1993 DEC 29
Enforce into action
Signature at UNCED (Rio Earth Summit)
1992 MAY 22
Agreed the text of CBD
Group become Intergovernmental
Negotiating Committee (INC)
Group – Prepared an international legal
instrument for conservation & sustainable
use of BD
UNEP – Ad Hoc working Group of Experts on
BD explore need for international CBD
o 42 articles
o 2 Annexures
» 11 Conference Of the Parties ( COP) meetings.
Conscious of values & components of BD.
Conservation & maintenance of sustainable use of BD.
Reaffirming sovereign rights & responsibility of BD.
Aware of BD loss by human activities & plan to take
Need of full participation of women from policy
making to implementation.
Establish strong cooperation among states, regions..
Provide additional financial resources & relevant
Commitment to conserve & sustainable use of BD for
the benefit of present and future generations.
» OBJECTIVES OF CBD:
» Conservation & sustainable use of BD.
» Fair & equitable sharing of benefits arising from the
use of genetic resources.
» Appropriate access to genetic resources.
» Transfer of required technologies.
» Appropriate funding.
» USE OF TERMS:
» "Biological diversity" – the variability among
including, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic
ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
which they are part; this includes diversity within
species, between species and of ecosystems.
» States have sovereign right to exploit their biological
diversity as per their policies. Previously biodiversity
was considered heritage of humankind.
» State is responsible to control their resources without
damaging the environment of other states.
» JURIDICTIONAL SCOPE: The geographic area over
which authority extends
» Each contracting country has to cooperate other
countries for the conservation and sustainable use of
» The cooperation can be bilateral or multilateral.
» If necessary, any party can ask help from competent
international organizations for arranging cooperation.
» GENERAL MEASURES FOR CONSERVATION AND
SUSTAINABLE USE (OBLIGATIONS OF THE STATES):
» Develop or adopt national strategies, plans or
programmes for the conservation and sustainable use
» Integrate these plans into sectoral or cross sectoral
plans, programmes and policies.
» IDENTIFICATION AND MONITORING
» IN-SITU CONSERVATION:
» EX-SITU CONSERVATION:
» SUSTAINABLE USE OF COMPONENTS OF BD:
» INCENTIVE MEASURES: motivational measures
» RESEARCH AND TRAINING:
» PUBLIC EDUCATION AND AWARENESS:
» IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MINIMIZING ADVERSE
» ACCESS TO GENETIC RESOURCES:
» ACCESS TO AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY:
» EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION:
» TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION:
» HANDLING OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION
OF ITS BENEFITS
» FINANCIAL RESOURCES
» FINANCIAL MECHANISM
» RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER INTERNATIONAL
» CONFERENCE OF PARTIES (COP)
» SUBSIDIARY BODY ON SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND
» SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES:
» ADOPTION OF PROTOCOL
» AMENDMENT OF THE CONVENTION OR PROTOCOLS:
» ADOPTION AND AMENDMENT OF ANNEXES:
» RIGHT TO VOTE:
ARTICLE 33. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THIS CONVENTION AND ITS PROTOCOL
ARTICLE 33. SIGNATURE
ARTICLE 34. RATIFICATION (signing an agreement), ACCEPTANCE OR
ARTICLE 35. ACCESSION (particular period for signature & its extension)
ARTICLE 36. ENTRY INTO FORCE
ARTICLE 37. RESERVATIONS
ARTICLE 38. WITHDRAWALS
ARTICLE 39. FINANCIAL INTERIM ARRANGEMENTS
ARTICLE 40. SECRETARIAT INTERIM ARRANGEMENTS
ARTICLE 41. DEPOSITARY
ARTICLE 42. AUTHENTIC TEXTS
ANNEX I. IDENTIFICATION AND MONITORING
ANNEX II - PART 1. ARBITRATION
ANNEX II - PART 2. CONCILIATION
28 Nov 9 Dec
Guidance to the financial
Medium-term programme of work;
6 - 17
Marine and coastal biological
Access to genetic resources;
Conservation and sustainable use
of biological diversity;
4 - 15
Financial resources and
Identification, monitoring and
Intellectual property rights;
4 - 15
Inland water ecosystems;
Review of the operations of the
Article 8(j) and related issues
22 - 23
& 24 - 28
15 - 26
Dryland, mediterranean, arid, semi-arid,
grassland and savannah ecosystems;
Sustainable use, including tourism;
Access to genetic resources;
7 - 19
Forest ecosystems; Alien species;
Strategic plan 2002-2010;
9 - 20
Transfer of technology and technology
20 - 31
Biological diversity of dry and sub-humid
Global Taxonomy Initiative;
Access and benefit-sharing (Article 15);
Article 8(j) and related provisions;
Communication, education and public
awareness (Article 13).
19 - 30
Agricultural, Forest biodiversity
Global Strategy for Plant Conservation;
Invasive alien species; Incentive
measures; Progress in the implementation
of the Strategic Plan and progress towards
the 2010 traget and relevant Millennium
18 - 29
8 - 19
BD & livelihoodss, integration of value of
BD in national planning &accounting
process, strategy for resource
mobilization, coastal & marine BD ,
operationalization of Nagoya protocol
» Raise awareness of:
˃the importance of biodiversity
˃accomplishments to save biodiversity
» Promote innovative solutions
» Take immediate steps to reduce the rate of loss
» Biodiversity is important for human wellbeing
» The current rate of biodiversity loss is
severe, by some accounts up to 100 times
the natural rate of extinction
» We need to work together to halt this loss.
Many “success stories” point the way to the
» Provide a global message which offers partners the
chance to highlight their work and activities
» Create information products that highlight success
stories and the work of the Convention
» Take advantage of existing international and
national events to promote the biodiversity agenda
to new audiences and mobilize their support
“To achieve, by 2010, a significant reduction of the current rate
of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level,
as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of
all life on Earth”
» Gene rich countries: have sovereign rights on their BD.
» Farming communities: will receive their share from the
benefits of BD.
» Future generations: conservation of resources for future
» Scientific communities: benefited by conservation and
improvement of genetic resources.
»Wild life trade – big business
between countries – leads to
endangering of species.
» Unsustainable trade in wildlife is one of the
central threats to biodiversity as it concerns
thousands of plant and animal species, and can
push them close to extinction.
» This issue affects a wide range of live animals and
plants as well as a vast array of products derived
from them, including food, fur, leather
goods, musical instruments, timber, tourist
souvenirs, perfumes, and medicines.
» To regulate this extra efforts, international cooperation
» Effective regulation – convention to prevent
commercial trade in endangered species
»Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora
» CITES is an international convention that
combines wildlife and trade themes with a
legally binding instrument for achieving
conservation and sustainable use objectives
» The largest conservation oriented Convention.
» Resolution adopted by the 8TH General Assembly of
IUCN, in Nairobi in 1963.
» Drafting of the text started in 1964.
» The final text was adopted in Washington in 3 March
1973, and entered into force on 1 July 1975.
» Washington Convention
» CITES – agreement between governments
» The regulation is based upon the appendices :
» Appendix 1
» Appendix 2
» Appendix 3
» Regulates the export, re-export and import of live
and dead animals and plants and their parts and
derivatives (for listed species only) through a system
of permits and certificates
» Species threatened with extinction
» International (commercial) trade is generally
» Almost 530 animal species and 300 plant
» Species not threatened with extinction, but trade
must be controlled to avoid their becoming
» International trade is permitted but regulated.
» More than 4,400 animal species and more than
28,000 plant species
» Species for which a country is asking Parties to
help with its protection.
» International trade is permitted but regulated
(less restrictive than Appendix II)
» Some 240 animal species and about 40 plant
» Designate a Management Authority and a
» Prohibit trade in specimens in violation of the
» Penalize such trade
» Allow for elimination of specimens illegally traded
» Effective and consistent international regulation
of trade in wildlife for conservation and
» International cooperation on trade and
conservation, legislation and
management, conservation science.