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Etiology, types of cancers, prevention and control of cancer.

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  1. 1. CANCER Dr. Gopalrao Jogdand, M.D. Ph.D. Professor & Head, Community Medicine
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>A group of diseases characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>a. abnormal growth of the cells. </li></ul><ul><li>b. ability of these cells to invade the adjacent cells and tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>c. involving distant organs through metastasis. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Death of the patient in the event of growth of the tumor beyond the stage, when it could be removed. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Magnitude of the problem <ul><li>Global:- Accounts for 13% of all deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>7.9 million deaths due to cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 30.4 million people living with cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics indicates 19% increase in incidence of the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>18% increase in the mortality in the last decade (2005). </li></ul>
  4. 4. South East Asia Region <ul><li>3.4% of all deaths are due to cancer in India. </li></ul><ul><li>6.6% from Indonesia. </li></ul><ul><li>5.5% from Thailand. </li></ul><ul><li>4.2% from Sri Lanka. </li></ul><ul><li>2.9% from Myanmar. </li></ul><ul><li>0.8% from Nepal. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics for 2002. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cancer deaths S.E.A.R. <ul><li>Statistical reports of W.H.O. 2005 show following mortality statistics for SEAR. </li></ul><ul><li>India- 8 lakh 66 thousand deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia- 2 lakh 6 thousand deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand- 66000 deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Myanmar- 39000 deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka- 21000 deaths. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Five leading cancers & their mortality in the world, 2005. <ul><li>Lung cancer- 1.4 million deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach cancer- 8 lakh 66 thousand deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Colon cancer- 6 lakh 77 thousand deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Liver cancer- 6 lakh 53 thousand deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Breast cancer- 5 lakh 48 thousand. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Global pattern of cancers <ul><li>Globally lung cancer is very common. </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach cancer is very common in Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Breast and colorectal cancer is very common in European countries. </li></ul><ul><li>S.E.A.R. great majority of cancers are the oral and Ca. uterine cervix. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Origin of major categories of cancers <ul><li>Carcinomas- arising from epithelial lining of the internal surface of the organs, mouth, esophagus, intestine, uterus and skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcomas- arising from mesodermal cells of various connective tissues, fibrous tissues, fat and bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphomas, mylomas and leukemia's- arising from the cells of bone marrow and immune system. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Causes of cancer <ul><li>Environmental factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Use of tobacco: for smoking or chewing purpose causes cancer after long term use. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol: Excessive use of alcoholic drinks can cause cancer, a causal relationship is shown between beer consumption and rectal cancer. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Causes…… <ul><li>Dietary factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption of smoked fish is related to stomach cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Beef consumption is related to bowel cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>High dietary fat consumption to breast cancer. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Causes…. <ul><li>Occupational exposure: </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to benzene, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, asbestos, vinyl chloride, poly cyclic hydrocarbons and aniline dyes cause various types of cancers. </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses: Hepatitis b, c and d virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human papilloma virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites: Schistosomiasis causing ca. bladder in Egypt. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Causes…. <ul><li>Habits and life style factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking, tobacco chewing, betel chewing, smoking and alcohol intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic factors: Retinoblastoma amongst siblings, leukemia in Mongols is suggestive of a genetic linkage. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prevention and control of cancer <ul><li>Cancer screening: In affluent countries community based or clinic based screening for cancer is done. </li></ul><ul><li>Breast cancer: 1. Breast Self Examination. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mammography. 3. Thermo-mammography. </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer: Mass radiography and sputum cytology. </li></ul><ul><li>Ca. Cervix: Pap smear screening of women over 35 years of age. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Prevention and control <ul><li>Strategy for cancer control: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Public information and education. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Legislative and restrictive measures. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Community based cessation programs. </li></ul><ul><li>4. National and international coordination. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Better diagnostic and treatment facilities. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Warning signs of cancer <ul><li>Any change in the bowel and bladder habits. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent cough or hoarseness of voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding form natural orifices. </li></ul><ul><li>Any change in the size of a mole or wart. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard and palpable lump in any part of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic non healing ulcer. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive bleeding during menses. </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden and unexplained loss of body weight. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thank you