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Becoming a Git Master - Nicola Paolucci

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Wrapped in a single session, you'll find the concepts and techniques that convert the average Git practitioner into a master of the craft. We'll go from technical topics like "efficient conflict resolution" and "effective code cleanup," to the often-asked "how to handle project dependencies with Git" and "how to manage massive repositories." And much more.

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Becoming a Git Master - Nicola Paolucci

  1. 1. #atlassian
  2. 2. Becoming a Git Master: Concepts and Techniques to convert you into a master of the DVCS craft NICOLA PAOLUCCI • DEVELOPER ADVOCATE • ATLASSIAN • @DURDN
  3. 3. Becoming a Git Master: Concepts and Techniques to convert you into a master of the DVCS craft NICOLA PAOLUCCI • DEVELOPER ADVOCATE • ATLASSIAN • @DURDN
  4. 4. Marcus Bertrand Tim Pettersen I'm George. George McFly. I'm your density… I mean, your destiny Stefan Saasen Sarah Goff Dupont
  5. 5. Let’s Become Git Pros!
  6. 6. Here you’ll learn: PRO ALIASES & PROMPT HIDING STUFF CONFLICT RESOLUTION TIPS POLISH YOUR CODE PREVENT TAMPERING PROJECT DEPENDENCIES
  7. 7. A pro command prompt
  8. 8. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Everyone has their favorite, but! Liquid prompt is awesome http://bit.do/liquid-prompt
  9. 9. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Everyone has their favorite, but! Liquid prompt is awesome http://bit.do/liquid-prompt
  10. 10. Crafting Awesome Aliases
  11. 11. Aliases are stored in .gitconfig
  12. 12. In a section prefixed: [alias]
  13. 13. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Basic Alias Form Very simple: ls = log --oneline [vagrant@vagrant-ubuntu-trusty-64:/home/vagrant/buildstep] master ± git ls 90aa814 Merge pull request #85 from marqu3z/master f1eb16b overwrite source.list e6b9d16 change repo before prepare task 8bc10c0 Fix for deprecated repository e34d861 Link to buildpacks.txt instead 4502635 Merge pull request #76 from elia/fix-72-no-buildpack-bundle-install 38be796 Bundle install ain't needed against the buildpack
  14. 14. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT You can do great things with just this For example: amend the last commit with everything I have here uncommitted and new caa = commit -a --amend -C HEAD
  15. 15. You can’t pass parameters to simple aliases :(
  16. 16. Or can you?!
  17. 17. muahahhahahhaha hahahahahahahha hahahhahahahah!
  18. 18. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT For multiple commands or complex parameters use a bash function! You can escape to a shell with ! like this: my_alias = "!f() { <command> }; f”
  19. 19. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Some useful shortcuts and variables More in any bash manual $1 - first command line parameter $2 - second command line parameter $@ - all command line parameters passed
  20. 20. Ma, it’s the mini-DSL I always wanted!
  21. 21. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT What can you do with this? Cool cool things, for example add a Bitbucket remote: git remote add $1 https://bitbucket.org/$2.git;
  22. 22. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT ra = "!f() { }; f" What can you do with this? Cool cool things, for example add a Bitbucket remote: git remote add $1 https://bitbucket.org/$2.git;
  23. 23. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT ra = "!f() { }; f" What can you do with this? Cool cool things, for example add a Bitbucket remote: git remote add $1 https://bitbucket.org/$2.git; git ra jsmith jsmith/prj
  24. 24. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT ra = "!f() { }; f" What can you do with this? Cool cool things, for example add a Bitbucket remote: git remote add $1 https://bitbucket.org/$2.git; git ra jsmith jsmith/prj
  25. 25. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Get all the alias goodness on Bitbucket http://bit.do/git-aliases
  26. 26. Powers of invisibility © http://www.amigosdosbichos.org/
  27. 27. Powers of invisibility © http://www.amigosdosbichos.org/
  28. 28. Tell git which files or folders to ignore in .gitignore
  29. 29. What if the file is already committed?!
  30. 30. muahahhahahhaha hahahahahahahha hahahhahahahah!
  31. 31. POWERS OF INVISIBILITY Hide files from Different from .gitignore, it hides committed files git update-index --assume-unchanged <file> very useful with git-svn
  32. 32. POWERS OF INVISIBILITY Hide files from Revert it with: git update-index --no-assume-unchanged <file> remember to add --no
  33. 33. POWERS OF INVISIBILITY List assumed unchanged files git ls-files -v | grep ^h Useful as alias (see alias list from before)
  34. 34. Conflict Resolution Tips
  35. 35. Conflict Resolution Tips
  36. 36. What is a conflict?
  37. 37. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT A word on terminology What do ours and theirs mean when solving conflicts? Current checked out branch !!! --ours
  38. 38. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT A word on terminology What do ours and theirs mean when solving conflicts? Current checked out branch !!! --ours Commit coming in (i.e. via merge) !!! --theirs
  39. 39. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT A word on terminology What do ours and theirs mean when solving conflicts? Current checked out branch !!! --ours Commit coming in (i.e. via merge) !!! --theirs
  40. 40. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Basics for easy conflict resolution The common commands are: $ git checkout --ours/--theirs <file> Check back out our own/their own version of the file
  41. 41. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Basics for easy conflict resolution The common commands are: $ git checkout --ours/--theirs <file> Check back out our own/their own version of the file $ git add <file> Add the change to the index will resolve the conflict
  42. 42. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Aliases for easy conflict resolution Add these to [alias] in .gitconfig: git checkout --ours $@ && git add $@;
  43. 43. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Aliases for easy conflict resolution Add these to [alias] in .gitconfig: ours = "!f() { git checkout --ours $@ && git add $@; }; f"
  44. 44. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT rerere resolve! Reuse Recorded Resolution will help you when dealing with repetitive and similar merge conflicts. $ git config --global rerere.enabled true Turns it on and forget about it
  45. 45. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Sample output rerere $ git add hello.rb $ git commit Recorded resolution for 'hello.rb'. [master 68e16e5] Merge branch 'i18n'
  46. 46. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Sample output rerere $ git add hello.rb $ git commit Recorded resolution for 'hello.rb'. [master 68e16e5] Merge branch 'i18n' Auto-merging hello.rb CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in hello.rb Resolved 'hello.rb' using previous resolution.
  47. 47. Cover your tracks (aka polish your code)
  48. 48. Cover your tracks (aka polish your code)
  49. 49. POLISH YOUR CODE What is a rebase? It’s a way to replay commits, one by one, on top of a branch MASTER FEATURE
  50. 50. POLISH YOUR CODE What is a rebase? It’s a way to replay commits, one by one, on top of a branch MASTER FEATURE
  51. 51. POLISH YOUR CODE What is a rebase? It’s a way to replay commits, one by one, on top of a branch MASTER FEATURE
  52. 52. POLISH YOUR CODE What is a rebase? It’s a way to replay commits, one by one, on top of a branch MASTER FEATURE
  53. 53. POLISH YOUR CODE What is a rebase? It’s a way to replay commits, one by one, on top of a branch MASTER FEATURE Don’t use!
  54. 54. POLISH YOUR CODE What is a rebase? Correct way to use rebase to update a feature branch MASTER FEATURE
  55. 55. POLISH YOUR CODE What is a rebase? Correct way to use rebase to update a feature branch MASTER FEATURE
  56. 56. POLISH YOUR CODE What is an --interactive rebase? It’s a way to replay commits, one by one, deciding interactively what to do with each PICK! SQUASH REWORD! FIXUP EDIT ! EXEC
  57. 57. POLISH YOUR CODE --autosquash Automatically modify the todo list of rebase --interactive by annotating commits $ git config --global rebase.autosquash true Turns on the feature
  58. 58. POLISH YOUR CODE --autosquash You can prepend commit messages with: git commit -m “squash! …" git commit -m “fixup! …" git commit -m “reword! …" etc… Rebase task list will be then prepopulated
  59. 59. CUSTOMARY WARNING! rebase rewrites history! Treat this power with great care. Only rewrite history of local branches or…
  60. 60. Prevent tampering
  61. 61. Always a balancing act Security DevSpeed
  62. 62. PREVENT TAMPERING Lock down your repo Edit .git/config in the [receive] section: # no rewriting history denyNonFastForwards = true ! # no deleting history denyDeletes = true ! # check object consistency fsckObjects = true
  63. 63. Reject force push, Luke Git project has already an update hook ‘update-paranoid’ that is designed to reject history rewriting updates http://bit.do/update-paranoid
  64. 64. Reject force push,Luke
  65. 65. Reject force push,Luke
  66. 66. PREVENT TAMPERING Impersonating Authors is easy with $ git commit -m "I'm Luke" $ git commit --author "Elvis <elvis@graceland.net>" -m "I'm elvis" commit a9f0967cba236465d6cb68247.. Author: Elvis <elvis@graceland.net> Date: Mon Apr 22 18:06:35 2013 -0500 ! I'm Elvis ! commit d6eb7572cbb4bdd8e2aaa5c90.. Author: Luke <luke@tatooine.com> Date: Mon Apr 22 18:04:54 2013 -0500 ! I'm Luke
  67. 67. PREVENT TAMPERING Finally you can sign/verify tags git tag -s <tag_name> -m “message” Sign a tag with your GPG key git tag -v <tag_name> Verifies that the signature is valid
  68. 68. Signing release tags is often all you need
  69. 69. PREVENT TAMPERING Aside on GPG The GNU Privacy Guard GnuPG allows to encrypt and sign your data and communication, features a versatile key management system.
  70. 70. PREVENT TAMPERING Harden up by signing things Sample gpg commands to get you started:
  71. 71. PREVENT TAMPERING Harden up by signing things Sample gpg commands to get you started: gpg --gen-key Generate your GPG keys
  72. 72. PREVENT TAMPERING Harden up by signing things Sample gpg commands to get you started: gpg --gen-key Generate your GPG keys gpg -k List your keys
  73. 73. PREVENT TAMPERING Harden up by signing things Sample gpg commands to get you started: gpg --gen-key Generate your GPG keys gpg -k List your keys gpg -a --export <keyid> Export your key
  74. 74. PREVENT TAMPERING Hide files in raw objects The way the Linux kernel hackers do it git hash-object -w <file>
  75. 75. PREVENT TAMPERING Hide files in raw objects The way the Linux kernel hackers do it actually writes into the object db git hash-object -w <file>
  76. 76. PREVENT TAMPERING Hide files in raw objects The way the Linux kernel hackers do it actually writes into the object db git hash-object -w <file> Remember to associate a tag to it or it will be garbage collected
  77. 77. PREVENT TAMPERING Store your signature in Simple! Add a tag referencing your public key gpg -a --export <keyid> | git hash-object -w --stdin Store your public key in a raw object
  78. 78. PREVENT TAMPERING Store your signature in Simple! Add a tag referencing your public key gpg -a --export <keyid> | git hash-object -w --stdin Store your public key in a raw object git tag nicks-key 65704f3… Tag the raw object with a label
  79. 79. PREVENT TAMPERING Store your signature in Simple! Add a tag referencing your public key gpg -a --export <keyid> | git hash-object -w --stdin Store your public key in a raw object git tag nicks-key 65704f3… Tag the raw object with a label raw object id
  80. 80. PREVENT TAMPERING Import other public keys git cat-file -p tims-key | gpg --import Import a GPG key from a tag
  81. 81. PREVENT TAMPERING Finally you can sign/verify tags git tag -s <tag_name> -m “message” Sign a tag with your GPG key git tag -v <tag_name> Verifies that the signature is valid
  82. 82. and Project Dependencies
  83. 83. How do you handle project dependencies with ?
  84. 84. Splitting up a project is painful, for so many reasons
  85. 85. Use a build/dependency tool instead of
  86. 86. GIT AND PROJECT DEPENDENCIES I’ll give you an incomplete list of examples! Java Nodejs Javascript Python Pip easy-install Ruby
  87. 87. GIT AND PROJECT DEPENDENCIES I’ll give you an incomplete list of examples! (2) C# C++ c-make Objective C PHP Go godep
  88. 88. Another possibility: use git submodule
  89. 89. Another possibility: use git subtree
  90. 90. Use other build and cross-stack dependency tools
  91. 91. GIT AND PROJECT DEPENDENCIES For example you can check out: •Android Repo (http://bit.do/android-repo) •Repobuild (chrisvana / repobuild) •Chromium depot_tools (http://bit.do/depot-tools) •Facebook Buck (http://facebook.github.io/buck/) •Twitter Pants (http://bit.do/twitter-pants)
  92. 92. PRO ALIASES & PROMPT Review these ideas online http://bit.do/git-deps
  93. 93. Thank you! NICOLA PAOLUCCI • DEVELOPER ADVOCATE • ATLASSIAN • @DURDN
  94. 94. POWERS OF INVISIBILITY Hide files from • Level One • Level Two • Level Two • Level Two • Level One CODE FONT: <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  95. 95. POWERS OF INVISIBILITY Page title here • Level One • Level Two • Level Two • Level Two • Level One
  96. 96. Page title here • Level One • Level Two • Level Two • Level Two • Level One
  97. 97. Page title here Page Title Here • Level One • Level Two • Level Two • Level Two • Level One
  98. 98. Page title here • Level One • Level Two • Level Two • Level Two • Level One
  99. 99. Caption goes here
  100. 100. Just text by itself, for impact.
  101. 101. Just text by itself, for impact.
  102. 102. Just text by itself, for impact.
  103. 103. Just text by itself, for impact.
  104. 104. Just text by itself, for impact.
  105. 105. Type Quote Here And Move Both Quotation Marks To The Beginning And End Of The Quote. Lorem Ipsum Dolor Sit Amet, Conse Cetur Ading Elit. DAVID HANDLY, GLOBOCHEM ” “
  106. 106. Big cool statistic 2,569 Add-Ons in Marketplace
  107. 107. 60 45 30 15 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Page title here
  108. 108. 40% 30% 20% 10% 2007 2008 2009 2010 Page title here
  109. 109. Page title here COLUMN TITLE COLUMN TITLE COLUMN TITLE Content Content Content Content Content Content Content Content Content Content

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