, grouping, arranging, querying etc. of data as may be needed. Spreadsheet or
Worksheet does all numerical and algebrai c operations with large volume of data and also does some
statistical analysis. For statistical and econometric analysis of data there are several application
software, like EVIEW, ASP, SPSS, MATLAB, TSP, etc.
4. Utility Software
Besides the application software, there are some other software which may be grouped as utility
software. These help us locating faults and errors, as may occur in the operating system, as well as fixing
them. Most common are – compressing and decompressing, System Registry Cleaning, Drive Imaging
for Restoration, Back-up, Disk Cleaning and Defragmenting, etc. There are also some disutility software
prepared and circulated. These are the Virus software, e.g. Trojan, Dark Avenger, Friday, Jerusalem,
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Joshi. Stone, etc., There are also harmful Worms and spyware and malware software that work in a
different manner. There is now thousands such known software in circulation. And once again we have
their respective anti-virus software in the group of utility software –- e.g. Quick Heal, NOD32, Kaspersky,
etc, prepared and marketed by software-makers.
MS -DOS Windows – Basic Operations
1. File Management Operations
As we have mentioned earlier, one of the principal functions of operating system is File Management
Operations of creating Folders and Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete, Rename, of files and folders, and running
various application programmes. The other functions include installing devices, e.g., Printer, Network,
and application programs; Configuring the system with devices and software by initialising in System
Registry; and System Mainte nance, like formatting disk, disk cleaning by deleting unnecessary files, re
-arranging the files stored in hard disk in a scattered manner (fragmented) to optimise the space
allocations and thereby operation, etc. There are also functions like creating Fil e Back-ups and System
Restore through disk imaging.
Let us first familiarize with the Windows Menu. The Desktop Icons (also called shortcuts) shown in the
first display screen are created and kept for only the most frequently used programs or files. To view all
other programs and features as kept under various groups, click the Start button to see the Menu.
Depending upon what are stored in your computer you will see a screen like above, as you select the
Program group, and then keep the mouse cursor over Microsoft Word programt. If you want to run the
program, Microsoft Word, now just click it or press Enter key in the Keyboard. We have already
discussed earlier how to quit a program and come back to the initial screen to shut down the computer.
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For the purpose of File Management, one of the built -in programs in Operating System is My Computer
(or Windows Explorer), which allows you to view the files and folders in various locations, and cut, copy,
paste, them from one location to anoth er as well as delete or rename them. The icon for My Computer
is shown on the desktop. If you double click it to open, you may see a screen like the one shown below
(using Folders view).
Carefully study this display. In our example, there are three Local Disks (C:, D:, and E:) partitioning a 40
GB Hard Disk, one 3½ Floppy Drive, a DVD Disk (labelled Jun 2009) as F:, and a Pendrive (Kingston make)
as G:. On the left side theses are shown as Folders. You can select any one and open it by clicking. Also
notice the Address Bar that shows the current folder and note the use of up arrow and back arrow for
navigation to higher level or to the previous selection. The horizontal and vertical scroll bars navigate
through the display window.
2. Operating Systems Maintenance
For smooth trouble free as well as faster operations, some basic system maintenance principles will
have to be followed by every user. Moreover e very operating system might crash at some point, or
become slower. System maintenance, if properly followed, would help restoring the system, and if not
the system, at least recovering the important data. Some of the practices to be followed are discussed
below.
First of all, note that the operating systems are installed for running the hardware of the computers in
two forms – first is the Motherboard Driver files that are required to configure particularly the Graphic
Display and the Sound Systems. In ass embled computers, where the motherboard is purchased
separately, these driver files in a CD are supplied by the manufacturer with the motherboard. At the
time of initial installation, these driver files are installed in the hard disk. This CD must be properly
preserved for future use, if you require formatting your hard disk for, say, removing virus in your
system. In case of branded computers of companies, these motherboard driver files are not supplied. At
the most, they provide an image of the operating system created and kept in some partition of the hard
disk and supply a restoration disk. But often this might not work properly. So in such case, it is better to
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get the particular motherboard driver files downloaded from Internet websites, if you know
specification of your motherboard, and preserve them in a CD.
Next, you would require preserving your Operating System Software Disk, as well as all the other
program installation disk, hardware installation (like Printer, Scanner, Camera etc.) disk, as you may
require them in future if you need formatting your hard disk.
You may ask why every operating system might crash at some point, or become slower after some time.
For this purpose some idea is needed about how the operating system works. The operating system
needs to load and handle hundreds of files relating to hardware drives, resident program as well the
configuration information. Such information are stored and loaded every time from what is called
System Registry. Do not confuse this with registration of your program copy with the manufacturer for
license. Every time you install a new program, or a new hardware, it is configured with initialization
entry in the System Registry. Following the entries in the System Registry, various processes are loaded
in the memory and put under running status at the background. [To see this, press CTRL+ALT+Del
key to evoke Task Manager and click the Processes button. But do not change anything .] Now
as you go on installing new programs the System Registry goes on increasing. Even if you uninstall some
program, the entries in the system registry remain. Ultimately the System Registry becomes quite
clumsy with unnecessary entries, which might also get mixed -up. Moreover, virus attack is inevitable
these days as there cannot be full protection. Some virus creates system registry entries along with
creating a system file, which are very difficult to remove, since even if you could locate the virus file, you
would not be able to delete it being already loaded as a runnin g process. Software professionals may
help you cleaning the system registry by running some Registry Cleaning software, but that is not
absolutely safe. [ If you wish to view how complicated and long the System Registry could be,
select the “run” command fr om the Start Menu and type “regedit” and click Ok. Registry Editor
will start. Just scroll through to view, do not change any entry].
For system maintenance, if you wish to uninstall a program always use uninstall menu of the program, if
there. If it is not there, remove the program through the Control Panel menu of Add or Remove
Program. Control Panel is an important menu for system management. The Add or Remove Program
under Control Panel will show the installed programs. Try to remove those, which you do not use
frequently or are not essential, as too many programs would make the computer slower.
Another reason that makes the computer slow is the temporary files. In course of work, several
temporary files would be created under the Temp Folder, which s hould be deleted from time to time.
There will also be temporary Internet files and cookies if you work with Internet. These will also be
required to be deleted. One easy way is to use the Disk Clean up under the Systems Tools that may be
found under the P rogram Accessory group. After Disk Cleaning, it is advisable to run Disk Defragmenter.
Defragmenter also improves operation speed buy quicker access to the properly arranged files in the
hard disk. Disk Clean up and Defragmenter should be used after some prolonged use, say after every
one or two months depending upon the usage. For ensuring faster operations, you should reduce the
number of resident programmes as much as possible.
Finally, it is desirable to have disk partitioned and saving all your work a nd data files, as well as program
installation files and driver files, not in the Primary Active Partition (C:) but in other Logical Disk created
in Extended Partition. Note that files created under programs are saved by default usually in the My
Document folder, if you do not specify other location (folder) for saving. So create your work folders in
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local disk other than C:, and every time you save your files only there. Then take frequent Back-up of
your files in CD/DVD.
3. Protection from Virus, W orms, Threads and Internet Malware, Spyware etc.
This happens to be the mist difficult part. There are a number of software now available in the market
for this purpose. But none is full proof as new and new virus, worms etc., continues to arrive almost
everyday and you become exposed to threats, especially through the use of Internet. The supplier of the
protection software is supposed to keep on updating the virus database and you can get this update
through Internet for only the period of licence of the product you purchased and installed. After expiry
you have to buy another or pay for renewal.
However, such updates at times do not work and your computer might become infected by some nasty
virus. Yet, it is recommended that virus protection software should be installed. Now the question
remains, how to get a full-proof protection. We have mentioned earlier that whether by virus infection
or not, your system has always a possibility of crash or slowing down significantly with erratic
behaviour. The only way o ut from such situation that works quickly is to use a Disk Imaging and
Recovery Software, to keep an image of your active primary partition in some other drive (D: or E:),
immediately after you have completed initially your system configuration with all the installed device
and software you use. The image file created should never be deleted. In case of trouble, you can Cold
Boot the system through CD drive and restore you active primary partition C:, using this software. This
will bring system back to its original position as if nothing has happened. But note that if you have saved
anything in C:, after initial configuration, would be lost. But this will also not work if your hard disk
partition information is lost.
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MSOffice
Microsoft office is a group of application programs containing four programs, namely – Microsoft Word,
Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Power Point and Microsoft Access. These four programs help us perform
almost everything we need to do in everyday office work. Word is a program with which we can write
and print documents, like letters, reports, research papers, chapters of books, with texts, tables and
charts or graphs inset within text. Excel helps us in numerical calculation with a huge volume of data on
worksheets, creation of tables, creation of charts and diagrams as well as some performing statistical
analysis of data. Power Point is for presentation by using projection of slides, which may be used in any
discussion, semina r, lecture, etc. This program helps us preparing the slides containing texts, pictures,
charts, tables, as well as some animated objects. Access is for database management for searching and
querying and some processing of data, as for example you may buil d an access application for library
database. Learning all the features of each would not be required, since the special features may be
learnt as and when required taking help from the Help Menu in each program. But the beginners should
familiarise themse lves with basic operational functions.
The operation for creating a file, opening an existing file, and saving the file currently loaded (while
working), is more or less same in all the four programs. For creating a new file, first start the program,
and then from the File Menu in the top Menu Bar, select New. For saving a loaded file, just click the
Save Button in the Standard Toolbar below the Menu Bar. If you wish to save the file, after doing some
work, under a different name or under a different folde r in other Hard Disk or in Pendrive (Note you
cannot save a file this way in CD or DVD which are optical disks), click open the File Menu and select
Save As. You will be prompted to select the location and give a filename. This will be a new updated
copy a nd the original file will remain unchanged.
MS Word
A. Page Layout
Selecting Paper size – A4, Letter etc.; Layout – portrait or landscape, section, header footer
same or different in odd and even, vertical alignment top, centre o r bottom; Margins – top,
bottom, left, right, gutter for binding, header, footer, mirror margin option.
B. Paragraph Style
Font and Font size – title, heading, body text, normal; Alignment – left, centre, right; line spacing
– single, 1.5, double; space before and after paragraph.
C. Table Creation and Formatting
Inserting and deleting tables, rows and columns; resizing rows and columns, merging and
splitting cells and tables; table properties for alignments and size of table, rows, columns, and
cells.
D. Formatting
Bold, Underline, Italics, superscript, subscript, endnotes and footnotes; Bullets and numbering;
borders and shading; Tab types and positions; vertical and horizontal ruler to measure positions;
Indenting left, right and first line.
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E. Editing
Find and Replace; Grammar and Spell Check; Go to page; splitting word window to view two
different pages simultaneously; cut copy and paste, undo operations, repeat last operation (F4
key);
F. Inserting
Page break, section break, Page numbers, symbols; copy past e Excel tables; copy paste pictures,
and charts, draw word object; format picture; positioning and wrapping objects in page.
G. Printing
Checking Print Preview before printing; print selection, current page or pages from to, copies to
print, print order odd and even.
MS PowerPoint
H. Creating New Presentation
Blank presentation or using design template; Setting layout by Slide Master View; selecting slide
background for title slide and text slides; Inserting slides,
I. Formatting and Inserting
Inserting and deleting slides, inserting slide numbers, date; Font and font size, Bullets and
numbering, alignments, inserting Text Box, Inserting Microsoft Word Table as
Picture and editing Word Table; Insert Movies and sounds;
J. Slide Show
View slide show, slide navigation forward and backward, animating slide show
K. Printing
Printing matters in Slides – Send to Word and Print Outline only.
MS Access
L. Concept of Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
The art of breaking down a large data table into smaller tables with fields and uniquely relating
the tables through primary fields;
M. Creating Tables
Creating data tables of the database – Table design with fields (column names) and setting data
type and properties; Setting one Primary K ey Field or multiple Primary Key Fields; saving table;
preview table; Establishing unique relationships among tables; types of relationships – one to
infinity; one to one; Edit relationships – set referential integrity.
N. Designing Queries based on Tables
Designing simple query – new query, show tables and add tables; select query fields, set query
criterion; parameter query; save query (query name); datasheet view of query results
O. Designing Forms based on Tables and queries
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Form Wizards for creating Tabular Forms, Columnar Forms; Data Entry Forms, Tab stops and Tab
order; field properties; printing Customised Billing Forms; single view and continuous view;
preview of forms; sub-forms; forms as switch for entering parameter value of query criterion;
save form (Form name)
P. Designing Reports
Designing Reports of data – Report Header, Footer, Page Header, Data Details, Field
Lists, Text box bound to fields, Labels; Text Box properties; various types of Reports
MS Excel
Microsoft Office Excel provides powerful tools and features that a user can use to analyze, share
and manage data with ease. As a spreadsheet it is widely used for data analysis. A spreadsheet is a
large sheet of paper which contains rows and columns. The intersection of rows and columns is
termed as a ‘cell’. To enable us to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets, MS Excel 2007
version supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet. MS Excel is used to
prepare databases, to make charts and diagrams and for doing various mathematical and
statistical operations. It s to be noted that any mathematical operation should begin with the sign
‘=’ or ‘+’ under Excel.
Work Books
A file in Microsoft Excel is called a work book. A work book is organized in various
worksheets. Thus a work book is a collection of work sheet used in a single file.
Worksheet
A worksheet is a table like document containing rows and columns with data and
formula. When MS Excel is opened, it starts with three worksheets.
MS Excel can handle with the following calculation and logical operators.
Excel tool bars
The major tool bars in MS Excel are The micro soft office button, the ribbon, the title
bar, quick access tool bar, the cell address bar, formula bar and scroll bar. These tool
bars helps for better editing and modification of the worksheet.
Application of MS Excel in Economics
MS Excel has wide applications in Economics. Economics is a social science which deals
with human wants and their satisfaction. The theories of economics like producer’s
behavior and consumer’s behavior can be better explained with the help of computer
software especially with MS Excel. For example, the theory of law of demand states
the inverse relationship between the price of the commodity and quantity demanded.
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MS Excel can be effectively used to state the law of demand. After stating the law a
demand schedule and the demand curve can be inserted as cited below.
The Law of Demand
The law of demand states that “other things remains the same, there is inverse
relationship between the price of the commodity and quantity demanded”. That is
when the price increases the quantity demanded falls and when the price falls the
quantity demanded increases. This is shown in the following demand schedule and the
demand curve.
Demand Schedule
Price of the commodity Quantity demanded
2 10
3 8
4 6
5 4
The above demand schedule and demand curve are drawn by using the excel facility. Similarly, MS Excel
provides facility to do mathematical and statistical operations. By using these facilities various
calculations can be done. Different types of charts can also be used for better explaining the concepts
and laws of economics.
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CHAPTER 2
Economic
Analysis
(FDI IN INDIA’S RETAIL , SURVEY AND REPORT WRITING )
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FDI in India’s Retail
Abstract: The retail industry in India is being hailed as one of the sunrise sectors in the economy.
According to AT Kearney, international management consultancy identified India as the “second most
attractive retail destination” .According to Deloitte report Jan 2013, The Indian retail industry is
expected to be around 850 billion USD by 2015 and is expected to be over 1.3 trillion USD by 2020. The
share of organized retail is estimated to be 20% by 2020. The recent wave of reforms by the
Government of India to intensify FDI in retail has brought about a new outlook on the business climate
in India. This paper attempts to outline the government s policy on FDI in retailing and tries to examine‟
its pros b cons while examining the voices of small retailers on the government s decision. This paper‟
is based on the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP, Government of India, Ministry of
Commerce & Industry s) Press Note on the „guidelines and policy as to FDI in Single brand and multi‟
brand retail, various journals, relevant news articles and opinion of experts and press reports in The‟
Hindu Business Line . This paper analyses the issues involved in effective implementation of the policy.‟
A SWOT analysis has been made on the FDI policy. Key words: FDI , retail, policy
I. Introduction
World Bank has defined FDI as “Foreign direct investment (FDI) or foreign investment can refer
to the net inflow of funds to acquire a long-term management interest in an enterprise operating in a
foreign economy. It is the accumulation of equity, re-investment of retained earnings , other long-term
sources of capital and short-term funds as presented in the balance of payments”. FDI plays a very vital
role in India s growth and development. FDI to a great extent aids in expansion of markets, reducing‟
costs through improved supply chains and would be a catalyst in the economic development. This
paper brings forth the FDI policy in retail in India and analyses the issues, challenges , opportunities and
threat that it poses and the impact it has on the small retailers.
Objectives Of The Study
1. The main objective of the study is to analyse the FDI policy
2. The strength, weaknesses, threats and opportunities of FDI
3. To study the issues and challenges involved in implementation of the FDI policy
4. The impact of FDI on small retailer
II. Research Methodology
This paper is based on the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) , Government of
India, press noteon the „guidelines and policy as to FDI in Single brand and multi brand retail, various
journals, relevant news articles and opinion of experts and press reports in The Hindu Business Line .‟ ‟
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III. Indian Retail Sector – An Over View
The Indian retail sector is fragmented, consisting of small independent owner managed shops,
accounting for 92% of the retail sector and the remaining 8% constitutes the organized sector. Rising
disposable incomes, urbanization, dominance of younger generation in spending, nuclear families,
advancement in science and technology (ICT) are various factors contributing to the growth of retail in
India. The organized retail is poised to grow at the rate of 20% by 2020. The policies of the Government
of India , namely FDI in single brand and Multi-brand retail have opened up the gates for foreign
investment in retail in India.
IV. FDI Policy
FDI was initiated around the year 2005 by the Government of India, though the liberalization and
globalization started in 1990s. Initially GOI had allowed 100% investment in the cash and carry or
wholesale trading. The single brand retailing in 2006 was initially restricted to 51% but later it was
enhanced to 100% subject to 30% sourcing from within India. Currently, the Committee of Secretaries (
COS) has given nod to 51% investment in multi-brand retail , but with stringent conditions like
mandatory investment of at least 50% in the back- end infrastructure , minimum sales of 30% to come
from small traders and 30% mandatory sourcing from micro, small and medium enterprises. but it is left
to the discretion of the State Governments to implement it in the respective states of India.
The Ministry of Commerce and Industry, GOI is the nodal agency for reviewing the FDI policy on
continued basis and changes in sectoral policy or sectoral equity cap. The FDI policy is notified through
press notes by the secretariat for Industrial Assistance (SIA) , DIPP. The salient features are:
1. India will allow FDI upto 51% in multi-brand retail.
2. Single brand retailers can own 100% of their Indian stores.
3. FDI upto 100% for cash and cary wholesale trading and export trading allowed under the automatic
route.
4. Both single and MBR will have to source at least 30% of their goods from small and medium sized
Indian suppliers.
5. MBR ( Multi brand retailers) must bring minimum investment of USD 100m. % of which must be
invested in back-end infrastructure such as cold chains, transportation, packaging etc to reduce
remunerative prices to farmers and also to reduce post-harvest losses.
6. The opening of retail competition (policy) is left with the State Governments of the respective
states.
7. All retail stores can open up their operations in cities having population of over 1 million.
PERCEPTION OF SMALL RETAILERS ON THE NEW FDI POLICY IN RETAILING IN INDIA
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The proposal of GOI to allow 51% FDI in MBR comes with riders.
a. Approval should be taken from the FIPB( Foreign Investment Promotion Board) for investments.
b. The policy also states that fresh agricultural produce including fruits, vegetables, flowers, grains,
pulses, fresh poultry, fishery and meat products may be unbranded. Small and medium units for
FDI means units which have a total plant and machinery investment not exceeding Rs. 1.25 crores.
This investment refers to the value at the time of installation, without providing for depreciation.
The foreign retail chains will be required to comply with self-certification. They have to keep all
records and the government will have the first right to procure agricultural produce.
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V. SWOT Analysis Of The FDI Policy In Retail
1. Strengths
a. Effective control of wastage of farm produce
b. Flow of foreign exchange into the country
c. Generates revenue through tax
d. Variety to consumers
2. Weaknesses
a. State Governments to decide on implementation of FDI
b. Relaxation of mandatory local sourcing criteria in case of FDI in single brand retail.
c. Investment in back-end infrastructure not including costs of land etc.
3. Opportunities
a. FDI in retail will drive consumption and provide capital to the retail sector.
b. Small manufacturers can expand their business operations.
c. Elimination of middle men , greater transparency and direct procurement from farmers is likely to
benefit farmers to a great extent.
d. New technology, improvement in supply chains, packaging, storing is expected to greatly reduce
wastages.
e. Brings in best management practices and training to youth.
4. Threats
a. Manufacturing sector at its low, unprepared to absorb population likely to be displaced.
b. Ambiguity on the definition of small scale industries.
c. Poses a great threat to unorganized retailers, which constitutes 92% of the retail sector.
d. Predatory pricing, monopolistic practices and cartelization.
Now, let us analyse the impact of FDI on the various stakeholders.
Positive Aspects 1. For the Government
Modern trade players are very large tax payers and are tax-compliant. There is certainly going
to be increase in tax receipts . By building effective and sophisticated supply chain, there is going to be a
great impact on the logistics, warehousing and related sectors. This will definitely lead to increase in
direct and indirect tax collections. FDI in retail is expected to generate 16.2 billion USD in the form of
VAT etc by 2021 . According to CRISIL Research Estimate, FDI investment will be between 5 to 6 bn USD
(FICCI) to 10 bn USD over the next five years. Thus FDI in retail will help in improving the balance of
payments (BOP) position, generate employment opportunities, increase in tax collection.
2. For the MSMEs
The interests of the MSMEs have been protected with the clause of 30% sourcing from MSME
mandatory, the Government has tread cautiously, to protect and promote the MSMEs. The presence
of global players is likely to boost exports , through the distribution networks, market position and
brands of the foreign players. This is likely to enhance sourcing and exports from India. Thus, FDI in
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retail provides great export opportunities for the MSMEs. Large volumes can be sourced from MSMEs.
This will have an impact on the manufacturing sector through improvement in quality products being
manufactured to compete with the global brands, innovation, new technology adoption, which will
have a cyclical effect on the economy in terms of employment generation and consequent GDP growth.
3. For the Consumers
Big box retailers will be in a position to offer products at low cost with fabulous discounts, as
they have a well developed supply chain , smart procurement and effective inventory management.
Thus consumers will get products at lower prices, better shopping experience, greater varieties of
products, latest products and designs and quality products.
4. For the farmers
Indian economy is predominantly an agrarian economy . FDI in retail is likely to transform the
lives of whole chains of human beings and the operations of the agricultural sector as a whole. Though
the agricultural marketing dates back to 1928 colonial regulations to protect the poor farmers, yet
agricultural marketing in India has not come a long way. Distribution of food items involves multiple
intermediaries by the time the produce reaches consumer from the farmer. Millions of tons of fresh
fruits and vegetables is wasted due to inadequate post-harvest storage, handling, processing facilities.
Farmers have very little choice but to sell to the traders on the latter s terms. Farmers unjustifiably get‟
very low prices for their produce. Thus, FDI in retail in India will help the farmers in better price
realization due to elimination of intermediaries. It will also educate farmers in improving crop yield and
crop selection as per consumer s requirement. Due to improved supply chain and back-end‟
infrastructure, there is going to be a significant reduction in wastage of tons of agricultural produce.
There is likely to be greater transparency and dissemination of information on food stocks and thus
facilitate planning and preparing for any contingencies.
5. For the Economy/ Society
Supply chain will be a critical factor for the retail. FDI in retail will lead to improvement in
transportation, logistics, warehousing and other allied service sectors and a greater improvement in the
infrastructural facilities in the country. This will be a major employment generation sector. Also, FDI in
retail is likely to provide to better salaries, better work environment and will contribute to increase in
the living standards of the people.
Negative aspects
1. Is FDI a debt inflow or a liability foreign exchange ?
Foreign exchange is either an asset or liability, depending on its repatriability. If it is repatriable
(ie), to be repaid in the form of foreign exchange, it is a liability. The profits or returns will have to be
repatriated in foreign exchange, it is a liability. All the men, material, merchandise imported will have to
be paid in foreign exchange. Also, at the time of winding up, the sale proceeds will flow out of the
country in foreign exchange. Thus, foreign exchange is both a boon and bane. FDI would impact our
already fragile foreign exchange position, with imports gaining ascendancy and the fact that foreign
retail giants view the world as their oyster.
GoravGopalSingh 32 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
2. Impact on small traders
Entry of foreign retailers will to a great extent affect the livelihood of small traders. Experience
with Wal-Mart in the country of its origin shows that, as Walmart s business continued to grow and the‟
stores began to expand, communities lost their local retailers. Small retailers were forced to close their
shutters. The growth of Walmart has resulted in decreased wages, shrinking middle class and increase
in working poor. The savings due to shopping at Walmart cannot compensate for the loss of job
opportunities and income. The need of the hour is to protect the interests of millions of traditional
retailers , whose livelihood depends on this trade. We need to protect, strengthen, modernize
traditional retailers through institutional credit to attain inclusive growth.
3. Impact on the manufacturing sector
Big box retailers,, through their effective supply chain and distribution networks, will import low
cost products, which will have a direct impact on the manufacturing sector. This would result in closure
of industries, loss of jobs and consequent impact on the economy as a whole. Various research articles
suggest that US is being transformed from a technologically advanced manufacturing economy to a
mere consuming economy on account of higher imports. Studies have shown that retail giants like,
Walmart contribute to poverty, which would prove costly for a developing nation like India. Instead of
allowing foreign capital to set up shop in India, we should import technology, if needed and set up the
same industries with domestic capital. This would enable domestic consumers getting the same
products at the same time improving the manufacturing sector and resultant employment generation.
Thus FDI in retail is allowing them to reap profits here and taking them back. Historically, no
country has ever developed on foreign capital. Indigenous mobilization of resources, domestic
technological development and application, support from Government, strategic management were the
important factors in the industrial revolution of various nations. These are lessons India must learn from
developed countries.
4. Impact on the small farmers
Complaints are made by agro- ecologists who observed that farmers working under contract
gain more price security, but forfeit their freedom to make decisions. Another class of bonded labor is
getting evolved. The poultry farmers in the US turned into regimented assembly lines, from being
independent entrepreneurs due to the transformation. This not only undermines the self-esteem of the
farmers but also have a serious impact on the land, resources, soil degradation, as the farmers are
directed to work only for commercial gains, with no long-term consequences in mind.
Also, when contracts are made in advance, market prices will have no relevance. In addition, as FDI
retailers are very keen on size, shape of the farm produce, and farmers are forced to supply as per the
specifications, there is likely to be huge rejections due to stringent quality checks and resultant huge
wastage of farm produce.
GoravGopalSingh 33 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
VI. Conclusion
There are regulatory hitches, high cost of real estate are serious issues the foreign retailers are facing
and cannot be lost sight of. Companies, even with strong lobby teams are wary of red-tapism,
bureaucracy. Also, the FDI policy of allowing the State Governments to decide on the entry, will have
serious consequences with the change in the political climate.
The question here is “Does India need FDI in retail”? The advocates of FDI have probably put too much
emphasis on it. India stands different from other countries. We have a large pool of entrepreneurs,
tech savvy, have access to global technology. Large retail giants due to their huge buying power will
procure cheap goods and import them into the country , which would be an impediment for the growth
of manufacturing sector. Not only will the small traders bring their shutters down but also the
manufacturing industries will have to shut down their business.
For the small and traditional retailers to compete with large retailers and to stay in the business, they
need to change their business model and should embrace technology. They need to leverage the
increasing trend of people opting for credit card payments and ensure safe cashless transactions. To
conclude , whether the entry of FDI in retail in India lead to overall economic development remains to
be seen.
GoravGopalSingh 34 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
CHAPTER 2.2
Economic
Analysis
(SURVEY AND REPORT WRITING )
GoravGopalSingh 35 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
Survey and Report writing
INTRODUCTION
The last two and half decades have seen India open up its economy in a slow but steady fashion to
private as well as foreign investment. The foreign investment is governed through the FDI policy which
regulates industries open to foreign investment, and also the percentage that can be held by the foreign
companies. Globalization and liberalization have immensely influenced the Indian economy and have
gone a long way in making it a lucrative consumer market. The government in a series of moves has
opened up the retail sector slowly to FDI. There were initial reservations towards opening up of retail
sector arising from fear of job losses, procurement from international market, competition and loss of
entrepreneurial opportunities To evaluate the impact of international players on domestic markets, in
1997 FDI in cash and carry (wholesale) outlet was permitted. In 2006, 51 percent investment in a single
brand retail outlet was permitted. Since then retailing through franchisee route has been explored by
several global brands.
Discussions were carried out by the government in 2008 to allow 100 percent FDI in single brand and 51
percent in multi brand retailing, but did not succeed due to fierce opposition from its then allies and Left
(Communist) party and also from the local trade associations. The government has ultimately taken the
bold decision and notified the much-awaited policy allowing 100 % FDI in single brand retail and 51% FDI
in multi brand retail in Nov, 2012 (Table-1)
Table-1 Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Policy
YEAR MILESTONES
1991 Indian economy opened FDI upto 51% under the automatic route in select priority sector
1997 FDI upto 100% allowed under automatic route in cash& carry
2006 FDI upto 51% allowed with prior government approval in single brand retail
2008
Government mulled over the idea of allowing 100%FDI in single brand retail and 50% in multibrand
retail
2010 Government proposing to allow FDI in multiband retailing
2012
Government allowed 100% FDI in Single Brand Retail and 51% FDI in Multi Brand Retail subjected
to prescribed conditions
Source: YES Bank Analysis
GoravGopalSingh 36 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
In view of the above background, My team of MA Economics Semester 1, Students has recently
undertaken a survey to assess the impact of the government’s decision to allow 51% foreign direct
investment (FDI) in multi-brand retail and 100% in single brand retail on
Indian consumer
Employment growth
Productivity of employees working in this sector
GoravGopalSingh 37 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
FDI IMPACT OF RETAILING ON CONSUMER & EMPLOYMENT
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY Likely impact on consumer-
Seventy six percent of consumers were of the view that FDI would increase investment, lead to
improvement of technical expertise, and increase the proliferation of brands, present more choice in
front of the end user. They were also optimistic that FDI in this sector will improve the level of service
and they would be getting maximum value-for-money (VFM).
However, nineteen percent were apprehensive and felt that entry of foreign players would increase
price of products, kill the unorganized retailers as well as organized domestic players. Consequently, it
will lead to unemployment and which in turn will reduce the purchasing power of the consumer. Their
apprehensions are based on the perception that foreign players may use India as a ‘garbage-place’
where they could dump their below standard products. It is worthwhile to note that these 19% of the
sample belonged to lower income group. Five percent were not able to comment of the impact of FDI
on consumers
Graph 1: Impact on Consumer
These findings are supported by the study of Madan, (2012) which says that ultimate beneficiary from
the opening of FDI in retail is consumer. They are left to choose the retail outlet that would give them
goods at lesser price. Further, the impact of multi-brand retail on consumers was found to offer
consumers more selections of goods and services to choose from and at a lower prices and fresher
products (Powell, 2012).
Likely impact on employment
With regards to employment fifty two percent of the respondents were of the opinion that foreign
direct investment would have a positive impact on the employment whereas thirty five percent
expected negative impact on the employment. Approximately, thirteen percent of the respondents
expected no significant change in employment with the opening up of this sector for foreign direct
investment.
GoravGopalSingh 38 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
Graph 2: Impact on Employment
With regard to employment, around 48 percent of the respondents are of the opinion that the decision
would have a positive impact on their employment whereas 35 percent expect no substantial change in
the employment in this sector with opening up of FDI in retail. Around 16 percent expect the impact on
the employment to be negative in this sector. (CII, 2012). The more employment would be created in
the country either directly or indirectly where youth pass out is increasing as much as creation of
employment. It would be generated in the agriculture, manufacturing, service industry which consists of
GDP. The more people get employed would rehabilitate the economic cycle .
Further, the same sentiments were expressed by Rawat (2012) when he said “… foreign investments in
Indian retail sector will ….create new jobs across the country ….”
Likely impact on Productivity
Eighty one percent of employees (from unorganized system and organized sector) were of the view that
their productivity is going to enhance due to better working conditions and increase in competition. Ten
percent had opposite view to it and hold that productivity level decrease. Remaining Nine percent had
expected no change.
Graph 3: Impact on Productivity
GoravGopalSingh 39 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
Reasons for likely increase in productivity
The reasons attributed for the likely increase in productivity were based on the expectations related to
higher salary, lesser working hours and better working conditions and these expectations are based on
present conditions. The employees expect that with the retail sector becoming more organized due to
the advent of foreign direct investment they all would be able to enjoy these benefits resulting in more
job satisfaction and consequently leading to increase in productivity.
Consumer Choice , Graphically Represent
CORN
Total Expenses Mall Wholesaler Retailer
200 150 215
FRUIT
Total
Expenses Mall Wholesaler Retailer
220 200 270
GoravGopalSingh 40 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
SPICE
Total Expenses
Mall Wholesaler Retailer
270 120 290
PULSE
MALL WHOLESALER RETAILER
Total Expenses 450 400 500
GoravGopalSingh 41 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
GoravGopalSingh 42 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
Total Expenses Findings
MALL WHOLESALER RETAILER
Total Expenses CORN 200 150 215
FRUIT 220 200 270
SPICE 270 120 290
PULSE 450 400 500
GoravGopalSingh 43 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
Finding in PIE Chart
MALL WHOLESALER RETAILER
Total Expenses CORN 200 150 215
FRUIT 220 200 270
SPICE 270 120 290
PULSE 450 400 500
GoravGopalSingh 44 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
Sample Survey : FDI in Retail Sector
Consumer Details
Name :
Age:
Income (Monthly) :
Other Details :
Where do consumers purchase form
Mall (Big Bazar , Easy Day , Spencer’s etc ) :
Whole Seller :
Retail :
Any other :
If you purchase from Malls/Wholeseller/ Retail : why do you prefer them ?
Affordable Price :
Good Quality :
Convenience :
According to you , What is the effect of retail chains such as Reliance fresh on Local
Buisnessman and Vendors ?
Employment
GoravGopalSingh 45 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
Sale
Profit
Any other Remarks or Comments ?
GoravGopalSingh 46 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
CHAPTER 3
Bibliography
GoravGopalSingh 47 | Page
FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd
Sem
Bibliography: Sources
[1] DIPP ,Ministry of Industry and Commerce Press Note No. 4, 5 and 6 (2013) series on FDI policy on
single and multi-brand retail
[2] www.thehindu.com/busness/industry/fdi-in-muktibrand retail-with-riders/article 389775.ece
[3] A review of the impact of FDI on Indian Retailing by Dr. SheetalMundraamnd others published in
the International Journal of sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) (2013) Volume 10, No1,
pp 01-18
[4] FDI and unorganized retail sector – a case study by Sameer Ahmad Shalla and others in IOSR
Journal of Business and Management (IOSR_JBM) Vol 8, Issue 3 (Mar-April 201.) pp 01-05
[5] FDI in Indian retail sector: Groundwork for Effective implementation by Roshan Deshpande
http://ssrn.com/abstract 2257227
[6] FDI in India;s retail sector More Bad than Good? By Mohan Guruswamy and others, Centre for
Policy Alternatives, New Delhi www.cpasind.com
[7] Technology to help retailers face FDI in „the hindu business line dated 12.10.2012‟
[8] FDI in retail will benefit all in „the hindu business line dated 9.8.2012‟
[9] FDI in retail is no monster in „the hindu business line dated 25.8.2012‟
[10] FDI in retail? Say a big no in „the hindu dated 2.12.2012‟
[11] Some Websites
a www.YesBank.com , FDI Analysis
b www.RBIBang.org , Primary Data Sources
c www.wikipedia.org , FDI in Indian retail sector
d www.Slideshare.com, A Survey Report on FDI in India, is it boon or bane ?
GoravGopalSingh 48 | Page

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Ecoonomics 2nd sem computer application project.docx

  • 1. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS A Research Report submitted to CCS University Meerut for the partial fulfillment MA degree M.A. ECONOMICS Submitted By : Gorav Gopal Singh RG1501910133 Submitted to: DR. REENA SINGH HOD Department of Economic M.M.H. COLLEGE, GHAZIABAD 2015-2017
  • 2. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Acknowledgement With Regard to this Report , I would like to thank each and every one who offered help, guideline and support whenever required . They have been my consistent source of strength during my M.A. Economics Study. First & Foremost, I would like to thank Associate Professor DR. REENA SINGH for guiding me during the project. Her unquenchable thirst for excellence also taught me immensely about approaching research problems in common. I would also like to thanks my team in this report , Jhui, Deepak , Irfan, Geeta , Fraha, Gunjaan who were always present to help me out whenever I got struck during project completion and keep me motivated to do better. My whole hearted gratitude to My parents for their constant encouragement, love , wishes and support. Above all, I thank Almighty Krishna who bestowed his blessings upon me. This Project wouldn’t have been possible without you all , thank you very much. Gorav Singh M.A. Economics 2nd Sem Roll No. (RG1501910133) FATHER’S NAME – Gopal Singh M.M.H. College, Ghaziabad DATE: GoravGopalSingh 2 | Page
  • 3. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 : COMPUTER APPLICATION 5 COMPUTER AND ITS HISTORY 5 HARDWARE , SOFTWARE AND WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM 12 MS OFFICE & DATA ANALYSIS 23 CHAPTER 2 : ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 27 FDI IN INDIA’S RETAIL - RESEARCH 28 FDI POLICY 29 SURVEY & REPORT WRITING 36 SAMPLE SURVEY AND GRAPHS 44 CHAPTER 3 : BIBLIOGRAPHY 45 SOURCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY 46 GoravGopalSingh 3 | Page
  • 4. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem CHAPTER 1 COMPUTER AND ITS HISTORY GoravGopalSingh 4 | Page
  • 5. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Computer & Its History EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS AND COMPUTER GENERATIONS Computers are electronic device used for calculation and logical operations. It manipulates data according to a set of instructions. The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programmes makes computers extremely versatile, which distinguishing them from calculators. Speed, memory and accuracy are the three major features of the computers. Today’s computers are developed over the past fifty years. In 1900s a series of complex mechanical devices were used to perform the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.(they were constructed from gear wheels, levers, and pulleys). In 1823, Charles Babbage, an English mathematician, designed a mechanical computing machine for automatic computation of mathematical tables. He called this ‘machine difference engine’. This was designed to accommodate sixth-degree polynomials and 20-digit numbers. The only arithmetic operation to be performed was addition. This machine was not completed and the project was abandoned in 1842. Later, many modest difference engines were successively designed and built. In 1834, Charles Babbage thought of a much more powerful mechanical computer. He called it as ‘analytical engine’. This was a general purpose programmable machine. Its components were similar to those of modern computer. It contained the following components. 1) An arithmetic unit called ‘mill’ where calculations were performed. It is capable of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. 2) A memory to store data and intermediate results. It consisted of decimal counting wheels. Its capacity was one thousand 50-digit decimal numbers. 3) A mechanism consisting of gears and shafts to transfer data and results between store (memory) and mill (ALU). It was just like a control unit. 4) Input and output devices. Babbage proposed to supply numerical information either by punched cards or by manually setting counter wheels. It was intended to get the output data either printed on paper or punched on cards. The analytical engine was not completed. Babbage died in 1871. He was the first man to give the concept of programmable machine having components similar to a modern computer, and hence he is called ‘Father of modern computers’. GoravGopalSingh 5 | Page
  • 6. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem In 1890 Herman Hollerith developed Jacquard’s punched cards for the purpose of computation. This invention is known as Hollerith desk. It consist of a card reader which sensed the holes in the cards, a gear driven mechanism which could count and a large wall of dial indicators to display the results of the count. The first electronic computer using vacuum tubes was designed and built in the late 1930s by John V Atanasoff at lowa state University. It was a special purpose computer for solving simultaneous linear equations. It used about 300 valves. In 1943, a much larger electronic computer called ‘Colossus’ was built in England. It was developed for code breaking. COMPUTER GENERATIONS Over the past five decades, digital computers have gone through five generations of development. This division is primarily by the major changes in hardware technology and software. Most features introduced in earlier generations have been passed to the later generations. The latest generation computers have inherited all the good features of computers of the earlier generations. A short description of the various computer generations is given below. First generation (1946-1954) The first generation computers used vacuum tubes as CPU components. The high cost of vacuum tubes prevented their use for main memory, less costly but slower devices such as mercury delay lines were used for memory. Electrostatic (CRT) memories have also been used in the first generation computers. Whirlwind I, a first generation computer, constructed at MIT, was the first computer to use ferrite core memory. Machine language or assembly language (developed in early 50’s) was used for programming. Fixed-point arithmetic was used. Magnetic tape/magnetic drum were used as secondary memory. There was no concept of operating system. Punched cards and paper tape were invented to feed programs and data and to get results. The first electronic digital computer ENIAC (Electronic Numeral Integrator and Calculator)was completed in 1946.It used vacuum tubes as components for CPU and memory. Punched cards were used for data entry and getting results. Separate memories were used for programs and data, which made entering and altering programs an extremely tedious task. John von Neumann proposed ‘stored program concept’ in 1946, according to which programs and data were to be stored in the same high-speed memory. This principle was used in other computers of the first generation. Some other examples of first generation computers are: EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer, 1951), UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer,1951), IBM’s 701 (1953), IBM 704 (1955), etc. Second generation (1955-1964) The second generation computers used transistors in CPU, I/O processors and other electronic components. Transistors was invented in 1948 at AT and T Bell Laboratories and it gradually replaced vacuum tubes in electronic components and devices. The major features are; 1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes. 2) Magnetic ferrite-core memory was used as main memory which is a random access nonvolatile memory. The memory capacity of the 2nd generation computers was 1K bytes. GoravGopalSingh 6 | Page
  • 7. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem 3) Magnetic disk memory was also developed during this period. Magnetic disks and magnetic tapes were used as secondary memory. 4) The high level languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, and ALGOL were developed. 5) Hardware for floating point arithmetic operations was developed. 6) Index registers were introduced which increased flexibility in programming. 7) Punched cards continued during this period also. 8) Eg:-IBM 1620(1960), IBM 7090 (1960),IBM 7094 (1962) Third generation (1965-1974) The development of integrated circuits in CPU, I/O processors and other electronic components was the hallmark of the 3rd generation computers. In the beginning, magnetic core memory was used as main memory. The size on memory was about 4M bytes. Later, semiconductor memories replaced magnetic core memories. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Semiconductor memories used LSI technology. Introduction of microprogramming, parallelism and pipelining were other developments. When a CPU contains more than one functional units and each functional unit performs a part of the disk independently, this technique is called pipelining. The CPU of a multiprocessor system contains more than one processor. In multiprogramming, the computer handles more than one program simultaneously. While executing a program I/O processes are involved. I/O operations are slow process. While I/O operation of one program is being performed, computer takes up another program for execution. When data becomes available, the computer goes back to the previous program. Thus it handles multiple programs simultaneously. In a multiuser system, more than one user work on the different terminals of the computer simultaneously. Examples of third generation computers are: IBM/370 Series (1970), CDC 7600(1969), PDP 11 (1970 16 bit computer), etc. Operating system for multiprogramming, and multiuser systems were developed. Database management, multiuser application, online systems like airline reservation, interactive query system, automatic industrial control, etc. emerged during this period. Fourth generation (1975-present) The 4th generation computers use microprocessor(s) as CPU, memory, I/O processors, supporting chips, controllers, etc. also use ICs (LSI and VLSI chips). The latest microprocessors contain 3 to 20 million transistors. One chip cache memory 8 KB to 64 KB are provided. One chip second level cache 256 KB to 2 MB are provided. The processing speed, packing density GoravGopalSingh 7 | Page
  • 8. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem and integration of many components other than CPU into a microprocessor are increasing day by day. Earlier, cache, MMU (Memory Management Unit), etc. were on separate ICs. Now-adays all such components and CPU are packed into a single IC of the microprocessor. Thousands of integrated circuits were built into a single silicon chip called Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. This technology allowed a complete processor to be fabricated on a single chip known as microprocessor. Examples of microprocessors are Pentium, PowerPC, Alpha, MIPS, SUNSPARC, etc. The operating systems being used are UNIX, WINDOWS, SUN’S Solaries, etc. 4GL Languages like ORACLE, SYBASE, etc. are being used for database management. Expert systems using artificial intelligence have been developed. Today computers are widely used in industrial control, instrumentation, consumer appliances, research work, analysis and design, games, banking services, offices, military equipment, education, communication and so on. Fifth Generation The 5th generation computers are expected in the near future. The main features are;  The computers will use ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration).  The microprocessor will contain first level cache, second level cache, MMU,FPU, multiple pipelines, MMX pipeline, etc.  Microprocessors will use ‘data flow’ architecture in place of von Neumann architecture. In Neumann architecture, instructions are executed in a sequential order. The processor fetches one instruction at a time. If data is available the instruction is executed. If data is not available, the processor waits till data is obtained from the memory. Then it is executed. In ‘data flow’ computer the processor fetches 20 to 30 instructions in advance in sequential manner and puts them in an instruction pool. Now, the processor checks the first instruction. Suppose its data is not available, the processor goes to the 2nd instruction. Suppose the 2nd instruction requires the result of the 1st instruction, then the processor goes to the 3rd instruction. So the instruction is executed. Finally, it again checks up those instructions which were not executed for want of data. When data become available they are executed in the next turn.  Computer will use extensive parallel processing such as pipelining, multiprocessing system, etc.  Natural languages will be used as source languages. ie. Programming will give commands in English or any other language. GoravGopalSingh 8 | Page
  • 9. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem  Intelligent programming will be used. In such a system the programmer will tell the computer what to do, he will not tell how to do. This will be done by the computer. Intelligent software will be used for this purpose.  Artificial intelligence will be used.  Computers will be multimedia, knowledge based systems, and will have improved human-machine interfaces. They will accept spoken commands as well.  Today multimedia computers, microprocessors with data flow design, multiple pipelines, expert systems, special processors for dedicated applications are available. Generally, some features of next generation computers appear in the previous generation. This is the process of technical developments. Some persons put the computers of 1991 onward in the 5th generation. Artificial Intelligence A machine with reasoning, learning and logic capability that resemble those of human being can be said to possess artificial intelligence. Expert systems in use are the examples of artificial intelligence. Artificial system appears to be a mysterious machine. It is, however, an electronic device with no brain. In fact a machine cannot think as we think. It gives its expert opinion based on the information which has already been fed into it. It selects one out of many opinions depending upon input data and information. The selection is based on certain logical functions. The machine is designed to perform on such logical functions. PROLOG and LISP are suitable computer languages for artificial intelligence. The examples of expert systems are medical diagnostic packages, packages for repair and maintenance, training, scientific analysis, engineering design, etc. GoravGopalSingh 9 | Page
  • 10. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS Earlier, computers were classified as Microcomputers, Minicomputers, Mainframes (large computers) and Super computers. This classification is no longer used. Low-cost small digital computers are known as micro computers. Portable computers, personal computers PCs (single-user desktop computers), computers for dedicated applications such as industrial control, instrumentation, appliances control, etc. come under the category of microcomputers. Minicomputers were more powerful than microcomputers. They were multiuser system. Mainframes are very powerful large computers. They are rarely used. They are being replaced by computer network. Examples of some mainframe computers are IBM’s ES2000, ES9000, DEC1000, DECVAX9000, CDC Cyber 2000V. etc. Today computers are classified as notebook computers (laptop computers) Personal Digital Assistant (PDA, also known as Palmtop computer), Desktop computers PCs), workstations, servers, and supercomputers. Laptop or Notebook computers are personal portable computers. Their power supply is from batteries. They can be connected to a computer network. They use 32-bit processor specially designed for them. Desktop Computers Desktop computers are single user PCs. They use 32-bit processors like Pentium III, Celeron, PowerPC, etc. Their RAM capacity is, generally, 16 to 32 MB. They are used at homes, cyber cafes, shopping malls, business institutions, offices, etc. Workstations Workstations are more powerful desktop computers used by engineers, scientists and other professionals. They are used for numeric and graphic intensive applications. They are expensive computers and generally employed to run complex programs and display both work in progress and get results. Their hard disk and RAM capacity is more powerful than desktop computers. When a computer is connected to a network, it becomes a node on the network and is referred to as a workstation. Servers Servers are powerful computers. A number of PCs and terminals are connected to a server through a communicating network. They have large disk and RAM capacity. A low-end server contains one microprocessor whereas a high-end server may contain more than one microprocessor. Supercomputers They are the most powerful computers. They are used for complex computations. They are used for weather forecasting, in aerodynamics, seismology, atomic, nuclear and plasma analysis; for weapons research and development; sending rockets into space, etc. Examples of supercomputers are Cray-1(1976), Cray-2 (1985), Cray X-MP(1983), etc. GoravGopalSingh 10 | Page
  • 11. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Computers can also be classified as Digital computers, Analog computers and Hybrid computers. Digital computers work on the principle of binary mathematics. In binary mathematics all calculations are represented through ‘0’ and ‘1’. They can not only perform mathematical problems but also combine the bytes to produce desired graphics, sounds, images and other such commands. They are the commonly used computers. An analog computer processes analog signals. An analog signal is a continuous quantity. The analog systems carry out arithmetic and logical operations by manipulating and processing data which we input such as the weight, temperature, voltage, power density, etc. Analog computer measures continuous electrical or physical magnitude like voltage, pressure, water flow, etc. The computing units of Analog computers are able to react immediately to changes in the input variables. They can perform very complex arithmetic operations faster with cent percent accuracy. They are used for some specific scientific and engineering purposes. Today these works are done by digital computers. A Hybrid computer system is one in which the characteristics of both digital and analog computers are combined. In a hybrid computer the digital and computers are interconnected in such a way that data can be transferred from digital to analog and vice versa. For example, the heart beating rate of a heart patient can be measured can be measured continuously with the help of analog part of the computer and the statistics relating to these measurement may be highlighted in the form of digits supplied by the digital part of the system. Thus such a hybrid system provides both the flexibility and speed. GoravGopalSingh 11 | Page
  • 12. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Hardware, Software and Windows Operating System Components of Personal Computer Computer technology has undergone profound changes since the first generation computer. The way present day motorcar differs from its original v ersion, the computer we use today is totally different from its first make. There are various types of computers for various purposes, e.g. supercomputers for high level multi-tasking precision jobs. The most commonly used computer nowadays is the Personal Computer. We shall restrict our discussion to the Personal Computer. By size three types of Personal Computers are now available – Desktop, Laptop, and Palmtop or Notepad. By configuration all three are more or less same – they differ only in size and capacity as well as the add-on features. An exploded view of a modern desktop personal computer and peripherals 1. Scanner 2. CPU (Microprocessor)3. Primary storage (RAM) 4. Expansion cards (graphics, etc.) 5. Power supply 6. Optical disc drive 7. Secondary storage (Hard disk) 8. Motherboard 9. Speakers 10. Monitor 11. System software 12.Application software 13. Keyboard 16. Printer 14. Mouse 15.External hard disk Hardware Means the physical parts of the computer, which are mainly of the following types: 1. The Motherboard and the CPU – Processor Memory Chip 2. Input output Device (and their Control Cards) 3. Information Storage Device (and their Control Cards) 4. Other Accessories (optional) Looking at any personal computer system we usually see three things – the Computer inside a cabinet, a Video Monitor, a Key Board, a mouse, and sometimes a Printer. Many other accessories may be fitted to the computer - Joysticks, Light pen, Modem, and even Sound Recorder, Camera, Speaker, Projector, etc. in Multi-media systems. We shall make a brief description of these components. But before that we must note the basic physical configuration of a personal computer system, which consists of three GoravGopalSingh 12 | Page
  • 13. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem stages of operations – input of information, processing of information, and output of the results or processed information. 1. The Motherboard and the Central Processing Unit (CPU) A computer is truly speaking the CPU-base memory chip as the essential function of a computer, that is, processing information is done by it. But it cannot perform alone without input and output devices. In the present architecture of personal computer, the three essential parts of the physical configuration, namely input devices, processor, and output devices, are fitted to a board called the Motherboard. Besides the CPU, the motherboard also has many other slots for fitting extended memory chips, the storage device, control cards, input and output device control cards and their input output por ts (plug in points). All these are assembled and fitted to the motherboard. There is also another part called the SMPS, which transforms the voltage of electrical power supply as per requirement of various control cards. It should be remembered that there is also a small battery fitted to the motherboard which keeps the basic charge necessary for keeping some system information within the CPU -base memory, even when we switch off the power supply. In desktop computer all these are kept inside the Computer Cabinet – now available in the form of Tower Casing for the desktop. Memory of Computer - ROM and RAM : We must not confuse the meaning of the term ‘Memory’ with storage. It is memory that works to process information. The CPU -base memory chip receives electro-magnetic pulses and processes them to generate further electro-magnetic pulses. But for processing the information in the form of electro -magnetic pulses it must have stored within itself some prior information. That is, for example, it must be given prior information about how to recognise the sources (device) and take the input information and also must be given prior information to know GoravGopalSingh 13 | Page
  • 14. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem wh ere to give the output information. These information, called the BIOS or the Basic Input Output System, are written within the CPU-base memory at the time of manufacturing and cannot be erased. There are also other instructions stored which are necessary to optimise the function of the processor by allocating its location spaces for different types of operations. For example cache memory is used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. The cache is a smaller and faster memory which stores copies of the data from the most frequently used main memory locations. Hence, this memory is called the ROM (Read Only Memory), as it cannot be erased. The operation of the computer with simultaneous loading and processing of large volume of data or information, would clearly be restricted if the space of RAM is not sufficient. So, one important factor determining the work efficiency of a computer is its RAM size – how much information it can load at a time. This is called memory usage. Information is measured in unit called Byte. A byte is a formation of 8 bits of binary characters of 0 and 1. Note, in decimal system of measuring size of information 1000 byte =1 kilo byte or 1 KB; 1000 KB = 1 Mega byte or 1 MB; 1000 MB= 1 Giga byte or 1 GB, and so on comes tetra byte, peta byte, and exa byte, etc. However, in binary system used to measure memory, I KB =1024 byte and it proceeds on the base of 1024. The RAM in the form of cards attachable to the specified slots in the motherboard is now available in capacities of 512MB or 1024 MB [usually called 1 GB RAM]. In earlier versions of personal computer, RAM of even 256 KB was sufficient. Nowadays, since many of the software programs being quite large, [which are loaded in RAM during execution] use a lot of memory, and hence a minimum of 1 GB RAM is desirable for ho me computers. 2. Storage Device The computer memory (i.e. brain) must remain free as far as possible for quick processing. So, except some basic information about system configuration, like where from to receive (input) electro-magnetic pulses and where to send (output) the processed results, no other information is stored in the ROM. For storing information, data, program commands for logical operations, etc. many devices are available, which may be attached to the computer motherboard (and from which information can be loaded to RAM and processed as and when required by the CPU). Theses are –The Hard Disk, which is run by a Hard Disk Drive ( HDD), fitted (called mounted) to the motherboard inside the computer cabinet, and hence called non removable disk; the CD or CD and DVD (Optical) Disk Drive fitted with the mo therboard of the computer, where one can insert and remove CD or DVD disks, which are called removable disks, and Pen Drives which are called USB (Universal Serial Bus) mass storage device that can be attached to and removed from the USB ports of the mothe rboard. Earlier we used to have the Floppy Diskettes, which may be inserted to the Floppy Diskette Drive (FDD) for reading and writing of information. Usual size of Hard Disks now available ranges from 80 GB and above; the CD has capacity of 720 MB, DVD h as 4 GB and PEN Drives have capacity from 2 GB to 16 GB. The storage devices allow us to write data on it as well as erase data from it repeatedly (except for CDs and DVDs which are not re -writeable or RW) 3. Input Output Device GoravGopalSingh 14 | Page
  • 15. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem We have discussed the memory of the computer, which works with information, and the device to store information. Now these information are to be fed to the computer (Input) and also, we are to get the processed information or result (output). The primary input device is the Keyboard. It is attached to the computer through a cord in the specific port provided in the motherboard. Whenever you press any key of the keyboard and then press the Enter key an input, correct or incorrect, goes to the computer CPU. However, there are many ot her input devices – e.g. the computer can read input from the Hard disk, CD/DVD or Floppy Diskettes, Modem, Mouse, Joystick, etc. Again one computer can give input/output to another if they are connected through a ventral computer (called server) as done in LAN (Local Area Network) or by other types of networking. All these input devices, except the Keyboard, can act also as the output device to receive the results. However, the Touch-Screen Keyboard acts as both input and output device. Amongst the output devices we have two specific instruments – one is the Video Monitor, which constantly displays the results of processed input in the screen to monitor you through your work. It also helps you see the command, or data inputs you are giving to the computer, but not all. The other is the printer, which prints the results in paper, if you give command to the computer to do so. 4. Other Accessories and Ports There are many other accessories (peripherals), which can be fitted to the computer. A Mouse helps you giving inputs (commands) without the keyboard in quick and easy way just by clicking mouse button, provided you are using a mouse compatible menu driven program. A modem (sound frequency modulator and demodulator) can translate sounds into electro magnetic pulses and the vice-versa. Personal computers also have a small speaker built in the computer cabinet, which can generate sounds. Cameras, Sound Recorders and Players as well as Projector to project images, Scanner to read images can also be fitted to personal computers. For fitting all these devices, there are external ports of the motherboard, which you may see at the back of the computer cabinet as well as a few at the front. These ports are of several types – most common nowadays are USB ports. The others are serial Com (communication) ports (say for fitting a PS/2 mouse or a keyboard), or LPT (line printer) ports used in earlier computers for fitting the dot-matrix line printers. There are also ports for connecting the speakers/recorders, telephone lines or network cables. GoravGopalSingh 15 | Page
  • 16. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Software These are the structured information and commands, which can be fed into the computer, usually through the internal Hard Disk or External disks. There are various types of software, which may be classified as follows: 1. Disk Operating System Software 2. Language Software 3. Application Software 4. Utility Software It should be noted that these software are to be made according to the functions we desire the computer to perform. The basic of all these is the Operating System Software. Note that the computer can only recognise electro-magnetic pulses in two binary states, 0 and 1. Therefore, all information should be expressed in terms of combinations 0 and 1 so as to make them understandable to computer, which is called Machine Level Language. This will be almost practically impossible. So, for writing programmes a unified system of codification is followed to represent our alphabets and numbers –- this is known as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). The binary and hexadecimal equivalent of the ASCII codes are converted following the codification into machine-level language recognisable by the computer. There is another system of codification known as Unicode system. 1.Disk Operating System Software As mentioned earlier, after ROM Booting the CPU of personal computer searches for Hard Disk or CD in respective drives in sequence for the Operating System to be installed in its RAM. The operating system is to be provided by either of these two disks, and hence it is called the Disk Operating System (DOS). From this DOS software the CPU reads and loads into its memory the basic commands of the operating system. Then with its help it knows what to do with the commands (as defined under DOS) you enter them. It also knows how to execute commands written in the application programmes, which we may run. There are various types of DOS software –- most common is the Microsoft DOS known as MS -DOS. Others are Linux, Macintosh, etc. We shall restrict ourselves to MS -DOS environment only. Nowadays you don’t have to learn DOS commands to operate the compute r. Almost all the commands, like, open, run, close, exit, copy (read), paste (write), delete, etc., which you would usually require to give, now come under Microsoft DOS Windows as Menu Driven with Icons and Menus displayed in window screens in the Monitor. These you may select by single mouse click or select and run by double mouse click in quick succession. GoravGopalSingh 16 | Page
  • 17. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Note that the operating system software provides only the basic operational rules for working and also optimising the functions and the overall system management. With it you can define and operate the machine, but really cannot do any other jobs that are to be done by application programme within the environment of the operating system. Hence, remember, an application program or software that runs under one DOS may not run under another DOS as such. DOS Booting: As mentioned earlier, when you switch on the computer, after the ROM Booting, the computer CPU searches for an operating system. If any operating system is present in the Hard Disk or in a CD in CD drive, the CPU will automatically read it and load it into its RAM memory and keep it resident there. This is called System Booting. Note that every time you switch on the computer there will be Booting in two steps –- ROM Booting and then Operating System Booting. Only after this is completed you can start working with your PC. The DOS (Windows) Operation Instructions Switching On and Turning Off: Switching on is quite simple. In the front of desktop computer cabinet, the power on button (also a smaller button for restart) is there. After it is switched on and comes to the beginning stage, when the operating system is loaded properly, the monitor screen will display the initial Windows display screen, as one shown above. Beginner should study carefully note this screen. First thing every beginner must learn is how to switch off [Shut down] the computer. At the lower left corner of the Monitor display screen, there is the Start Button displayed. On placing the mouse cursor there and clicking the mous e, one will see the Turn Off Menu. Just select and click Shut Down from the menu. [You can also do this using keyboard cursor keys (arrow marked) and Tab key and pressing Enter key]. After working, the computer must always be properly shut down by selectin g and clicking Turn Off. If for some reason the computer hangs, press for once the keyboard keys CTRL+Alt+Del together to evoke the Task Manger to end the current task. In case even this fails, keep the Computer Power button pressed for sometime, till the computer is switched off. Never forget to finally Switch Off also the UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply). Program Icons: In Windows operating system, Icons shown on the monitor screen represent the programs or features that are stored in the computer hard d isk. But all are usually not shown on the screen, as that would make the screen clumsy. We keep only those, which are most frequently used. Other programmes, features, documents etc. may be found in their respective locations (folders and files), which we will discuss later. Mouse Operation: Beginners using computer for the first time should practice using the mouse – moving the mouse to move the cursor as shown in the monitor screen and placing it on icons and then clicking the left button of the mouse to select the icon [on clicking the icon would become highlighted]. Double clicking the left mouse button would open the program or feature. Just double click an Icon, or select one through the Start Menu and click open it. Exit or Quitting a Program: Next, beginners should note how to close and exit from the programme or feature, once loaded, and come back to the initial screen once again. Usually in all menu-driven programs and operational features, at the top left corner there is X mark GoravGopalSingh 17 | Page
  • 18. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem button. Placing the cursor there and clicking the left mouse button will close the program or the feature. Alternatively, from the top Menu-Bar, the File Menu may be clicked and the submenu under File menu will show the Exit button, which may be clicked to exit the prog ram. [Using keyboard also you can do this by pressing Alt+F, as may be defined in the program] File Management Operations of Copy, Paste, Delete, Rename, etc. : One of the principal functions of the operating system is file management – that is, sorting, arranging, and storing information in specified locations in the storage devices like hard disk, CD, Pen Drive, as well sending information to other devices like Printer, Sound Speakers, etc. This we will discuss later, under the section on information management. 2. Language Software Next in the hierarchy is the language software like BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, C+, C++, Java, etc. in the MS-DOS environment. Once the operating system is loaded into its memory (called resident), the CPU can now recog nise and load further into its memory the language software when you put these either in the CD/DVD or in the HDD and run them by entering the necessary command to the computer using your keyboard. These language software are nothing but a group of structured commands to design some logical operations, as may be desired –- e.g. such simple commands may be, “if so then do this”, “Go To”, “If Then”, etc. The language software is used to write the desired application programs. Earlier, one has to write these programs and use every time the Language Interpreter to run the program, which translates the programme language into machine level language recognisable by the computer. Now, with each language program, we have the Compiler, which transforms the program written into the machine level language. 3. Application Software The application packages are structured programs (commands) to do some specific common operations. For example, writing and printing it (as you used to do with typewriters) is one such common operation. Therefore, for doing this job, various application software are made e.g. WordStar, Word Perfect, MS- Word, Pagemaker, Ventura etc. These are called Editor programs. Similarly, drawing and painting software are there – Autocad, AutoSketch, MSDraw, Coreldraw, Paintbrush, etc. There are series of software specifically used in various disciplines –- perhaps in all disciplines and spheres of work. In social sciences the most widely used application software, besides the Editor software, are fo r the Database, and Spreadsheet. Database software does huge database management more quickly and efficiently, e.g. –- sorting, selecting, grouping, arranging, querying etc. of data as may be needed. Spreadsheet or Worksheet does all numerical and algebrai c operations with large volume of data and also does some statistical analysis. For statistical and econometric analysis of data there are several application software, like EVIEW, ASP, SPSS, MATLAB, TSP, etc. 4. Utility Software Besides the application software, there are some other software which may be grouped as utility software. These help us locating faults and errors, as may occur in the operating system, as well as fixing them. Most common are – compressing and decompressing, System Registry Cleaning, Drive Imaging for Restoration, Back-up, Disk Cleaning and Defragmenting, etc. There are also some disutility software prepared and circulated. These are the Virus software, e.g. Trojan, Dark Avenger, Friday, Jerusalem, GoravGopalSingh 18 | Page
  • 19. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Joshi. Stone, etc., There are also harmful Worms and spyware and malware software that work in a different manner. There is now thousands such known software in circulation. And once again we have their respective anti-virus software in the group of utility software –- e.g. Quick Heal, NOD32, Kaspersky, etc, prepared and marketed by software-makers. MS -DOS Windows – Basic Operations 1. File Management Operations As we have mentioned earlier, one of the principal functions of operating system is File Management Operations of creating Folders and Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete, Rename, of files and folders, and running various application programmes. The other functions include installing devices, e.g., Printer, Network, and application programs; Configuring the system with devices and software by initialising in System Registry; and System Mainte nance, like formatting disk, disk cleaning by deleting unnecessary files, re -arranging the files stored in hard disk in a scattered manner (fragmented) to optimise the space allocations and thereby operation, etc. There are also functions like creating Fil e Back-ups and System Restore through disk imaging. Let us first familiarize with the Windows Menu. The Desktop Icons (also called shortcuts) shown in the first display screen are created and kept for only the most frequently used programs or files. To view all other programs and features as kept under various groups, click the Start button to see the Menu. Depending upon what are stored in your computer you will see a screen like above, as you select the Program group, and then keep the mouse cursor over Microsoft Word programt. If you want to run the program, Microsoft Word, now just click it or press Enter key in the Keyboard. We have already discussed earlier how to quit a program and come back to the initial screen to shut down the computer. GoravGopalSingh 19 | Page
  • 20. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem For the purpose of File Management, one of the built -in programs in Operating System is My Computer (or Windows Explorer), which allows you to view the files and folders in various locations, and cut, copy, paste, them from one location to anoth er as well as delete or rename them. The icon for My Computer is shown on the desktop. If you double click it to open, you may see a screen like the one shown below (using Folders view). Carefully study this display. In our example, there are three Local Disks (C:, D:, and E:) partitioning a 40 GB Hard Disk, one 3½ Floppy Drive, a DVD Disk (labelled Jun 2009) as F:, and a Pendrive (Kingston make) as G:. On the left side theses are shown as Folders. You can select any one and open it by clicking. Also notice the Address Bar that shows the current folder and note the use of up arrow and back arrow for navigation to higher level or to the previous selection. The horizontal and vertical scroll bars navigate through the display window. 2. Operating Systems Maintenance For smooth trouble free as well as faster operations, some basic system maintenance principles will have to be followed by every user. Moreover e very operating system might crash at some point, or become slower. System maintenance, if properly followed, would help restoring the system, and if not the system, at least recovering the important data. Some of the practices to be followed are discussed below. First of all, note that the operating systems are installed for running the hardware of the computers in two forms – first is the Motherboard Driver files that are required to configure particularly the Graphic Display and the Sound Systems. In ass embled computers, where the motherboard is purchased separately, these driver files in a CD are supplied by the manufacturer with the motherboard. At the time of initial installation, these driver files are installed in the hard disk. This CD must be properly preserved for future use, if you require formatting your hard disk for, say, removing virus in your system. In case of branded computers of companies, these motherboard driver files are not supplied. At the most, they provide an image of the operating system created and kept in some partition of the hard disk and supply a restoration disk. But often this might not work properly. So in such case, it is better to GoravGopalSingh 20 | Page
  • 21. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem get the particular motherboard driver files downloaded from Internet websites, if you know specification of your motherboard, and preserve them in a CD. Next, you would require preserving your Operating System Software Disk, as well as all the other program installation disk, hardware installation (like Printer, Scanner, Camera etc.) disk, as you may require them in future if you need formatting your hard disk. You may ask why every operating system might crash at some point, or become slower after some time. For this purpose some idea is needed about how the operating system works. The operating system needs to load and handle hundreds of files relating to hardware drives, resident program as well the configuration information. Such information are stored and loaded every time from what is called System Registry. Do not confuse this with registration of your program copy with the manufacturer for license. Every time you install a new program, or a new hardware, it is configured with initialization entry in the System Registry. Following the entries in the System Registry, various processes are loaded in the memory and put under running status at the background. [To see this, press CTRL+ALT+Del key to evoke Task Manager and click the Processes button. But do not change anything .] Now as you go on installing new programs the System Registry goes on increasing. Even if you uninstall some program, the entries in the system registry remain. Ultimately the System Registry becomes quite clumsy with unnecessary entries, which might also get mixed -up. Moreover, virus attack is inevitable these days as there cannot be full protection. Some virus creates system registry entries along with creating a system file, which are very difficult to remove, since even if you could locate the virus file, you would not be able to delete it being already loaded as a runnin g process. Software professionals may help you cleaning the system registry by running some Registry Cleaning software, but that is not absolutely safe. [ If you wish to view how complicated and long the System Registry could be, select the “run” command fr om the Start Menu and type “regedit” and click Ok. Registry Editor will start. Just scroll through to view, do not change any entry]. For system maintenance, if you wish to uninstall a program always use uninstall menu of the program, if there. If it is not there, remove the program through the Control Panel menu of Add or Remove Program. Control Panel is an important menu for system management. The Add or Remove Program under Control Panel will show the installed programs. Try to remove those, which you do not use frequently or are not essential, as too many programs would make the computer slower. Another reason that makes the computer slow is the temporary files. In course of work, several temporary files would be created under the Temp Folder, which s hould be deleted from time to time. There will also be temporary Internet files and cookies if you work with Internet. These will also be required to be deleted. One easy way is to use the Disk Clean up under the Systems Tools that may be found under the P rogram Accessory group. After Disk Cleaning, it is advisable to run Disk Defragmenter. Defragmenter also improves operation speed buy quicker access to the properly arranged files in the hard disk. Disk Clean up and Defragmenter should be used after some prolonged use, say after every one or two months depending upon the usage. For ensuring faster operations, you should reduce the number of resident programmes as much as possible. Finally, it is desirable to have disk partitioned and saving all your work a nd data files, as well as program installation files and driver files, not in the Primary Active Partition (C:) but in other Logical Disk created in Extended Partition. Note that files created under programs are saved by default usually in the My Document folder, if you do not specify other location (folder) for saving. So create your work folders in GoravGopalSingh 21 | Page
  • 22. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem local disk other than C:, and every time you save your files only there. Then take frequent Back-up of your files in CD/DVD. 3. Protection from Virus, W orms, Threads and Internet Malware, Spyware etc. This happens to be the mist difficult part. There are a number of software now available in the market for this purpose. But none is full proof as new and new virus, worms etc., continues to arrive almost everyday and you become exposed to threats, especially through the use of Internet. The supplier of the protection software is supposed to keep on updating the virus database and you can get this update through Internet for only the period of licence of the product you purchased and installed. After expiry you have to buy another or pay for renewal. However, such updates at times do not work and your computer might become infected by some nasty virus. Yet, it is recommended that virus protection software should be installed. Now the question remains, how to get a full-proof protection. We have mentioned earlier that whether by virus infection or not, your system has always a possibility of crash or slowing down significantly with erratic behaviour. The only way o ut from such situation that works quickly is to use a Disk Imaging and Recovery Software, to keep an image of your active primary partition in some other drive (D: or E:), immediately after you have completed initially your system configuration with all the installed device and software you use. The image file created should never be deleted. In case of trouble, you can Cold Boot the system through CD drive and restore you active primary partition C:, using this software. This will bring system back to its original position as if nothing has happened. But note that if you have saved anything in C:, after initial configuration, would be lost. But this will also not work if your hard disk partition information is lost. GoravGopalSingh 22 | Page
  • 23. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem MSOffice Microsoft office is a group of application programs containing four programs, namely – Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Power Point and Microsoft Access. These four programs help us perform almost everything we need to do in everyday office work. Word is a program with which we can write and print documents, like letters, reports, research papers, chapters of books, with texts, tables and charts or graphs inset within text. Excel helps us in numerical calculation with a huge volume of data on worksheets, creation of tables, creation of charts and diagrams as well as some performing statistical analysis of data. Power Point is for presentation by using projection of slides, which may be used in any discussion, semina r, lecture, etc. This program helps us preparing the slides containing texts, pictures, charts, tables, as well as some animated objects. Access is for database management for searching and querying and some processing of data, as for example you may buil d an access application for library database. Learning all the features of each would not be required, since the special features may be learnt as and when required taking help from the Help Menu in each program. But the beginners should familiarise themse lves with basic operational functions. The operation for creating a file, opening an existing file, and saving the file currently loaded (while working), is more or less same in all the four programs. For creating a new file, first start the program, and then from the File Menu in the top Menu Bar, select New. For saving a loaded file, just click the Save Button in the Standard Toolbar below the Menu Bar. If you wish to save the file, after doing some work, under a different name or under a different folde r in other Hard Disk or in Pendrive (Note you cannot save a file this way in CD or DVD which are optical disks), click open the File Menu and select Save As. You will be prompted to select the location and give a filename. This will be a new updated copy a nd the original file will remain unchanged. MS Word A. Page Layout Selecting Paper size – A4, Letter etc.; Layout – portrait or landscape, section, header footer same or different in odd and even, vertical alignment top, centre o r bottom; Margins – top, bottom, left, right, gutter for binding, header, footer, mirror margin option. B. Paragraph Style Font and Font size – title, heading, body text, normal; Alignment – left, centre, right; line spacing – single, 1.5, double; space before and after paragraph. C. Table Creation and Formatting Inserting and deleting tables, rows and columns; resizing rows and columns, merging and splitting cells and tables; table properties for alignments and size of table, rows, columns, and cells. D. Formatting Bold, Underline, Italics, superscript, subscript, endnotes and footnotes; Bullets and numbering; borders and shading; Tab types and positions; vertical and horizontal ruler to measure positions; Indenting left, right and first line. GoravGopalSingh 23 | Page
  • 24. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem E. Editing Find and Replace; Grammar and Spell Check; Go to page; splitting word window to view two different pages simultaneously; cut copy and paste, undo operations, repeat last operation (F4 key); F. Inserting Page break, section break, Page numbers, symbols; copy past e Excel tables; copy paste pictures, and charts, draw word object; format picture; positioning and wrapping objects in page. G. Printing Checking Print Preview before printing; print selection, current page or pages from to, copies to print, print order odd and even. MS PowerPoint H. Creating New Presentation Blank presentation or using design template; Setting layout by Slide Master View; selecting slide background for title slide and text slides; Inserting slides, I. Formatting and Inserting Inserting and deleting slides, inserting slide numbers, date; Font and font size, Bullets and numbering, alignments, inserting Text Box, Inserting Microsoft Word Table as Picture and editing Word Table; Insert Movies and sounds; J. Slide Show View slide show, slide navigation forward and backward, animating slide show K. Printing Printing matters in Slides – Send to Word and Print Outline only. MS Access L. Concept of Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) The art of breaking down a large data table into smaller tables with fields and uniquely relating the tables through primary fields; M. Creating Tables Creating data tables of the database – Table design with fields (column names) and setting data type and properties; Setting one Primary K ey Field or multiple Primary Key Fields; saving table; preview table; Establishing unique relationships among tables; types of relationships – one to infinity; one to one; Edit relationships – set referential integrity. N. Designing Queries based on Tables Designing simple query – new query, show tables and add tables; select query fields, set query criterion; parameter query; save query (query name); datasheet view of query results O. Designing Forms based on Tables and queries GoravGopalSingh 24 | Page
  • 25. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Form Wizards for creating Tabular Forms, Columnar Forms; Data Entry Forms, Tab stops and Tab order; field properties; printing Customised Billing Forms; single view and continuous view; preview of forms; sub-forms; forms as switch for entering parameter value of query criterion; save form (Form name) P. Designing Reports Designing Reports of data – Report Header, Footer, Page Header, Data Details, Field Lists, Text box bound to fields, Labels; Text Box properties; various types of Reports MS Excel Microsoft Office Excel provides powerful tools and features that a user can use to analyze, share and manage data with ease. As a spreadsheet it is widely used for data analysis. A spreadsheet is a large sheet of paper which contains rows and columns. The intersection of rows and columns is termed as a ‘cell’. To enable us to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets, MS Excel 2007 version supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet. MS Excel is used to prepare databases, to make charts and diagrams and for doing various mathematical and statistical operations. It s to be noted that any mathematical operation should begin with the sign ‘=’ or ‘+’ under Excel. Work Books A file in Microsoft Excel is called a work book. A work book is organized in various worksheets. Thus a work book is a collection of work sheet used in a single file. Worksheet A worksheet is a table like document containing rows and columns with data and formula. When MS Excel is opened, it starts with three worksheets. MS Excel can handle with the following calculation and logical operators. Excel tool bars The major tool bars in MS Excel are The micro soft office button, the ribbon, the title bar, quick access tool bar, the cell address bar, formula bar and scroll bar. These tool bars helps for better editing and modification of the worksheet. Application of MS Excel in Economics MS Excel has wide applications in Economics. Economics is a social science which deals with human wants and their satisfaction. The theories of economics like producer’s behavior and consumer’s behavior can be better explained with the help of computer software especially with MS Excel. For example, the theory of law of demand states the inverse relationship between the price of the commodity and quantity demanded. GoravGopalSingh 25 | Page
  • 26. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem MS Excel can be effectively used to state the law of demand. After stating the law a demand schedule and the demand curve can be inserted as cited below. The Law of Demand The law of demand states that “other things remains the same, there is inverse relationship between the price of the commodity and quantity demanded”. That is when the price increases the quantity demanded falls and when the price falls the quantity demanded increases. This is shown in the following demand schedule and the demand curve. Demand Schedule Price of the commodity Quantity demanded 2 10 3 8 4 6 5 4 The above demand schedule and demand curve are drawn by using the excel facility. Similarly, MS Excel provides facility to do mathematical and statistical operations. By using these facilities various calculations can be done. Different types of charts can also be used for better explaining the concepts and laws of economics. GoravGopalSingh 26 | Page
  • 27. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem CHAPTER 2 Economic Analysis (FDI IN INDIA’S RETAIL , SURVEY AND REPORT WRITING ) GoravGopalSingh 27 | Page
  • 28. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem FDI in India’s Retail Abstract: The retail industry in India is being hailed as one of the sunrise sectors in the economy. According to AT Kearney, international management consultancy identified India as the “second most attractive retail destination” .According to Deloitte report Jan 2013, The Indian retail industry is expected to be around 850 billion USD by 2015 and is expected to be over 1.3 trillion USD by 2020. The share of organized retail is estimated to be 20% by 2020. The recent wave of reforms by the Government of India to intensify FDI in retail has brought about a new outlook on the business climate in India. This paper attempts to outline the government s policy on FDI in retailing and tries to examine‟ its pros b cons while examining the voices of small retailers on the government s decision. This paper‟ is based on the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP, Government of India, Ministry of Commerce & Industry s) Press Note on the „guidelines and policy as to FDI in Single brand and multi‟ brand retail, various journals, relevant news articles and opinion of experts and press reports in The‟ Hindu Business Line . This paper analyses the issues involved in effective implementation of the policy.‟ A SWOT analysis has been made on the FDI policy. Key words: FDI , retail, policy I. Introduction World Bank has defined FDI as “Foreign direct investment (FDI) or foreign investment can refer to the net inflow of funds to acquire a long-term management interest in an enterprise operating in a foreign economy. It is the accumulation of equity, re-investment of retained earnings , other long-term sources of capital and short-term funds as presented in the balance of payments”. FDI plays a very vital role in India s growth and development. FDI to a great extent aids in expansion of markets, reducing‟ costs through improved supply chains and would be a catalyst in the economic development. This paper brings forth the FDI policy in retail in India and analyses the issues, challenges , opportunities and threat that it poses and the impact it has on the small retailers. Objectives Of The Study 1. The main objective of the study is to analyse the FDI policy 2. The strength, weaknesses, threats and opportunities of FDI 3. To study the issues and challenges involved in implementation of the FDI policy 4. The impact of FDI on small retailer II. Research Methodology This paper is based on the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) , Government of India, press noteon the „guidelines and policy as to FDI in Single brand and multi brand retail, various journals, relevant news articles and opinion of experts and press reports in The Hindu Business Line .‟ ‟ GoravGopalSingh 28 | Page
  • 29. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem III. Indian Retail Sector – An Over View The Indian retail sector is fragmented, consisting of small independent owner managed shops, accounting for 92% of the retail sector and the remaining 8% constitutes the organized sector. Rising disposable incomes, urbanization, dominance of younger generation in spending, nuclear families, advancement in science and technology (ICT) are various factors contributing to the growth of retail in India. The organized retail is poised to grow at the rate of 20% by 2020. The policies of the Government of India , namely FDI in single brand and Multi-brand retail have opened up the gates for foreign investment in retail in India. IV. FDI Policy FDI was initiated around the year 2005 by the Government of India, though the liberalization and globalization started in 1990s. Initially GOI had allowed 100% investment in the cash and carry or wholesale trading. The single brand retailing in 2006 was initially restricted to 51% but later it was enhanced to 100% subject to 30% sourcing from within India. Currently, the Committee of Secretaries ( COS) has given nod to 51% investment in multi-brand retail , but with stringent conditions like mandatory investment of at least 50% in the back- end infrastructure , minimum sales of 30% to come from small traders and 30% mandatory sourcing from micro, small and medium enterprises. but it is left to the discretion of the State Governments to implement it in the respective states of India. The Ministry of Commerce and Industry, GOI is the nodal agency for reviewing the FDI policy on continued basis and changes in sectoral policy or sectoral equity cap. The FDI policy is notified through press notes by the secretariat for Industrial Assistance (SIA) , DIPP. The salient features are: 1. India will allow FDI upto 51% in multi-brand retail. 2. Single brand retailers can own 100% of their Indian stores. 3. FDI upto 100% for cash and cary wholesale trading and export trading allowed under the automatic route. 4. Both single and MBR will have to source at least 30% of their goods from small and medium sized Indian suppliers. 5. MBR ( Multi brand retailers) must bring minimum investment of USD 100m. % of which must be invested in back-end infrastructure such as cold chains, transportation, packaging etc to reduce remunerative prices to farmers and also to reduce post-harvest losses. 6. The opening of retail competition (policy) is left with the State Governments of the respective states. 7. All retail stores can open up their operations in cities having population of over 1 million. PERCEPTION OF SMALL RETAILERS ON THE NEW FDI POLICY IN RETAILING IN INDIA GoravGopalSingh 29 | Page
  • 30. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem The proposal of GOI to allow 51% FDI in MBR comes with riders. a. Approval should be taken from the FIPB( Foreign Investment Promotion Board) for investments. b. The policy also states that fresh agricultural produce including fruits, vegetables, flowers, grains, pulses, fresh poultry, fishery and meat products may be unbranded. Small and medium units for FDI means units which have a total plant and machinery investment not exceeding Rs. 1.25 crores. This investment refers to the value at the time of installation, without providing for depreciation. The foreign retail chains will be required to comply with self-certification. They have to keep all records and the government will have the first right to procure agricultural produce. GoravGopalSingh 30 | Page
  • 31. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem V. SWOT Analysis Of The FDI Policy In Retail 1. Strengths a. Effective control of wastage of farm produce b. Flow of foreign exchange into the country c. Generates revenue through tax d. Variety to consumers 2. Weaknesses a. State Governments to decide on implementation of FDI b. Relaxation of mandatory local sourcing criteria in case of FDI in single brand retail. c. Investment in back-end infrastructure not including costs of land etc. 3. Opportunities a. FDI in retail will drive consumption and provide capital to the retail sector. b. Small manufacturers can expand their business operations. c. Elimination of middle men , greater transparency and direct procurement from farmers is likely to benefit farmers to a great extent. d. New technology, improvement in supply chains, packaging, storing is expected to greatly reduce wastages. e. Brings in best management practices and training to youth. 4. Threats a. Manufacturing sector at its low, unprepared to absorb population likely to be displaced. b. Ambiguity on the definition of small scale industries. c. Poses a great threat to unorganized retailers, which constitutes 92% of the retail sector. d. Predatory pricing, monopolistic practices and cartelization. Now, let us analyse the impact of FDI on the various stakeholders. Positive Aspects 1. For the Government Modern trade players are very large tax payers and are tax-compliant. There is certainly going to be increase in tax receipts . By building effective and sophisticated supply chain, there is going to be a great impact on the logistics, warehousing and related sectors. This will definitely lead to increase in direct and indirect tax collections. FDI in retail is expected to generate 16.2 billion USD in the form of VAT etc by 2021 . According to CRISIL Research Estimate, FDI investment will be between 5 to 6 bn USD (FICCI) to 10 bn USD over the next five years. Thus FDI in retail will help in improving the balance of payments (BOP) position, generate employment opportunities, increase in tax collection. 2. For the MSMEs The interests of the MSMEs have been protected with the clause of 30% sourcing from MSME mandatory, the Government has tread cautiously, to protect and promote the MSMEs. The presence of global players is likely to boost exports , through the distribution networks, market position and brands of the foreign players. This is likely to enhance sourcing and exports from India. Thus, FDI in GoravGopalSingh 31 | Page
  • 32. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem retail provides great export opportunities for the MSMEs. Large volumes can be sourced from MSMEs. This will have an impact on the manufacturing sector through improvement in quality products being manufactured to compete with the global brands, innovation, new technology adoption, which will have a cyclical effect on the economy in terms of employment generation and consequent GDP growth. 3. For the Consumers Big box retailers will be in a position to offer products at low cost with fabulous discounts, as they have a well developed supply chain , smart procurement and effective inventory management. Thus consumers will get products at lower prices, better shopping experience, greater varieties of products, latest products and designs and quality products. 4. For the farmers Indian economy is predominantly an agrarian economy . FDI in retail is likely to transform the lives of whole chains of human beings and the operations of the agricultural sector as a whole. Though the agricultural marketing dates back to 1928 colonial regulations to protect the poor farmers, yet agricultural marketing in India has not come a long way. Distribution of food items involves multiple intermediaries by the time the produce reaches consumer from the farmer. Millions of tons of fresh fruits and vegetables is wasted due to inadequate post-harvest storage, handling, processing facilities. Farmers have very little choice but to sell to the traders on the latter s terms. Farmers unjustifiably get‟ very low prices for their produce. Thus, FDI in retail in India will help the farmers in better price realization due to elimination of intermediaries. It will also educate farmers in improving crop yield and crop selection as per consumer s requirement. Due to improved supply chain and back-end‟ infrastructure, there is going to be a significant reduction in wastage of tons of agricultural produce. There is likely to be greater transparency and dissemination of information on food stocks and thus facilitate planning and preparing for any contingencies. 5. For the Economy/ Society Supply chain will be a critical factor for the retail. FDI in retail will lead to improvement in transportation, logistics, warehousing and other allied service sectors and a greater improvement in the infrastructural facilities in the country. This will be a major employment generation sector. Also, FDI in retail is likely to provide to better salaries, better work environment and will contribute to increase in the living standards of the people. Negative aspects 1. Is FDI a debt inflow or a liability foreign exchange ? Foreign exchange is either an asset or liability, depending on its repatriability. If it is repatriable (ie), to be repaid in the form of foreign exchange, it is a liability. The profits or returns will have to be repatriated in foreign exchange, it is a liability. All the men, material, merchandise imported will have to be paid in foreign exchange. Also, at the time of winding up, the sale proceeds will flow out of the country in foreign exchange. Thus, foreign exchange is both a boon and bane. FDI would impact our already fragile foreign exchange position, with imports gaining ascendancy and the fact that foreign retail giants view the world as their oyster. GoravGopalSingh 32 | Page
  • 33. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem 2. Impact on small traders Entry of foreign retailers will to a great extent affect the livelihood of small traders. Experience with Wal-Mart in the country of its origin shows that, as Walmart s business continued to grow and the‟ stores began to expand, communities lost their local retailers. Small retailers were forced to close their shutters. The growth of Walmart has resulted in decreased wages, shrinking middle class and increase in working poor. The savings due to shopping at Walmart cannot compensate for the loss of job opportunities and income. The need of the hour is to protect the interests of millions of traditional retailers , whose livelihood depends on this trade. We need to protect, strengthen, modernize traditional retailers through institutional credit to attain inclusive growth. 3. Impact on the manufacturing sector Big box retailers,, through their effective supply chain and distribution networks, will import low cost products, which will have a direct impact on the manufacturing sector. This would result in closure of industries, loss of jobs and consequent impact on the economy as a whole. Various research articles suggest that US is being transformed from a technologically advanced manufacturing economy to a mere consuming economy on account of higher imports. Studies have shown that retail giants like, Walmart contribute to poverty, which would prove costly for a developing nation like India. Instead of allowing foreign capital to set up shop in India, we should import technology, if needed and set up the same industries with domestic capital. This would enable domestic consumers getting the same products at the same time improving the manufacturing sector and resultant employment generation. Thus FDI in retail is allowing them to reap profits here and taking them back. Historically, no country has ever developed on foreign capital. Indigenous mobilization of resources, domestic technological development and application, support from Government, strategic management were the important factors in the industrial revolution of various nations. These are lessons India must learn from developed countries. 4. Impact on the small farmers Complaints are made by agro- ecologists who observed that farmers working under contract gain more price security, but forfeit their freedom to make decisions. Another class of bonded labor is getting evolved. The poultry farmers in the US turned into regimented assembly lines, from being independent entrepreneurs due to the transformation. This not only undermines the self-esteem of the farmers but also have a serious impact on the land, resources, soil degradation, as the farmers are directed to work only for commercial gains, with no long-term consequences in mind. Also, when contracts are made in advance, market prices will have no relevance. In addition, as FDI retailers are very keen on size, shape of the farm produce, and farmers are forced to supply as per the specifications, there is likely to be huge rejections due to stringent quality checks and resultant huge wastage of farm produce. GoravGopalSingh 33 | Page
  • 34. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem VI. Conclusion There are regulatory hitches, high cost of real estate are serious issues the foreign retailers are facing and cannot be lost sight of. Companies, even with strong lobby teams are wary of red-tapism, bureaucracy. Also, the FDI policy of allowing the State Governments to decide on the entry, will have serious consequences with the change in the political climate. The question here is “Does India need FDI in retail”? The advocates of FDI have probably put too much emphasis on it. India stands different from other countries. We have a large pool of entrepreneurs, tech savvy, have access to global technology. Large retail giants due to their huge buying power will procure cheap goods and import them into the country , which would be an impediment for the growth of manufacturing sector. Not only will the small traders bring their shutters down but also the manufacturing industries will have to shut down their business. For the small and traditional retailers to compete with large retailers and to stay in the business, they need to change their business model and should embrace technology. They need to leverage the increasing trend of people opting for credit card payments and ensure safe cashless transactions. To conclude , whether the entry of FDI in retail in India lead to overall economic development remains to be seen. GoravGopalSingh 34 | Page
  • 35. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem CHAPTER 2.2 Economic Analysis (SURVEY AND REPORT WRITING ) GoravGopalSingh 35 | Page
  • 36. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Survey and Report writing INTRODUCTION The last two and half decades have seen India open up its economy in a slow but steady fashion to private as well as foreign investment. The foreign investment is governed through the FDI policy which regulates industries open to foreign investment, and also the percentage that can be held by the foreign companies. Globalization and liberalization have immensely influenced the Indian economy and have gone a long way in making it a lucrative consumer market. The government in a series of moves has opened up the retail sector slowly to FDI. There were initial reservations towards opening up of retail sector arising from fear of job losses, procurement from international market, competition and loss of entrepreneurial opportunities To evaluate the impact of international players on domestic markets, in 1997 FDI in cash and carry (wholesale) outlet was permitted. In 2006, 51 percent investment in a single brand retail outlet was permitted. Since then retailing through franchisee route has been explored by several global brands. Discussions were carried out by the government in 2008 to allow 100 percent FDI in single brand and 51 percent in multi brand retailing, but did not succeed due to fierce opposition from its then allies and Left (Communist) party and also from the local trade associations. The government has ultimately taken the bold decision and notified the much-awaited policy allowing 100 % FDI in single brand retail and 51% FDI in multi brand retail in Nov, 2012 (Table-1) Table-1 Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Policy YEAR MILESTONES 1991 Indian economy opened FDI upto 51% under the automatic route in select priority sector 1997 FDI upto 100% allowed under automatic route in cash& carry 2006 FDI upto 51% allowed with prior government approval in single brand retail 2008 Government mulled over the idea of allowing 100%FDI in single brand retail and 50% in multibrand retail 2010 Government proposing to allow FDI in multiband retailing 2012 Government allowed 100% FDI in Single Brand Retail and 51% FDI in Multi Brand Retail subjected to prescribed conditions Source: YES Bank Analysis GoravGopalSingh 36 | Page
  • 37. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem OBJECTIVE OF STUDY In view of the above background, My team of MA Economics Semester 1, Students has recently undertaken a survey to assess the impact of the government’s decision to allow 51% foreign direct investment (FDI) in multi-brand retail and 100% in single brand retail on Indian consumer Employment growth Productivity of employees working in this sector GoravGopalSingh 37 | Page
  • 38. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem FDI IMPACT OF RETAILING ON CONSUMER & EMPLOYMENT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY Likely impact on consumer- Seventy six percent of consumers were of the view that FDI would increase investment, lead to improvement of technical expertise, and increase the proliferation of brands, present more choice in front of the end user. They were also optimistic that FDI in this sector will improve the level of service and they would be getting maximum value-for-money (VFM). However, nineteen percent were apprehensive and felt that entry of foreign players would increase price of products, kill the unorganized retailers as well as organized domestic players. Consequently, it will lead to unemployment and which in turn will reduce the purchasing power of the consumer. Their apprehensions are based on the perception that foreign players may use India as a ‘garbage-place’ where they could dump their below standard products. It is worthwhile to note that these 19% of the sample belonged to lower income group. Five percent were not able to comment of the impact of FDI on consumers Graph 1: Impact on Consumer These findings are supported by the study of Madan, (2012) which says that ultimate beneficiary from the opening of FDI in retail is consumer. They are left to choose the retail outlet that would give them goods at lesser price. Further, the impact of multi-brand retail on consumers was found to offer consumers more selections of goods and services to choose from and at a lower prices and fresher products (Powell, 2012). Likely impact on employment With regards to employment fifty two percent of the respondents were of the opinion that foreign direct investment would have a positive impact on the employment whereas thirty five percent expected negative impact on the employment. Approximately, thirteen percent of the respondents expected no significant change in employment with the opening up of this sector for foreign direct investment. GoravGopalSingh 38 | Page
  • 39. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Graph 2: Impact on Employment With regard to employment, around 48 percent of the respondents are of the opinion that the decision would have a positive impact on their employment whereas 35 percent expect no substantial change in the employment in this sector with opening up of FDI in retail. Around 16 percent expect the impact on the employment to be negative in this sector. (CII, 2012). The more employment would be created in the country either directly or indirectly where youth pass out is increasing as much as creation of employment. It would be generated in the agriculture, manufacturing, service industry which consists of GDP. The more people get employed would rehabilitate the economic cycle . Further, the same sentiments were expressed by Rawat (2012) when he said “… foreign investments in Indian retail sector will ….create new jobs across the country ….” Likely impact on Productivity Eighty one percent of employees (from unorganized system and organized sector) were of the view that their productivity is going to enhance due to better working conditions and increase in competition. Ten percent had opposite view to it and hold that productivity level decrease. Remaining Nine percent had expected no change. Graph 3: Impact on Productivity GoravGopalSingh 39 | Page
  • 40. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Reasons for likely increase in productivity The reasons attributed for the likely increase in productivity were based on the expectations related to higher salary, lesser working hours and better working conditions and these expectations are based on present conditions. The employees expect that with the retail sector becoming more organized due to the advent of foreign direct investment they all would be able to enjoy these benefits resulting in more job satisfaction and consequently leading to increase in productivity. Consumer Choice , Graphically Represent CORN Total Expenses Mall Wholesaler Retailer 200 150 215 FRUIT Total Expenses Mall Wholesaler Retailer 220 200 270 GoravGopalSingh 40 | Page
  • 41. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem SPICE Total Expenses Mall Wholesaler Retailer 270 120 290 PULSE MALL WHOLESALER RETAILER Total Expenses 450 400 500 GoravGopalSingh 41 | Page
  • 42. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem GoravGopalSingh 42 | Page
  • 43. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Total Expenses Findings MALL WHOLESALER RETAILER Total Expenses CORN 200 150 215 FRUIT 220 200 270 SPICE 270 120 290 PULSE 450 400 500 GoravGopalSingh 43 | Page
  • 44. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Finding in PIE Chart MALL WHOLESALER RETAILER Total Expenses CORN 200 150 215 FRUIT 220 200 270 SPICE 270 120 290 PULSE 450 400 500 GoravGopalSingh 44 | Page
  • 45. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Sample Survey : FDI in Retail Sector Consumer Details Name : Age: Income (Monthly) : Other Details : Where do consumers purchase form Mall (Big Bazar , Easy Day , Spencer’s etc ) : Whole Seller : Retail : Any other : If you purchase from Malls/Wholeseller/ Retail : why do you prefer them ? Affordable Price : Good Quality : Convenience : According to you , What is the effect of retail chains such as Reliance fresh on Local Buisnessman and Vendors ? Employment GoravGopalSingh 45 | Page
  • 46. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Sale Profit Any other Remarks or Comments ? GoravGopalSingh 46 | Page
  • 47. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem CHAPTER 3 Bibliography GoravGopalSingh 47 | Page
  • 48. FDI in India’s Retail | MA Economics 2nd Sem Bibliography: Sources [1] DIPP ,Ministry of Industry and Commerce Press Note No. 4, 5 and 6 (2013) series on FDI policy on single and multi-brand retail [2] www.thehindu.com/busness/industry/fdi-in-muktibrand retail-with-riders/article 389775.ece [3] A review of the impact of FDI on Indian Retailing by Dr. SheetalMundraamnd others published in the International Journal of sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) (2013) Volume 10, No1, pp 01-18 [4] FDI and unorganized retail sector – a case study by Sameer Ahmad Shalla and others in IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR_JBM) Vol 8, Issue 3 (Mar-April 201.) pp 01-05 [5] FDI in Indian retail sector: Groundwork for Effective implementation by Roshan Deshpande http://ssrn.com/abstract 2257227 [6] FDI in India;s retail sector More Bad than Good? By Mohan Guruswamy and others, Centre for Policy Alternatives, New Delhi www.cpasind.com [7] Technology to help retailers face FDI in „the hindu business line dated 12.10.2012‟ [8] FDI in retail will benefit all in „the hindu business line dated 9.8.2012‟ [9] FDI in retail is no monster in „the hindu business line dated 25.8.2012‟ [10] FDI in retail? Say a big no in „the hindu dated 2.12.2012‟ [11] Some Websites a www.YesBank.com , FDI Analysis b www.RBIBang.org , Primary Data Sources c www.wikipedia.org , FDI in Indian retail sector d www.Slideshare.com, A Survey Report on FDI in India, is it boon or bane ? GoravGopalSingh 48 | Page