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JOHN CUSTY • ITSM CONSULTANT • JPG GROUP • @ITSMNINJA
Problem Management:
Making It Work For Your Organization
John Custy
Service Management Practitioner,
Consultant and Educator
jpcgroup@outlook.com
•Ron Muns Lifetime Achievement Aw...
Get insightsRecover fasterMeet availability
Why problem management?
Increase value
Decrease time-to-
resolution (MTRS,
MTT...
The value of
problem
management
Decreased costs
Customers can be more productive
due to improved service availability.
Red...
• Big cool statistic
• 2,56
9
• Add-Ons in Marketplace
Problem Management:
Current state and challenges
Today, everyone does
it their own way
Source: KT/ITpreneurs
The result:
significant rework
for escalations and
transfers.
Source: KT/ITpreneurs
?
Outcome: Extended Resolution
0
75
150
225
300
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20
Owners
MeanTimetoSolve(Day...
PROBLEM MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
WHY DO PROBLEM MANAGEMENT
NEXT STEPS
Agenda
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Manageme...
1. Prevent problems and related
incidents from happening
Problem Management:
2. Eliminate recurring incidents
3. Minimize ...
Key concepts:
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
Incidents
Incident
Problem
Pro...
Problem Management Process Metrics
Total # of problems recorded in the period Backlog of outstanding problems
Percentage o...
Problem Management Value Metrics
Downtime eliminated
(Productivity improvements for the
business and IT)
Confidence/Image/...
Problem
Management
Benefits
Increased service quality.
Quality
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in ...
Problem
Management
Benefits
Reduced # of incidents and problems.
Fewer issues
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Mana...
Problem
Management
Benefits
Permanent solutions.
Fixes
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Org...
Problem
Management
Benefits
Improved workarounds.
Better ideas
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in ...
Problem
Management
Benefits
Historical data informs future
decisions.
Learning
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Man...
Problem
Management
Benefits
Higher first-level resolution rate.
Fewer escalations
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem M...
Problem
Management
Benefits
Higher technical awareness within the
IT organization.
Shared knowledge
Copyright 2015 JPCGrou...
Problem
Management
Benefits
More informed decision making.
Better decisions
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Manage...
1. Clear goals and objectives
2. Clear policies
3. Resources allocated to problem management
4. Roles clearly defined
5. Pr...
• Big cool statistic
• 2,56
9
• Add-Ons in Marketplace
Problem Management
Techniques
5 WHY’S
BRAINSTORMING
PAIN VALUE ANALYSIS
CHRONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Proven problem analysis techniques that have shown
to del...
•The most common type of problem analysis
•Relevant experts meet together (physically or virtually)
•Identify their ideas ...
•This analysis is used when attempting to understand the
impact of incidents/problems on the business.
•It is possible to ...
1.Develop a timeline
2.Document all events in a chronological order
3.Determine which events triggered other events
4.Disc...
Chronological analysis:
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
Builds a timeline of...
Ishikawa
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
Developed by Kaoru Ishikawa, this i...
Ishikawa Diagram
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
Main Cause Main Cause
Level...
Root Cause Analysis Flow Chart:
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
1.Build a table showing potential causes
2.Sort the rows by importance (descending)
3.Plot causes (x-axis) and cumulative ...
Pareto Analysis:
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
A statistical approach to p...
Pareto Analysis:
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120...
•A rational model that is well respected in
business management circles. An
important aspect of KT decision-making is
the ...
Four steps in
Kepner-Tregoe
Decision Making
Potential problem analysis
Clarify the situation, outline concerns and
choose ...
Technique Purpose Pros Cons
Chronological Analysis
Useful for complex problems
with conflicting reports about
what happene...
• Big cool statistic
• 2,56
9
• Add-Ons in Marketplace
Next Steps:
What do you need to do to improve
your problem manageme...
Assess current stateClarify goalsSponsorship
Next steps:
Clarify roles
Is it more available
services? Improved
productivit...
Successful problem-solving approach:
Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
Quality...
Thank you!
JOHN CUSTY • ITSM CONSULTANT • JPG GROUP • @ITSMNINJA
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Making Problem Management Work for Your Organization

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Houston, we have a problem. Too many companies are fixated on the definitions of ITIL and problem management instead of actually getting value out of them. When you don't have a bonafide problem management policy, plus the training and skills to back it up, your team is likely to spend too much energy on ineffective activities. But there's hope. IT veteran John Custy will introduce the concepts you need to understand, dispel a few misconceptions, and explain the different problem management methodologies. He'll also cover the pros and cons of each methodology, and when to use each of them.

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Making Problem Management Work for Your Organization

  1. 1. JOHN CUSTY • ITSM CONSULTANT • JPG GROUP • @ITSMNINJA Problem Management: Making It Work For Your Organization
  2. 2. John Custy Service Management Practitioner, Consultant and Educator jpcgroup@outlook.com •Ron Muns Lifetime Achievement Award •IT Industry Legend – Cherwell Software •Distinguished Professional in IT Service Management •ITIL Expert and ITIL Accredited Trainer •ISFS, ISMAS based on ISO/IEC 27002 •ISO/IEC 20000 Consultant •DevOps Certified Instructor •KCS Verified Consultant •HDI Faculty & Certified Instructor Twitter: @ITSMNinja Facebook: John Custy LinkedIn: johncusty Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  3. 3. Get insightsRecover fasterMeet availability Why problem management? Increase value Decrease time-to- resolution (MTRS, MTTR). Ensure services meet the availability of the business Reports are more than just outages. How much time is lost for reoccurring issues? Improve the availability of your IT services, reduce downtime and cut down costs. Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  4. 4. The value of problem management Decreased costs Customers can be more productive due to improved service availability. Reduced downtime Customers experience less downtime due to increased IT service availability. Improved productivity Lower costs due to reduction of recurring incidents. Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  5. 5. • Big cool statistic • 2,56 9 • Add-Ons in Marketplace Problem Management: Current state and challenges
  6. 6. Today, everyone does it their own way Source: KT/ITpreneurs
  7. 7. The result: significant rework for escalations and transfers. Source: KT/ITpreneurs ?
  8. 8. Outcome: Extended Resolution 0 75 150 225 300 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 Owners MeanTimetoSolve(Days) Source: KT/ITpreneurs
  9. 9. PROBLEM MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES WHY DO PROBLEM MANAGEMENT NEXT STEPS Agenda Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  10. 10. 1. Prevent problems and related incidents from happening Problem Management: 2. Eliminate recurring incidents 3. Minimize the impact of incidents that can’t be prevented Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  11. 11. Key concepts: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ Incidents Incident Problem Problem Known error Request for change Your service management tooling must support these relationships
  12. 12. Problem Management Process Metrics Total # of problems recorded in the period Backlog of outstanding problems Percentage of problems resolved within their targets Avg cost of handling a problem # of problems that exceed their target resolution times # of known errors added to the KEDB % of problems that exceed their target resolution times % of major problem reviews completed successfully & on time # of major problems % of accuracy of the KEDB Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  13. 13. Problem Management Value Metrics Downtime eliminated (Productivity improvements for the business and IT) Confidence/Image/Perception Cost of problem management Reduce stories about downtime Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  14. 14. Problem Management Benefits Increased service quality. Quality Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  15. 15. Problem Management Benefits Reduced # of incidents and problems. Fewer issues Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  16. 16. Problem Management Benefits Permanent solutions. Fixes Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  17. 17. Problem Management Benefits Improved workarounds. Better ideas Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  18. 18. Problem Management Benefits Historical data informs future decisions. Learning Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  19. 19. Problem Management Benefits Higher first-level resolution rate. Fewer escalations Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  20. 20. Problem Management Benefits Higher technical awareness within the IT organization. Shared knowledge Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  21. 21. Problem Management Benefits More informed decision making. Better decisions Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  22. 22. 1. Clear goals and objectives 2. Clear policies 3. Resources allocated to problem management 4. Roles clearly defined 5. Process relationships (incident, knowledge, change, release, deployment, financial and service levels) 6. Value communicated and understood Problem Management Challenges: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  23. 23. • Big cool statistic • 2,56 9 • Add-Ons in Marketplace Problem Management Techniques
  24. 24. 5 WHY’S BRAINSTORMING PAIN VALUE ANALYSIS CHRONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Proven problem analysis techniques that have shown to deliver positive results: ISHIKAWA DIAGRAMS PARETO ANALYSIS KEPLER TREGOE
  25. 25. •The most common type of problem analysis •Relevant experts meet together (physically or virtually) •Identify their ideas on the potential cause of the problem •Sessions can be very constructive, but can also be time- consuming •Sessions should be structured with a moderator • Documents the session • Identifies actions •Follow-up items listed and assignments Brainstorming: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  26. 26. •This analysis is used when attempting to understand the impact of incidents/problems on the business. •It is possible to design a formula to measure the level of pain using variables: •The investigation may also bring up info to help diagnose, assess and ultimately correct the problem. Pain Value Analysis: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ # of users affected Length of downtime Timing of the downtime Cost to the business (user time, lost sales, penalties, etc).
  27. 27. 1.Develop a timeline 2.Document all events in a chronological order 3.Determine which events triggered other events 4.Discount claims that are not supported by evidence 5.Correlate and identify root cause 6.Attempt recreation, if practical, to confirm root cause Chronological analysis: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ Builds a timeline of what happened when (from event and/or incident data). The timeline can be used to identify cause and effect events and validate assumptions not supported by the events.
  28. 28. Chronological analysis: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ Builds a timeline of what happened when (from event and/or incident data). The timeline can be used to identify cause and effect events and validate assumptions not supported by the events. Incident Detection Repair Restore Solved incident Diagnosis Recovery Time
  29. 29. Ishikawa Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ Developed by Kaoru Ishikawa, this is a graphical technique that helps identify all possible causes of an effect, such as a problem. It’s sometimes called a “fishbone” diagram.
  30. 30. Ishikawa Diagram Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ Main Cause Main Cause Level 1 Causes Level 2 Causes Level 1 Causes Level 2 Causes Main Cause Main Cause Level 2 Causes Level 2 Causes Level 1 Causes Level 1 Causes Level 2 Causes Level 2 Causes Problem to be resolved (effect)
  31. 31. Root Cause Analysis Flow Chart: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  32. 32. 1.Build a table showing potential causes 2.Sort the rows by importance (descending) 3.Plot causes (x-axis) and cumulative % (y-axis) and draw line connecting the points (curve) 4.Plot bar graph with causes on x-asis 5.Draw line at 80% of y-axis (parallel to x-axis) 6.Where line and curve intersect, drop a line to x-axis 7.You’ll see important causes to the left, trivial to the right Pareto Analysis: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ A statistical approach to problem-solving that is oriented to focusing on the potential issues causing the greatest effect.
  33. 33. Pareto Analysis: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ A statistical approach to problem-solving that is oriented to focusing on the potential issues causing the greatest effect. Cause % of errors Cumulative % of errors Network controller 35 % 35 % File corruption 26 % 61 % Addressing conflicts 19 % 80 % Server OS 6 % 86 % Scripting error 5 % 91 % Untested change 3 % 94 % Operator error 2 % 96 % Backup failure 2 % 98 % Intrusion attempts 1 % 99 % Disk failure 1 % 100 %
  34. 34. Pareto Analysis: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% N etw orkFile corruption ServerO SScripting error Untested changeO peratorerrorBackup failure Intrusion D isk failure Cumulative % % of Errors Important Trivial
  35. 35. •A rational model that is well respected in business management circles. An important aspect of KT decision-making is the assessment and prioritization of risk. •KT is not about finding a perfect solution, but rather the best possible choice, based on actually achieving the outcome with minimal negative consequences. Kepner-Tregoe (KT) Analysis: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  36. 36. Four steps in Kepner-Tregoe Decision Making Potential problem analysis Clarify the situation, outline concerns and choose a direction. Problem analysis Define the problem and determine root cause. Situational appraisal Further scrutinize alternatives against potential problems and negative consequences to find the best. Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ Decision analysis Identify alternatives and analyze risk for each.
  37. 37. Technique Purpose Pros Cons Chronological Analysis Useful for complex problems with conflicting reports about what happened • Can provide a timeline to help discover causes • Does a good job of documenting what/when and where the event occurred • Often times, little or no analysis occurs - events just recorded • Creative thinking is limited to a pre-defined set of questions • Can produce data that requires investigation and doesn’t lead to clarity Brainstorming Useful for generating ideas • Easy • Reduces domination • Prioritizes ideas • Process may appear too mechanical or rigid Kepler & Tregoe Useful when there are many potential causes • Mature technique • Detailed • Well-documented • Can be time-consuming as you consider many possible causes Ishikawa Diagrams Useful for identifying all probable causes • Act as a checklist of possible causes • Works well with cross-functional teams • Difficult to create a list of causes that can account for all possible causes • Identifying true root cause can be challenging Pareto Analysis Useful for identifying the most important potential causes • Statistical approach to problem-solving, leaves a positive perception with stakeholders • Intended to direct resources to most common causes • Limited by accuracy of the data used to create the histogram • Best used as a tool to identify where to start your analysis Five Why’s Useful for identifying the root cause on minor problems • Most simplistic technique to use • Identifies causal relationships • Limited to the knowledge and experience of the problem owner in determining root cause • Not as useful for problems that require investigation by cross- functional teams Fault Tree Analysis Useful for identifying links between possible causes • Works well to identify possible system or design failures • Works well to identify causal relationships • Helps to determine if certain causal relationships are probable • Limited to known failure rates of components • Best used to support root cause analysis Problem Management Techniques: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  38. 38. • Big cool statistic • 2,56 9 • Add-Ons in Marketplace Next Steps: What do you need to do to improve your problem management process?
  39. 39. Assess current stateClarify goalsSponsorship Next steps: Clarify roles Is it more available services? Improved productivity of staff and customers? Who is the champion for this initiative? What’s your maturity state? Assess culture, people and tools in addition to process. What is your strategy? What are the process relationships and roles involved? Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’
  40. 40. Successful problem-solving approach: Copyright 2015 JPCGroup ‘Making Problem Management Work in Your Organization’ Quality Adoption Results Problem-Solving Skill Transfer Coaching + Alignment of: Processes and triggers Expectations > Consequences > Feedback Measurement Documentation and Knowledge Creation (software) Role modeling (leadership) Resolution time Cost per incident/problem CSAT
  41. 41. Thank you! JOHN CUSTY • ITSM CONSULTANT • JPG GROUP • @ITSMNINJA

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