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CONCEPTS OF
MEASUREMENTS
g.gOPINATH
WHAT IS METROLOGY
SCIENCE OF MEASUREMENTS
Everything
has to do with
measurement
Designing
Conducting
Analyzing
Results
Exp...
METROLOGY
 Metrology Covers Three Main Tasks:
 The definition of internationally accepted units of
measurement
 The rea...
Meaning of Metrology
• Metrology is the science of measurement.
• Metrology may be divided depending upon the quantity
to ...
Continue..
• Metrology is mainly concerned with:
(1) Establishing the units of measurements, ensuring
the uniformity of me...
• In design, design engineer should not only
check his design from the point of view of the
strength or economical product...
Continue..
• Proper gauges should be designed and used for
rapid and effective inspection.
• Also automation and automatic...
CATEGORIES OF METROLOGY
 Scientific Metrology – Development of measurement
standards
 Industrial Metrology – To ensure t...
AREAS OF INDUSTRIAL METROLOGY
 Mechanical Metrology – Realises , maintains and
disseminates the national measurement stan...
10
Units of Measurement
SI Units published by BIPM(Bureau of Weights and Measures)
Base Units…
Quantity Unit Symbol
Length...
Mechanical Measurements
• Act of measurement—the quantitative
comparison between a predefined
standard and a measurand to ...
Standards organizations
• SASO— Saudi Arabian Standards
organization
• ISO—International Organization for
Standardization
...
Objectives of Metrology:
• The basic objective of a measurement is to
provide the required accuracy at a minimum
cost.
1.1...
Continue..
5. Reducing the cost of rejectscost of rejects and rework
through application of statistical quality control
te...
Fundamentals Methods of
Measurements
There are two basic methods of measurement:
• Direct comparison: with a primary or
se...
Measuring system:
 A measuring system is made of five elements:
These are:
(1) Standard
(2) Work piece
(3) Instrument
(4)...
Generalized measuring
system
Number of measuring instrument used in
practice.
1) Primary sensing element
2) Variable conve...
Generalized Measurement
System
Generalized Measuring System
• Sensor or transducer stage to detect
measurand and Convert input to a form
suitable for pro...
Primary sensing element:
• Receives energy from the measured
medium and o/p corr to measurand.
• O/p –Analogous electrical...
Data transmission element:
• Transmits the data from one element to
the other.
Data processing element:
• Modify the data ...
Data presentation element:
• Communicate the information of
measured variable to a human observer
for monitoring, control ...
Measurement system of a filled thermal
system
Measurement system of a filled thermal
system
Measurement system
• Filled thermal system-process
temperature measurement.
• Primary sensing element & variable
conversio...
• Variable conversion element: spiral
bourdon type pressure gauge.P-L
• Variable manipulation element: linkage
and gearing...
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
• A broad classification of the instruments
based on the application mode of
operation, manner of en...
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
1. Deflection and null type instruments
2. Analog and digital instruments
3. Active and passive inst...
Deflection and null type instruments
Active and passive instruments
Pressure Gauge
Automatic operated instrument - example
Absolute instrument
Contacting and non contacting instruments
• Examples
• Contact type – Thermometer
• Non contact type – Optical pyrometer
A pyrometer is a non-contacting device that
intercepts and measures thermal radiation, a
process known as pyrometry. This ...
Intelligent instruments
sensitivity
 One of the qualities of measuring instruments is
their sensitivity. A measuring instrument is more
sensitive...
Accuracy:
• Accuracy is defined as the closeness of the
measured value with true value.
OR
• Accuracy is defined as the de...
Precision:
• A measure of how close repeated trials are to each
other.
OR
• The closeness of repeated measurements.
• Prec...
Distinction between Precision and
Accuracy
• Figure shows the difference between the concepts of
accuracy versus precision using a dartboard analogy that
shows four ...
Factors affecting the accuracy of
the measuring system:
• The basic components of an accuracy evolution
are the five eleme...
Continue..
1. Factors affecting the standard. It may be affecting by:
- Coefficient of thermal expansion,
- calibration in...
Continue..
3 .Factors affecting the inherent characteristics of
instrument.
- Scale error
- effect of friction, hysteresis...
Continue..
5. Factors affecting environment:
- temperature, humidity etc.
- clean surrounding and minimum vibration enhanc...
Sensitivity:
• Sensitivity may be defined as the rate of
displacement of the indicating device of an
instrument, with resp...
Continue…
• In other words, sensitivity of an instrument
is the ratio of scale spacing to the scale
division value. For ex...
Readability:
• Readability refers to the ease with which
the readings of a measuring instrument
can be read.
• Fine and wi...
Calibration:
• The calibration of any measuring
instrument is necessary to measure the
quantity in terms of standard unit....
Continue…
• The process whereby the magnitude of
the output of a measuring instrument is
related to the magnitude of the i...
Magnification:
• Magnification is the process of enlarging
something only in appearance, not in
physical size so that it i...
Repeatability:
• It is the ability of the measuring instrument to repeat the
same results for the measurements for the sam...
Reproducibility:
• Reproducibility is the closeness of the
agreement between the results of
measurements of the same quant...
Backlash:
• In Mechanical Engineering, backlash, is
clearance between mating components,
sometimes described as the amount...
Hysteresis:
• It is the difference between the indications
of a measuring instrument when the same
value of measured quant...
Drift:
• It is an undesirable gradual deviation of the
instrument output over a period of time that is
unrelated to change...
Threshold:
• The min. value below which no output
change can be detected when the input of
an instrument is increased grad...
Resolution:
• When the input is slowly increased from some
non-zero value, it is observed that the output
does not change ...
Dead zone and Dead Time:
Dead Zone:
• The largest change of input quantity for which
there is no change of output of the i...
Continue…
Dead Time:
• The time required by a measurement
system to begin to respond to a change in
the measurand is terme...
Errors in measurements:
• It is never possible to measure the true
value of a dimension, there is always
some error.
• The...
Continue…
Absolute error:
- True absolute error: It is the algebraic
difference between the result of
measurement and the ...
Continue…
Relative error:
- It is the quotient of absolute error and the
true value or the arithmetical mean for
series of...
Continue…
• Types of errors:
During measurement several types of error may
arise, these are:
1. Static errors which includ...
Continue…
1.Static errors:
- These errors result from the physical
nature of various components of
measuring system. There...
Continue…
Reading errors include:
 Parallax error:
parallax errors arise on account of pointer and
scale not being in sam...
Continue…
(b) Characteristics error:
 It is defined as the deviation of the
output of the measuring system from the
theor...
Continue…
(c) Environmental errors:
 These error result from the effect of
surrounding such as temperature,
pressure, hum...
Continue…
2. Instrument loading error:
 Loading errors results from the change in
measurand itself when being measured.
...
Continue…
3. Dynamic errors:
Dynamic error, also called measurement
error, is the difference between the true
value of me...
Continue…
(a) Systematic or controllable errors:
- These errors are controllable in both their
magnitude and stress. These...
Continue…
(2) Atmospheric error:
- Variation in atmospheric condition (i.e
temperature, pressure and moisture
content) at ...
Continue…
(3) Stylus pressure:
- Another common source of error is the
pressure with which the workpiece is pressed
while ...
Continue…
(4) Avoidable errors:
- These errors may occur due to parallax,
non alignment of workpiece centers,
improper loc...
Continue…
(b) Random errors:
- The random errors occur randomly and the
specific causes of such errors cannot be
determine...
Difference between Systematic and
Random errors:
Systematic error
- These errors are
repetitive in nature
and are of const...
Continue…
- Expect personal
errors all other
systematic errors can
be controlled in
magnitude and sense.
- If properly ana...
Continue…
- These errors includes
calibration errors,
variation in atmosphere,
pressure, misalignment
error etc.
- These e...
Calibration
• Calibration involves the determination of the
relationship between the input and output of
a measurement sys...
CALIBRATION
• Once a measurement device is selected, it must
be calibrated
– Calibration –Comparison of instrument’s readi...
Calibration using Primary
or/and Secondary Standards
• Known input signal and find the output.
- To establish the correct ...
Primary Standards For
Comparison and Calibration
• SI System: Meter – Kg -- Sec.– Kelvin – volt -
Mole – Ampere – Radian
•...
Dimensional Analysis
• Data presented in dimensionless form.
• Reducing No
of experimental variables.
No
of variables - No...
Uncertainty of Measurements
• Measurement error = Measured result - True
value
• The true value of a measurand is Unknown
...
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  1. 1. CONCEPTS OF MEASUREMENTS g.gOPINATH
  2. 2. WHAT IS METROLOGY SCIENCE OF MEASUREMENTS Everything has to do with measurement Designing Conducting Analyzing Results Experiment or test within the Metrology realm Allowing people to plan their lives and make commercial exchange with confidence CAN BE SEEN EVERYWHERE
  3. 3. METROLOGY  Metrology Covers Three Main Tasks:  The definition of internationally accepted units of measurement  The realization of units of measurement by scientific method  Establishment of traceability chain in documenting the accuracy of a measurement “Metrology is essential in scientific research”
  4. 4. Meaning of Metrology • Metrology is the science of measurement. • Metrology may be divided depending upon the quantity to be measured like metrology of length, metrology of time. • But for engineering purposes, it is restricted to measurement of length and angles and other qualities which are expressed in linear or angular terms. • In the broader sense it is not limited to length measurement but is also concerned with industrial inspection and its various techniques.
  5. 5. Continue.. • Metrology is mainly concerned with: (1) Establishing the units of measurements, ensuring the uniformity of measurements. (2) Developing methods of measurement. (3) Errors of measurement. (4) Accuracy of measuring instruments and their care. (5) Industrial inspection and its various techniques.
  6. 6. • In design, design engineer should not only check his design from the point of view of the strength or economical production, but he should also keep in mind how the dimensions specified can be checked or measured. • Higher productivity and accuracy can be achieved by properly understood, introduced the Metrology. • You can improve the measuring accuracy and dimensional and geometrical accuracies of the product. Necessity and importance of MetrologyNecessity and importance of Metrology
  7. 7. Continue.. • Proper gauges should be designed and used for rapid and effective inspection. • Also automation and automatic control, which are the modern trends for future developments, are based on measurement. Digital instruments also we can used for inspection.
  8. 8. CATEGORIES OF METROLOGY  Scientific Metrology – Development of measurement standards  Industrial Metrology – To ensure the adequate functioning of measurement instruments used in industry, production & testing laboratories  Legal Metrology or Weights & Measures – Accuracy of measurement where these have influence on the transparency of economic transactions, health & safety
  9. 9. AREAS OF INDUSTRIAL METROLOGY  Mechanical Metrology – Realises , maintains and disseminates the national measurement standards in the areas of Mass, Volume, Pressure and Dimension  Electrical Metrology –– Realises , maintains and disseminates the national measurement standards in the areas of AC/DC, low frequency, time & frequency and temperature
  10. 10. 10 Units of Measurement SI Units published by BIPM(Bureau of Weights and Measures) Base Units… Quantity Unit Symbol Length metre m Mass kilogram kg Time second s Temperature kelvin K Electric current ampere A Luminous intensity candela cd Amount of substance mole mol
  11. 11. Mechanical Measurements • Act of measurement—the quantitative comparison between a predefined standard and a measurand to produce a measured result • Measurand : physical parameter or variable to be measured • Standard: basis for comparison of quantitative value to measurand.
  12. 12. Standards organizations • SASO— Saudi Arabian Standards organization • ISO—International Organization for Standardization • Others—ASME, NFPA, ASTM, etc.
  13. 13. Objectives of Metrology: • The basic objective of a measurement is to provide the required accuracy at a minimum cost. 1.1. Complete evaluationComplete evaluation of newly developed products. 2. Determination of Process CapabilitiesProcess Capabilities. 3. Determination of the measuring instrumentinstrument capabilitiescapabilities and ensure that they are quite sufficient for their respective measurements. 4. Minimising the cost of inspectioncost of inspection by effective and efficient use of available facilities.
  14. 14. Continue.. 5. Reducing the cost of rejectscost of rejects and rework through application of statistical quality control techniques. 6.6. To standardiseTo standardise the measuring methods. 7. To maintainmaintain the accuraciesthe accuracies of measurement. 8. To prepare designprepare design for all gauges and special inspection fixtures.
  15. 15. Fundamentals Methods of Measurements There are two basic methods of measurement: • Direct comparison: with a primary or secondary standard • Indirect comparison—conversion of measurand input into an analogous form which can be processed and presented as known function of input - A transducer is required to convert the measurand into another form
  16. 16. Measuring system:  A measuring system is made of five elements: These are: (1) Standard (2) Work piece (3) Instrument (4) Person (5) Environment - The most basic element of measurement is a standard without which no measurement is possible. - Once the standard is chosen select a work piece on which measurement will be performed. - Then select a instrument with the help of which measurement will be done. - The measurement should be performed under standard environment. - And lastly there must be some person or mechanism to carry out the measurement.
  17. 17. Generalized measuring system Number of measuring instrument used in practice. 1) Primary sensing element 2) Variable conversion element 3) Variable manipulation 4) Data transmission element 5) Data processing element 6) Data presentation element
  18. 18. Generalized Measurement System
  19. 19. Generalized Measuring System • Sensor or transducer stage to detect measurand and Convert input to a form suitable for processing e.g. : - Temp. to voltage - Force to distance • Signal conditioning stage to modify the transduced signal e.g. : Amplification, Attenuation, Filtering, Encoding • Terminating readout stage to present desired output (Analog or Digital form)
  20. 20. Primary sensing element: • Receives energy from the measured medium and o/p corr to measurand. • O/p –Analogous electrical signal by transducer. Variable conversion element: • O/p elect signal volt, freq - more suitable form Variable manipulation: • Manipulate the signal and preserving original nature. Amplifies I/p signal
  21. 21. Data transmission element: • Transmits the data from one element to the other. Data processing element: • Modify the data before displayed or finally recorded. • Separate signal hidden in noise, provide correction.
  22. 22. Data presentation element: • Communicate the information of measured variable to a human observer for monitoring, control or analysis purpose. Ex; analog indicator, digital, recorder.
  23. 23. Measurement system of a filled thermal system
  24. 24. Measurement system of a filled thermal system
  25. 25. Measurement system • Filled thermal system-process temperature measurement. • Primary sensing element & variable conversion element-liquid or gas filled temp bulb-sense I/p and convert it in to pressure. • Data transmission element: Pr is transmitted thro the capillary tube.
  26. 26. • Variable conversion element: spiral bourdon type pressure gauge.P-L • Variable manipulation element: linkage and gearing arrangement. • Data presentation element- pointer and scale
  27. 27. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS • A broad classification of the instruments based on the application mode of operation, manner of energy conversion and the nature of energy conversion and the nature of output signal is given,
  28. 28. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 1. Deflection and null type instruments 2. Analog and digital instruments 3. Active and passive instruments 4.Automatic and manually operated instruments 5.Contacting and non contacting instruments 6. Absolute and secondary instruments 7. Intelligent instruments.
  29. 29. Deflection and null type instruments
  30. 30. Active and passive instruments
  31. 31. Pressure Gauge
  32. 32. Automatic operated instrument - example
  33. 33. Absolute instrument
  34. 34. Contacting and non contacting instruments • Examples • Contact type – Thermometer • Non contact type – Optical pyrometer
  35. 35. A pyrometer is a non-contacting device that intercepts and measures thermal radiation, a process known as pyrometry. This device can be used to determine the temperature of an object's surface.
  36. 36. Intelligent instruments
  37. 37. sensitivity  One of the qualities of measuring instruments is their sensitivity. A measuring instrument is more sensitive the smaller the quantity that it is able to measure.  Sensitivity -- a measure of the smallest signal the instrument can measure. Usually, this is defined at the lowest range setting of the instrument.  For example, an AC meter with a lowest measurement range of 10 V may be able to measure signals with 1 mV resolution but the smallest detectable voltage it can measure may be 15 mV. In this case, the AC meter has a resolution of 1 mV but a sensitivity of 15 mV.
  38. 38. Accuracy: • Accuracy is defined as the closeness of the measured value with true value. OR • Accuracy is defined as the degree to which the measured value agrees with the true value. • Practically it is very difficult to measure the true value and therefore a set of observations is made whose mean value is taken as the true value of the quantity measured.
  39. 39. Precision: • A measure of how close repeated trials are to each other. OR • The closeness of repeated measurements. • Precision is the repeatability of the measuring process. It refers to the group of measurements for the same characteristics taken under identical conditions. • It indicated to what extent the identically performed measurements agree with each other. • If the instrument is not precise it will give different results for the same dimension when measured again and again.
  40. 40. Distinction between Precision and Accuracy
  41. 41. • Figure shows the difference between the concepts of accuracy versus precision using a dartboard analogy that shows four different scenarios that contrast the two terms. • A: Three darts hit the target center and are very close together = high accuracy and precision • B: Three darts hit the target center but are not very close together = high accuracy, low precision • C: Three darts do not hit the target center but are very close together = low accuracy, high precision • D: Three darts do not hit the target center and are not close together = low accuracy and precision
  42. 42. Factors affecting the accuracy of the measuring system: • The basic components of an accuracy evolution are the five elements of a measuring system such as: 1. Factors affecting the calibration standards. 2. Factors affecting the work piece. 3. Factors affecting the inherent characteristics of the instrument. 4. Factors affecting the person, who carries out the measurements. 5. Factors affecting the environment.
  43. 43. Continue.. 1. Factors affecting the standard. It may be affecting by: - Coefficient of thermal expansion, - calibration internal - stability with time - elastic properties - geometric compatibility 2. Factors affecting the work piece, these are - cleanliness, surface finish, surface defects etc. - elastic properties - hidden properties - arrangement of supporting workpiece.
  44. 44. Continue.. 3 .Factors affecting the inherent characteristics of instrument. - Scale error - effect of friction, hysteresis, zero drift - calibration errors - repeatability and readability - constant geometry for both workpiece and standard 4. Factors affecting person: - training skill - ability to select the measuring instruments and standard - attitude towards personal accuracy achievements - sense of precision appreciation
  45. 45. Continue.. 5. Factors affecting environment: - temperature, humidity etc. - clean surrounding and minimum vibration enhance precision - temperature equalization between standard, workpiece and instrument, - thermal expansion effects due to heat radiation from lights, heating elements, sunlight and people. The above analysis of five basic metrology elements can be composed into the acronym. SWIPE for convenient reference Where, S- standard W- Workpiece I- Instrument P- Person E- Environment
  46. 46. Sensitivity: • Sensitivity may be defined as the rate of displacement of the indicating device of an instrument, with respect to the measured quantity. • Sensitivity of thermometer means that it is the length of increase of the liquid per degree rise in temperature. More sensitive means more noticeable expansion.
  47. 47. Continue… • In other words, sensitivity of an instrument is the ratio of scale spacing to the scale division value. For example, if on a dial indicator, the scale spacing is 1 mm and the scale division value is 0.01 mm then sensitivity is 100. It is also called as amplification factor or gearing ratio.
  48. 48. Readability: • Readability refers to the ease with which the readings of a measuring instrument can be read. • Fine and widely spaced graduation lines improve the readability. • To make the micrometers more readable they are provided with venier scale or magnifying devices.
  49. 49. Calibration: • The calibration of any measuring instrument is necessary to measure the quantity in terms of standard unit. • It is carried out by making adjustments such that the read out device produces zero output for zero input.
  50. 50. Continue… • The process whereby the magnitude of the output of a measuring instrument is related to the magnitude of the input force driving the instrument (i.e. Adjusting a weight scale to zero when there is nothing on it). • The accuracy of the instrument depends on the calibration. • If the output of the measuring instrument is linear and repeatable, it can be easily
  51. 51. Magnification: • Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not in physical size so that it is more readable. (The stamp appears larger with the use of a magnifying glass.)
  52. 52. Repeatability: • It is the ability of the measuring instrument to repeat the same results for the measurements for the same quantity, when the measurements are carried out - by the same observer, - with the same instrument, - under the same conditions, - without any change in location, - without change in the method of measurement, - the measurements are carried out in short intervals of time. • It may be expressed in terms of dispersion of the results.
  53. 53. Reproducibility: • Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same quantity, when individual measurements are carried out: - by different observers, - by different methods, - using different instruments, - under different conditions, locations, times etc. • It may be expressed in terms of the dispersion of the results.
  54. 54. Backlash: • In Mechanical Engineering, backlash, is clearance between mating components, sometimes described as the amount of lost motion due to clearance or slackness when movement is reversed and contact is re-established.
  55. 55. Hysteresis: • It is the difference between the indications of a measuring instrument when the same value of measured quantity is reached by increasing or decreasing that quantity. • It is caused by friction, slack motion in the bearings and gears, elastic deformation, magnetic and thermal effects.
  56. 56. Drift: • It is an undesirable gradual deviation of the instrument output over a period of time that is unrelated to changes in input operating conditions or load. • An instrument is said to have no drift if is reproduces the same readings at different times for same variation in measured quantity. • It is caused by wear and tear, high stress developed at some parts etc.
  57. 57. Threshold: • The min. value below which no output change can be detected when the input of an instrument is increased gradually from zero is called the threshold of the instrument. • Threshold may be caused by backlash.
  58. 58. Resolution: • When the input is slowly increased from some non-zero value, it is observed that the output does not change at all until a certain increment is exceeded; this increment is called resolution. • It is the min. change in measured variable which produces an effective response of the instrument. • It may be expressed in units of measured variable
  59. 59. Dead zone and Dead Time: Dead Zone: • The largest change of input quantity for which there is no change of output of the instrument is termed as dead zone. • It may occur due to friction in the instrument which does not allow the pointer to move till sufficient driving force is developed to overcome the friction loss. • Dead zone caused by backlash and hysteresis in the instrument.
  60. 60. Continue… Dead Time: • The time required by a measurement system to begin to respond to a change in the measurand is termed as dead time. • It represents the time before the instrument begins to respond after the measured quantity has been changed.
  61. 61. Errors in measurements: • It is never possible to measure the true value of a dimension, there is always some error. • The error in the measurement is the difference between the measured value and the true value of measured dimensions. • The error in measurement may be expressed either as on absolute error or as a relative error.
  62. 62. Continue… Absolute error: - True absolute error: It is the algebraic difference between the result of measurement and the conventional true value of the quantity. - Apparent absolute error: If the series of measurement are made then the algebraic difference between one of the results of measurement and the arithmetical mean is known as apparent absolute error.
  63. 63. Continue… Relative error: - It is the quotient of absolute error and the true value or the arithmetical mean for series of measurement.
  64. 64. Continue… • Types of errors: During measurement several types of error may arise, these are: 1. Static errors which includes: (a) Reading errors (b) Characteristic errors (c) Environmental errors 2. Instrumental loading errors. 3. Dynamic errors.
  65. 65. Continue… 1.Static errors: - These errors result from the physical nature of various components of measuring system. There are three basic sources of static errors: (a) Reading errors: - These errors occur due to carelessness of operators. These do not have any direct relationship with other types of errors within the measuring system.
  66. 66. Continue… Reading errors include:  Parallax error: parallax errors arise on account of pointer and scale not being in same plane, we can eliminate this error by having the pointer and scale in same plane.  Wrong scale reading and wrong recording of data.  Inaccurate estimates of average reading.  Incorrect conversion of units in calculations.
  67. 67. Continue… (b) Characteristics error:  It is defined as the deviation of the output of the measuring system from the theoretical predicated performance or from nominal performance specifications. Linearity errors, repeatability, hysteresis are the characteristics errors if theoretical output is straight line. Calibration error is also included in characteristics error.
  68. 68. Continue… (c) Environmental errors:  These error result from the effect of surrounding such as temperature, pressure, humidity etc. on measuring system. It can be reduced by controlling the atmosphere according to the specific requirement.
  69. 69. Continue… 2. Instrument loading error:  Loading errors results from the change in measurand itself when being measured.  Instrument loading error is the difference between the value of measurand before and after the measurement.  For example a soft or ductile component is subjected to deformation during measurement due to the contact pressure of the instrument and cause a loading error. The effect of this error is unavoidable.
  70. 70. Continue… 3. Dynamic errors: Dynamic error, also called measurement error, is the difference between the true value of measuring quantity and value indicated by measurement system if no static error is assumed. These errors can be broadly classified as:
  71. 71. Continue… (a) Systematic or controllable errors: - These errors are controllable in both their magnitude and stress. These can also be determined and reduced. These are due to: (1) Calibrations errors: - The actual length of standards such as scales will vary from nominal value by small amount. This will cause an error in measurement of constant magnitude.
  72. 72. Continue… (2) Atmospheric error: - Variation in atmospheric condition (i.e temperature, pressure and moisture content) at the place of measurement from that of internationally agreed standard values (20’ temp. and 760 mm of Hg pressure) can give rise to error in measurand size of the component.
  73. 73. Continue… (3) Stylus pressure: - Another common source of error is the pressure with which the workpiece is pressed while measuring. Though the pressure involved is generally small but this is sufficient enough to cause appreciable deformation of both the stylus and the workpiece. -Variations in force applied by the anvils of micrometer on the work to be measured results in the difference in its readings. In this case error is caused by the distortion of both micrometer frame and workpiece.
  74. 74. Continue… (4) Avoidable errors: - These errors may occur due to parallax, non alignment of workpiece centers, improper location of measuring instruments such as a thermometer in sunlight while measuring temperature.
  75. 75. Continue… (b) Random errors: - The random errors occur randomly and the specific causes of such errors cannot be determined. The likely sources of this type of error are: • Small variations in the position of setting standard and workpiece. • Slight displacement of lever joints in the measuring instrument. • Friction in measuring system. • Operator errors in reading scale.
  76. 76. Difference between Systematic and Random errors: Systematic error - These errors are repetitive in nature and are of constant & similar form. - These errors result from improper conditions. Random error - These are non consistent. The sources giving rise to such errors are random. - Such errors are inherent in the measuring system.
  77. 77. Continue… - Expect personal errors all other systematic errors can be controlled in magnitude and sense. - If properly analyzed these can be determined and reduced or eliminated. - Specific causes, magnitudes and sense of these errors cannot be determined from the knowledge of measuring system. - These errors cannot be eliminated, but the results obtained can be corrected.
  78. 78. Continue… - These errors includes calibration errors, variation in atmosphere, pressure, misalignment error etc. - These errors includes Small variations in the position of setting standard and workpiece, Slight displacement of lever joints in the measuring instrument, Friction in measuring system, Operator errors in reading scale.
  79. 79. Calibration • Calibration involves the determination of the relationship between the input and output of a measurement system • Eliminate Bias error • The proving of a measurement system’s capability to quantify the input accurately • Calibration is accomplished by applying known magnitudes of the input and observing the measurement system output • The indirect measuring system must be calibrated.
  80. 80. CALIBRATION • Once a measurement device is selected, it must be calibrated – Calibration –Comparison of instrument’s reading to a calibration standard – Calibration standard created from a measurement • Inherent error • Basic issue is how do we know that what we record has any relation to what we wish to measure?
  81. 81. Calibration using Primary or/and Secondary Standards • Known input signal and find the output. - To establish the correct output scale. - To find instrument reliability. - To eliminate bias error (systematic error) • For linear relation o/p ∝ I/p needs single point calibration. • For non-linear relation needs multi-point calibrations. • Static calibration – vs – Dynamic calibration
  82. 82. Primary Standards For Comparison and Calibration • SI System: Meter – Kg -- Sec.– Kelvin – volt - Mole – Ampere – Radian • LENGTH (meter): Distance traveled by light in vacuum during 1/299792458 of a sec. • MASS (Kg.): International prototype (alloy of platinum and iridium) kept near Paris. • TIME (Sec.): Duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation emitted between two excitation levels of Cesium-133 • TEMPERATURE (Kelvin): K = o C + 273
  83. 83. Dimensional Analysis • Data presented in dimensionless form. • Reducing No of experimental variables. No of variables - No of dims.= No of π groups • Use pi method or by inspection • Basic dimensions: M L T θ(kg,m,sec,o k) • Saving(time&$)(10 tests –vs- 104 tests for F= fn (L,V,ρ, μ )) Force coef. F/ρv2 L2 = fn (Reynolds numberρvL/μ) • Helping in exp. Planning, insight, and similitude.
  84. 84. Uncertainty of Measurements • Measurement error = Measured result - True value • The true value of a measurand is Unknown ( Error is unknown ) • The potential value of error can be estimated (uncertainty) • Two types of error: - Systematic errors (bias) and Random errors ( Statistics to estimate random errors)
  • PritamDey32

    Dec. 4, 2017
  • GaneshMandpe

    Sep. 10, 2017
  • MahfuzurRahman154

    Sep. 9, 2017

Measurements Introduction

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