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Food, water, energy nexus as an adaptation mechanism golam rasul

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Food-Water-Energy Nexus Approach: An Option for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region

Nexus approach is a system-wise approach
Provide a framework for assessing trade-offs & synergies
Improve resource use efficiency
Support minimizing trade-offs, maximizing synergies
Generate co-benefits through harnessing complementarities
The nexus approach encourage mutually beneficial responses and enhance the potential for cooperation between & among all sectors.

Most adaptation measures are sectoral or project driven
Sectoral approach promote cross-sectoral externalities and Mal-adaptation
Understanding the interlinkages between the water, energy, and food is vital for devising sustainable adaptation strategy
Nexus can be a pathway to climate adaptation and sustainable development through enhancing synergies and complementarities

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Food, water, energy nexus as an adaptation mechanism golam rasul

  1. 1. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Kathmandu, Nepal International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Kathmandu, Nepal Food-Water-Energy Nexus Approach: An Option for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region Golam Rasul, Theme Leader, Livelihoods April 30, 2014
  2. 2. Outline 1. Evolving approaches of adaptation 2. Different aspects of Nexus approach 3. Nexus approach and adaptation 4. Relevance of nexus approach in South Asia 5. Nexus challenges in South Asia 6. Role of Himalayas in Nexus security 7. Conclusions & Recommendations
  3. 3. Characteri stics 1990s 2000s 2010s + Overall objective Reducing climate risks & impacts Reducing climate risks & uncertainties Reducing climate risks & impacts with socio-economic improvements Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into development Scope Sector-based approach, location specific Sector based, but adaptation mainstreamed into sectoral planning Trans-sector and trans- boundary approaches Focus of activities Protective: coping strategies, protection of those most vulnerable to climate risks Preventive: coping strategies, prevention of damaging strategies arising from risks to climate-sensitive livelihoods Transformative: building adaptive capacity, transforming social relations, address underlying social & political vulnerability Evolving approaches to adaptation to climate change
  4. 4. Nexus Approach • Nexus approach is a system-wise approach – Provide a framework for assessing trade-offs & synergies – Improve resource use efficiency – Support minimizing trade-offs, maximizing synergies – Generate co-benefits through harnessing complementarities – The nexus approach encourage mutually beneficial responses and enhance the potential for cooperation between & among all sectors.
  5. 5. Interdependencies of Food, Water, Energy and Ecosystem Services Himalayan Ecosystem Services Provisioning Regulating Supporting Cultural • Food, fodder, fuel • Fresh water • Minerals • Raw materials • Pollination • Genetic resources • Climate regulation • Water regulation • Biological control • Disturbance regulation • Regulating precipitation, monsoon • Recharging ground water • Soil formation • Erosion control • Water retention • Nutrient cycling, movement • Traditional knowledge and practices of conservation • recreation, • Agro-biodiversity Enhanced Food, Water, Energy Security Food and Agriculture Water EnergyWater need for energy, energy for water Energy policy influences water demand & vice versa
  6. 6. Food, water, Energy: Trade-off & Synergies • Competition – Land - for food, energy, hydropower, ecosystem – Water – for food, energy – Energy - for agriculture, water • Complementarities – Agriculture contributes to energy-biomass, energy crops, biofuels. – Better agricultural practices > conserve watersheds > water availability in dry season – Good water management, e.g., irrigation efficiency > reduce demand for water & energy – Growing biofuels in unused land > energy security, food security
  7. 7. Food, water, Energy: Trade-off & Synergies • Policy linkages – Agric. Policy > water & energy demand – Energy policy > energy & water demand – Water policy > irrigation, agric., energy supply – Energy prices may divert land for energy crops– affect food security • Challenge- minimize trade-offs, maximize synergies • Subsidizing energy for irrigation > agric production > overexploitation of groundwater - threatened long-term agricultural sustainability.
  8. 8. Nexus Approach and Adaptation • Most adaptation measures are sectoral or project driven • Sectoral approach promote cross-sectoral externalities and Mal-adaptation • Understanding the interlinkages between the water, energy, and food is vital for devising sustainable adaptation strategy • Nexus can be a pathway to climate adaptation and sustainable development through enhancing synergies and complementarities
  9. 9. • Why Nexus Approach Critical for Food, Water, Energy Security in South Asia
  10. 10. Nexus Approach in South Asia • With 3% of land, SA has to feed 20% population • Per capita agricultural land has been declining • Population will reach 2.2 billion in 2050 • Cereal demand will increase from 241 to 476 million MT in 2050 • Increased production needs to come from limited or shrinking areas of cultivable lands • Water demand for irrigation will increase about 70% • Fertilizer demand will increase over 100%
  11. 11. Nexus Approach in South Asia • About 7080% of agricultural production depends on groundwater irrigation • Electricity consumption in irrigation has increased several times • Food production highly sensitive & vulnerable to climate changes • Climate change likely to increase water & energy demand for food production & land demand for bio-fuel production
  12. 12. • Nexus Challenges
  13. 13. Nexus Challenges: Food Security • Food production needs to be doubled in next 25 years • Per capita agricultural land has been declining • Rice & wheat- high water & energy demanding • Increased production needs to come from limited or shrinking areas of cultivable lands • Intensification of agriculture has led to a great dependence on water & energy • Competition for land for food and bio-energy crops & ecosystem services
  14. 14. Nexus Challenges: Water Security • Growing water demand for agriculture, energy, industry, human & livestock • Uneven endowment of water resources • Almost 90% water is consumed by the agriculture sector • About 20% of the population lack access to safe drinking water • Groundwater depletion: 70-80% of the agricultural production depends on groundwater irrigation • Water pollution – arsenic, water borne diseases, high child mortality, poor human health, salinization • Growing water stress- Pakistan, India
  15. 15. Nexus Challenges: Energy Security • Widening demand - supply gap • 63% no electricity -65% use biomass for cooking • Shortage of energy impedes economic growth • Meeting growing energy demand for agriculture, water, industry & other economic activities • High dependence on traditional sources, fossil fuels, imported energy • Reducing reliance upon fossil fuels & carbon intensity
  16. 16. Nexus Challenge: Climate change • Climate change is a major concern - alterations in SA - temperature & precipitation, melting Himalayan glaciers, and degradation of natural resources & environment • Fresh water availability is projected to unreliable • Increased frequency of extreme events, drought, floods, variabil ity in climate, affecting monsoon 1990-2080 (% change) World -0.6 to -0.9 Developed Countries 2.7 to 9.0 Developing Countries -3.3 to -7.2 Southeast Asia -2.5 to -7.8 South Asia -18.2 to -22.1 Sub-Saharan Africa -3.9 to -7.5 Latin America 5.2 to 12.5
  17. 17. Role of Himalayas in Food, Water, Energy Security in South Asia
  18. 18. Himalayas – the water tower of Asia •Himalayan freshwater 54,000 glaciers , covering 60,000 Km2 •Largest body of ice outside the Polar caps • Store about 12,000 km3 of freshwater
  19. 19. Indo-Gangetic Plain- bread basket of SA • World’s largest irrigated agriculture in IGBP • Rice-wheat system produces the bulk of the food-grains of SA
  20. 20. Ground water recharge •Himalayan watersheds are natural storage of water •Himalayas influences the ground water condition of IGBP - Recharge deep aquifers •IGBP is rich in ground water – replenish by rainfall, snow & ice melting & seepage from Himalayan watershed
  21. 21. Energy Security • Himalayas have vital role in energy security in SA • Hydropower potential 500 GW • Himalayas can provide access to green energy • Of the total hydropower potential in India, 79% is in the Himalayan region • Micro-hydropower
  22. 22. Conclusions • Regional interdependencies of the food, water, energy nexus in the HKH mountain systems & downstream. • Inter-country coordination & collaboration is critical for long-term solutions for food, water, and energy security in SA. • Himalayan ecosystem services are vital to both upstream & downstream food, water & energy security • A basin-level approach is required to manage synergies & trade-offs in food, water, & energy nexus. • The Himalaya is a regional public good, it is common interest & shared responsibility to protect the Himalayan ecosystems
  23. 23. Recommendations • Strengthen inter-sectoral coordination • Recognize the role of HKH mountain ecosystems, upstream-downstream interdependencies • Optimum development & sustainable use of Himalayan water for water, energy & food security • Manage headwaters of the Himalayan rivers- Himalayan watersheds, forests, rangelands & farmlands. • Provide incentives to local communities for sustainable use & management of the headwaters.
  24. 24. Recommendations • Develop micro & macro hydropower optimally- identify potential hydropower areas, demarcate fragile zones . • Framework for regional cooperation for multiple uses of water for irrigation, energy, fisheries, domestic uses & for benefit-sharing. • Promote interdisciplinary research & a nexus knowledge base to support decision-making in managing trade-offs & promoting synergies
  25. 25. Thank youThank you

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