Molecular mechanism of cancer metastasis


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Molecular mechanism of cancer metastasis

  2. 2. Overview What is metastasis? Molecular mechanisms of metastasis Signalling pathways involved in metastasis 2
  3. 3. I) What is cancer metastasis? Cancer defines as a population of cells that have lost their normal controls of growth and differentiation and are proliferating without check. Metastasis is the process by which a tumor cell leaves the primary tumor, travels to a distant site via the circulatory system, and establishes a secondary tumor. 3
  4. 4. Forms of cancer metastasis 4
  5. 5. Preferential metastatic sites Primary tumour Common distant site (s) Breast’ adenocarcinoma Bone, brain, adrenal Prostate adenocarcinoma Bone Lung small cell carcinoma Bone, brain, liver Skin cutaneous melanoma Brain, liver, Bowel Thyroid adenocarcinoma Bone Kidney clear cell carcinoma Bone, liver, thyroid Testis carcinoma Liver Bladder carcinoma Brain Neuroblastoma Liver, adrenal 5
  6. 6. Reason for organ selectivity Mechanistic theory: determined by the pattern of blood flow. “Seed and soil” theory: the provision of a fertile environment in which compatible tumor cells could grow 6
  7. 7. Determining factors Appropriate growth factors or extracellular matrix environment Compatible adhesion sites on the endothelial lumenal surface Selective chemotaxis at which the organ producing some soluble attraction factors to the tumor cells 7
  8. 8. II) Molecular mechanisms of metastasis 8
  9. 9. 5 major steps in metastasis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Invasion and infiltration of surrounding normal host tissue with penetration of small lymphatic or vascular channels; Release of neoplastic cells, either or single cells or small clumps, into the circulation; Survival in the circulation; Arrest in the capillary beds of distant organs; Penetration of the lymphatic or blood vessel walls followed by growth of the disseminated tumor cells 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Stages of metastasis Invasion : primary tumour cells enter circulation Circulation to the secondary site of tumour growth Colonisation : formation of secondary tumour 11
  12. 12. Tumor invasion 1. Translocation of cells across extracellular matrix barriers 2. Lysis of matrix protein by specific proteinases 3. Cell migration 12
  13. 13. Components of invasion a) Matrix degrading enzymes b) Cell adhesion c) Cell motility 13
  14. 14. a) Matrix degrading enzymes Required for a controlled degradation of components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) The proteases involved in this process are classified into serine-, cysteine-, aspartyl-, and metalloproteinase. 14
  15. 15. MMP family 15
  16. 16. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 16 members, subdivided into 4 groups, based on their structural characteristics and substrate specificities Soluble and secreted groups; collagenase, gelatinase and stromelysins Membrane type (MT-MMP) group are anchored in the plasma membrane A zinc ion in the active centre of the protease is required for their catalytic activities. 16
  17. 17. Regulation of MMP MMP is controlled by an increased expression on a transcriptional level. MMPs are calcium-dependent proteases, which are synthesized as a inactive proenzymes and are activated by the cleavage of a propeptide. MMP activity is regulated by specific inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs). Binding TIMP to MMP is in a 1:1 stoichiometry. MMP2 and MMP9, which cleave type IV collagen the major constituent of basement membrane, are believed to be of special importance 17
  18. 18. Serine proteases Serine protease involved in ECM degradation are plasmin, plasminogen activators and cathepsin G. Plasmin is believed to be the most important serine protease, firstly because its ability to degrade several matrix components like gelatin, fibronectin or laminin, and secondly by the possible activation of numerous proforms of MMPs by propeptide cleavage. Plasmin is synthesized in its inactive proform, plasminogen, which can be converted to plasmin by plasminogen activator. 18
  19. 19. Plasminogen activator Two main types : urokinase (uPA) and tissue (tPA). uPA is bound to the surface of tumor cells by means of a specific receptor (uPAR) There are specific inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2) for the PA. 19
  20. 20. Interaction between tumour cells and the surrounding connective tissue 20
  21. 21. Cell adhesion and metastasis 21
  22. 22. b) Cell attachment 1. Integrin: cell-matrix adhesion 2. E- cadherin/catenin adhesion complex: cell-cell adhesion 22
  23. 23. 1) Integrin Heterodimeric transmembrane receptors consists of α and β subunits Function to provide interactions between cells and macromolecules in the ECM Integrin can affect the transcription of MMP genes 23
  24. 24. Integrin signaling 24
  25. 25. 2) E- cadherin and catenin complex Most important cell-cell adhesion molecules Reduce expression of E-cadherin and catenin increase the invasiveness of tumor cells 25
  26. 26. Cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion 26
  27. 27. p120 catenin 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. c) Cell migration 1. Small Rho GTPase family 2. Motility promoting factors 29
  30. 30. Small Rho GTPase Stimuli Cdc42 Rac1 GTP GTP Pak1 MLC Kinase LIM kinase Stress fibers MLC Phosphorylation Cofilin Contraction Filopodia Actin polymerisation Detachment Lamellipodia 30
  31. 31. Model of Rho GTPase regulation 31
  32. 32. Regulation of Rho GTPase 32
  33. 33. Rho GTPase is required for the transition of invasive phenotype 33
  34. 34. Signaling pathways related to integrin and small GTPase 34
  35. 35. E-cadherin and Rho GTPase signaling 35
  36. 36. Rho GTPase at different stages of tumour progression 36
  37. 37. 2) Motility promoting factors Hepatocyte growth factor/scattering factor Insulin-like growth factor II Autotaxin 37
  38. 38. HGF/scatting factor Heterodimer of α and β chains HGF normally acts as a paracrine growth factor, but in tumor cells it can act as an autocrine HGF binds to the c-Met receptor and activated the downstream effectors 38
  39. 39. HGF induce cell scattering and invasion 39
  40. 40. Signalling pathways responsible for MET-dependent invasive growth 40