Academic writing

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Academic writing

  1. 1. ACADEMIC WRITING
  2. 2. Academic Writing  It takes the form of a formal paper that follows specific standards such as the use of a formal language, referencing where sources are given credit, and specific grammatical patterns, organization and argument. 
  3. 3. Academic Writing  It is different from other types of writing such as creative writing and journalistic writing due to its distinct content and format.
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS 1. AUDIENCE Guidelines for understanding your audience (Trimmer, 2004): a. Who are the readers that will be most interested in my writing? b. What do my readers know or think about my subject?
  5. 5. CHARACTERISTICS c. Why will my readers read my writing? d. How can I interest my readers in my subject? e. How can I help my readers read my writing
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS 2. PURPOSE - refers to the writer’s objective in writing about a certain topic.  to explain (inform, educate)  to entertain (amuse)  to persuade (convince, or change reader’s mind)
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTICS 3. VOICE ( Academic Voice) It is used to distinguish between your thoughts and words and those of other authors.
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS 3. VOICE ( Academic Voice) It is used to distinguish between your thoughts and words and those of other authors.
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS DIRECT VOICE - is either your own or that of other writers that you quote directly. INDIRECT VOICE - When you make a summary or paraphrase someone’s ideas.
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS 4. CONVENTIONS it refers to the rules about appearance and format of the writing. In academic writing you need to follow specific standards, rule, and format ( grammar, punctuations, spelling, organizations, style, and citations)
  11. 11. ACADEMIC WRITING FEATURES  FORMALITY In general this means in an essay that you should avoid: a. colloquial words and expressions; ""stuff", "a lot of", "thing", "sort of", b. abbreviated forms: "can't", "doesn't", "shouldn't"
  12. 12. ACADEMIC WRITING FEATURES  FORMALITY c. two word verbs: "put off", "bring up" d. sub-headings, numbering and bullet-points in formal essays but use them in reports. e. asking questions.
  13. 13. ACADEMIC WRITING FEATURES  IMPERSONALITY An objective tone can be achieved through the use of impersonal language. Avoid characteristics of personal language such as: using personal pronouns, using judgmental words that indicate your feelings about a subject, and using words that are emotive.
  14. 14. ACADEMIC WRITING FEATURES  HEDGING the concept of cautious language, often called "hedging" or "vague language". In other words, it is necessary to make decisions about your stance on a particular subject, or the strength of the claims you are making.
  15. 15. ACADEMIC WRITING FEATURES SPECIFIC AND STRUCTURE
  16. 16. TIPS:SURVIVING ACADEMIC WRITING 1. Know your topic and the demand of the task. 2. Understand your audience. 3. Specify your purpose 4. Specify your role

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