NANOTECHNOLOGY THE SMALLER WORLD THE SMALLER WORLD THE SMALLER WORLD THE SMALLER WORLD THE SMALLER WORLDTHE SMALLER WORLD
Things that you would have heard with the word ‘nano’most often…Our Most famous Tata nano IPod nano Well.. So what is so nano about all these stuffs? Nothing at all….!!!!
SO WHAT IS NANO?NANO IS A GREEK WORD MEANING EXTREMELY SMALL ! A nanometer is one billionth of a meter!!!A human hair is 100000nm inthickness!Nanotechnology dealswith sizes from 1-100nmrange
What is nanotechnology? According to new ISO working definition Nanotechnology is the application of scientific knowledge to control and use of matter at the nanoscale, where size related phenomena and processes may occurIn simple words …Its making small stuffs do big things Nanotechnology is molecular manufacturing or, more simply, building things one atom or molecule at a time with programmed nanoscopic robot arms It is a science of assembling things atom by atom or molecule by molecule
What if we are able to rearrange atoms? Coal---- diamond Sand---- computer chips Healthy you--- hospitalized you
How it started?... The buzzword nanotechnology Richard Feynman said …”there’s plenty of room at the bottom” in December 1959Feynman announced a prize of $1000 to anyone who1) Is able to built a motor small enough to fit in 1/64’’*1/64’’*1/64’’* space2)Is able to write a page of text with letters so small enough for theencyclopedia Britannica to be printed on a pin head. Richard From there starts the Feynman prize series.. Feynman 1st one goes to Bill Mc lellan who made the motor with his really good hands 2nd Feynman prize : in 1985 – Tom Newman @ STANFORD UNIVERSITY Used e-beam lithography to write ‘a tale of two cities’ at the length requested by Feynman
It continues until Today .. IBM Research Team Wins Coveted Feynman Prize for Advancing Scanning Probe Microscopy( 15th Jan 2013) Richard E smalley working @ RICE university came up with the most famous Bucky ball , the Buckminster fullerene carbon C 60 molecule 1986 He received the Nobel prize in chemistry in the year 1996 C60 molecule- football the buckyball
S 1959 Feynman gives after-dinner talk describing molecular machines building with atomic precisionh 1974 Taniguchi uses term "nano-technology" in paper on ion-sputter machiningo 1977 Drexler originates molecular nanotechnology concepts at MIT 1981r First technical paper on molecular engineering to build with atomic precision STM inventedt 1985 Buckyball discovered 1986 First book published AFM inventedh First organization formed 1987i First protein engineered First university symposiums 1988 First university courset 1989 IBM logo spelled in individual atoms First national conferenceo DNA-based robotic assembly beginsr Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for work in single atom manipulations and atomic switches, and for development of quantum mechanical methods for theoretical predictions ofy molecules and solids 2011molecular robots learn to walk in any direction along a branched track Mechanical manipulation of silicon dimers on a silicon surface
ALCHEMY ………….>>>> che’mystery’>>>CHEMISTRY An fuzzy thing.. Unclear .. unknowns Chemistry: (mixing, boili ng, cooling etc. etc. Dealing with atoms in more approximate ways
The Launchpad for nanotechnologyPowerful tools1.SCANNING TUNNELLING MICROSCOPE(STM)Its inventors Gred Binnig & Heinrich Rohmer wonNobel prize in 19862.ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE(AFM)inventors3. SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE4.TRANSMISSION AND SCANNING ELECTRONMICROSCOPE5. And many more developed in recent years
We have the tools .. But How to create nanostructures employing these tools???
First transistor invented by William- Winners of Nobel prize in 1956shockley, bardeen, brattain in theChristmas eve of 1947
Nanomaterials:1.Buckyball , C60 molecule2.Nanotubes3.GrapheneWhat isGraphene? And what about carbon nanotubes?
Applications of nanotechnologyMEDICAL APPLICATIONS: a) drug delivery b)therapy techniques c) diagnostictechniques e)anti-microbial techniques f) cell repair
Cosmetic applications Cosmetic creams have nanoparticles in it such as SiO2,TiO2 etc. These absorb the harmful UV radiation thus protecting the skin It helps in useful delivery of nutrients into the skin
Applications related to GrapheneIts very strong – an atom thickness__> elephantGraphite – conductor but Graphene is not hence they have power to revolutionizesolid state physicsHigh speed low noise transistors are possible because Graphene has high e-mobilityIt’s a 2-D structure with high breaking strength 200 times more durable than steel98% transparencyIncredibly flexibleUses touch screens, flexible mobiles, TV’s, display monitors and many more….
Carbon nanotubes: ( it’s a wonderful thing) Graphene (sheet) A Carbon nanotube (1-2nm width) Perhaps the strongest material we will ever have in the universe!(hence lighter and stronger aircrafts, space crafts etc. can be built) Conducts electricity much better than any other metals ( Cu, Al, Ag etc.) 1 single nanotube 1nm in diameter can carry 50µA of current 1µm dia2000A of current ( which is carried by 1cm Cu wire today) !!! 100’s of millions of amps can be carried very easily if we use this material It works well with any temperature ranges ( low , medium, high )
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN OUR EVERYDAY LIFE if you stretch out an arm youll almost certainly be able to grab something that employs nanotechnology you might also be breathing in nanoparticles that have been around for many years. "Nature is all about nanoscale structures. It starts with the cell" Silk is a prime example of naturally occurring nanotechnology Nanostructures on the surface of lotus leaves repel water This "lotus effect" is the basis behind self-cleaning windows "There are things weve been using for a long time which contain nanosize components, like the lasers in DVD and CD players“ From the clothes and sunglasses you wear to computer hard drives and even cleaning products, nanotechnology – often inspired by the natural world – plays a big part in the manufacture of many familiar products coated on the surface of your plane ( aeroplane or flight) to reduce drag. it is impossible not to encounter technology based on the manipulation of the very small.
Nanotechnology drives our future The nano revolution!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!