Welcome at Vision
We are proud to show our first edition of Vision. A new online magazine which will provide you with information about
different media perspectives around the world. This edition will be about different digital developments, but also the
effect of those developments. Most people think that we, the western population, are ahead of the rest of the world, but
did you know that Africa was actually way ahead of us? Even though, it is a third-world country, the population actually
is a lot smarter than us when talking about mobile phones and its capabilities! Next to that, our lifestyle is changing.
Social media is being more and more a centre of our environment. It is in fact dominating our life, but is this positive or
negative? What is social media doing to our social capabilities? Not only social media is dominating, actually Internet in
general is dominating. People are able to be “online” and up to date all the time, what is this bringing us? Business wise
it can be interesting, think about the m-commerce that is coming up and giving businesses new marketing opportunities.
On the other hand, Internet can also be a competition towards the traditional Television. Will eventually Internet replace
the Television, because of all the digital developments that are taking place?
In order to get answers to the questions, we invite you to interactive travel around in our Vision!
How Is Mobile Technology Transforming Africa?
Africa is globally seen as a poor and undeveloped continent. However, according to the African Development Bank, Africa is now the
fastest growing continent in the world. One of the sectors in which a huge growth is booked, is the mobile technology sector. The first
cellular call in Africa was made in Zaire in 1987. Nowadays, there are more than 52 million mobile users in the continent, not even limited
to functions of talking-only. The Sub-Saharan Africa Mobile Economy report states that the Sub-Saharan Africa’s unique mobile subscriber base has grown by 18% annually over the last five years, not even included the remaining African countries. This fast spread of
mobile phones in Africa is a noteworthy phenomenon, especially when looking at the enormous economic and social challenges people
are facing. Mobile telephony is creating a whole new business culture, from banking to agriculture to health care.
Africa has done what we call ‘leap frogging’; it has skipped a stage. The continent
skipped the stage of building networks of
fixed telephone lines, directly went on to
wireless phones and even followed up on
this development with a trend that’s not
even launched properly in Europe yet,
namely; mobile paying. Four years ago,
the mobile network Safaricom introduced
a service called M-Pesa, a service that allows people to store money on their mobile phones. Users can pay bills or send
money to friends by simply dispatching
the amount they want by text and the recipients can convert it into cash at a local
M-Pesa office. For most Africans, it wasn’t
possible to open a bank account due to
lack of funds. Now, millions are using the
service. For example, in the African country Kenia, 73% of the population has a mobile phone and more than 50% uses his
or her phone to pay with it. We could call
this a revolution in – African – banking.
Mobile technology is not only revolutionary in banking in Africa, but also in health
care. We all know, even though people
own mobile phones, Africa is a continent
where poverty and diseases like malaria,
AIDS and tuberculosis are present everywhere. Before mobile technology was
developed in Africa, only little surveillance
and monitoring on the health of people in
Africa was possible. Medics had to rely
on a few sites and modeling estimates to
track down ill people and the spread and
place of diseases occurring. I can imagine this being very frustrating, not to be
able to accurately measure where to find
these ill people and so not to be able to
provide help. Mobile technology can bring
– and has already brought – change to
this problem. Because of the wide spread
usage of mobile phones, medics are now
able to receive accurate data that can tell
them who is dying and from what, who is
ill and where diseases are occurring. People can even send visual symptoms to
the nearest medical center. Also, it is now
possible to keep track of medicines and
other health supplies, even in rural areas.
Mobile technology has a high importance
in cases of health-emergencies. Another
great example of using mobile phones in
health care, is the health check-up service
by message. Community health workers
are using text messages to keep an eye
on people living with HIV instead of doing
home visits, which cost more and takes
more time. Vice versa, people can also
contact health workers themselves. This
has already lead to a lowering of the maternal death rate. In addition to this, mobile
phones are also being used to provide in-
formation about diseases, for example by
calling a hotline where health professionals respond to questions about diseases.
In this way, people are always on time with
treating a disease before it gets serious.
Another sector in which mobile technology
has brought many changes, is education.
It has brought changes not only for students, but also for teachers or teachers
in spe. An example is M-Ubuntu – literally translated from Zulu: “I am, because
we are” – a platform that connects African teachers with professional literacy
coaches in the US, England, Sweden
and Italy to help them gain new knowledge and close the digital gap between
these worlds. M-Ubuntu enables teachers to use recycled smart phones to bring
introduce handheld computing to their
students. This can be students who are
in the vget a degree. These students are
learning remotely. They don’t use computers, due to a lack of funds and electricity,
but instead they use smartphones. These
smartphones allow them access to the
web and also loads of online courses and
literature offered by the greatest universities in the world, all at very low costs. We
can definitely conclude that mobile technology has improved education in Africa.
A sector which cannot be left undeveloped mobile-wise, is agriculture. Loads
of positive improvements have presented
themselves. Farmers can now use the
“The Sub-Saharan Africa’s unique mobile subscriber base has grown
by 18% annually over the last five years”
earlier described mobile payment systems to quickly and safely transfer money
to colleagues and do business. Next to
this, they can use a mobile micro-lending
system to lend money – or goods – to others and even a mobile micro-insurance
especially for farmers to protect themselves against losses when bad weather
destroys their harvest or against injuries
at work. By making this insurances mobile, it is accessible for everyone, since it
is way cheaper than an insurance would
normally cost. Special mobile information
platforms for farmers as well as farmers
helplines are available through mobile
phones. The information farmers get from
these services, can be used to improve
productivity of their lands and to boost
their incomes. Other platforms farmers
can use, are the mobile agricultural trading platforms. These platforms link (small)
farmers directly to potential customers and
secure the best prices for their products.
Also, farmers can use tracking systems on
their mobile phones to follow their product
through the supply chain to check on lo-
group in Africa, since mobile phones are
now available for everyone. This is simply because it’s cheap, they do not require
literacy or foreign language knowledge
– since they communicate with people
of their own country – and simply because they are practical in every day use.
Mobile technology not only changes the
way people who know each other communicate, but also the way people meet
new people. This is where social media
comes in. Now, every African can install
Facebook, Twitter or Instagram – depending on what phone they own – and meet
new people, everywhere on the globe.
It connects them with the world; something that wasn’t possible before mobile technology was introduced to them.
The Future of Mobile Technology in Africa
Obviously, a new middle class is emerging in Africa, stimulating entrepreneurship
and leading to further innovations in many
areas. Banking will purely be aimed at
mobile phone users and mobile phones
will replace ATMs in time. The success
“Have you ever seen an African tribe-leader call a friend
with his smartphone? No, me neither, but it happens.”
cation, quantity and quality of the product.
All of these new services weren’t possible
before mobile technology was introduced
to the sector. Now, small, poor farmers
get much more chances to sell themselves and put themselves on the market.
Have you ever seen an African tribe-leader
call a friend with his smartphone? No, me
neither, but it happens. This is one of many
examples I could give about how Africa is
also changing socially because of the mobile development. The whole way of communicating between people is changing
drastically, at every level and every ethnic
of Mpesa was only the beginning, as they
only aimed at transferring and receiving
money. In the next few years, people will
not only use their phones to transfer money, but also to accept the same phone to
be the main mode of payments for goods
and services. Mobile commerce will be
booming in Africa and thus improve this
sector enormously. The boundary between smart and feature phones will blur
more and more over time, because of the
rise of more cost effective smartphones.
These smartphones will also increase the
mobile web access – especially for social
contact – bringing more of the African
people online, mainly via a mobile screen.
The people who were on the wrong side
of the digital divide, will be able to finally connect to others and close the huge
gap that was first isolating them from the
world. These isolated people don’t have
to worry about language issues, because
anybody from any device will be able to
access or enter content in any language
of the world. Appropriate elements such
as free fonts and a character set will be
available for people to obtain in their own
language. In this way, every person in Africa will be able to share information with
the world. This will also help with creating equality and solidarity in Africa; equal
access to resources and information.
Africa will be home of the fastest, most
modern mobile telecommunications infrastructure stationing in the world. The
continent will also start manufacturing
their own devices to keep up with demands and to keep costs low. This trend
is already starting in Nigeria, where Nigerian companies are manufacturing tablet
computers based on Android. This means
that they will be expanding their market. Africa will not only be producing low
cost mobile phones, but also tablets and
later on maybe laptops and computers.
Considering all this information, we can
definitely conclude that all changes that
mobile technology is bringing and will
bring, are improvements. Because of the
increase of mobile phones, a whole new
investment/business culture has arose in
all sectors, which helps the African population to escape from poverty and to close
the gap and connect with the modern
world. The phenomenon ‘leapfrogging’
– skipping the stage of wired telephony
– has helped with the fast spread of mobile phones and the fast development of
knowledge of new technology in underdeveloped parts of Africa. Mobile technology
has created – and will continue to do so – a
safer, more equal and more accessible Africa. It has transformed Africa into a better
place to live, where people can get education, proper health care and job opportunities. I believe this is only just the beginning; a bright future for Africa lies ahead.
You’re watching Seinfeld on TV, and you like
the jacket he’s wearing. You click on it with
your remote control. The show pauses and
a Windowsstyle drop-down menu appears
at the top of the screen, asking if you want
to buy it. You click on ‘yes.’ The next menu
offers you a choice of colors; you click on
black. Another menu lists your credit cards
asking which one you’ll use for this purchase. Click on MasterCard or whatever.
Which address should the jacket go to, your
office or your home or your cabin? Click on
one address and you’re done—the menus
disappear and Seinfeld picks up where it left
off. Just as you’ll already have taught the
computer about your credit cards and addresses, you will have had your body measured by a 3-D version of supermarket scanners, so the system will know your exact
sizes. And it will send the data electronically
to a factory, where robots will custom-tailor
the jacket to your measurements. An overnight courier service will deliver it to your
door the next morning (Sherman, 1994).
Is this what the future is bringing us? Different media working together in order to
give you the most comfortable life. Hopefully after reading this, there will be an answer to this question. To come to an answer some history about TV, Internet and
the upcoming digitalization is necessary.
On 7 September 1927 the first electronic television, designed by Philo Taylor Farnsworth,
was demonstrated. RCA invested $ 50 million
in the development of electronics and 1939
president Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the
first president which appeared on television. By
1941, the CBS was broadcasting two 15-minutes newscasts a day. Even though, it was not
until 1947 that full-scale commercial television
broadcasting took a lead in the United States.
By 1955 half of the U.S. households had a television. In the mean time television was developing in other countries, as the United Kingdom,
France and Japan as well. For a long time in
the United States the government owned the
major networks, as it was the case in most
other European countries. In the late 1980s
and 1990s a change was shown and most
countries were moving toward the U.S. model
of privately owned, advertiser-supported television networks as well. In the 1980s home videocassette recorder became widely available.
This gained an extra dimension to the viewers,
because now they were able record and replay
their programs, as well as rent movies and
watch it at their preferred time and at their own
couch. Not only home videocassettes added
an extra dimension, also video games became
very popular. Due to the fact that the passive
entertainment of television now became interactive entertainment. In 1997 the high definition television (HDTV) was introduced, which
also lead to the digital transmission later on.
This digital transmission lead to further convergence between Internet and television.
Before looking at the convergence between
Internet and television, lets first discover more
about the history and development of Internet. Internet started in 1962, when a series
of memos was recorded through networking.
J.C.R. Licklider envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers which everyone could
access data and programs from any site. In
1965 a computer in Mass was connected to a
computer in California, this experiment showed
that computers could work well together, run
programs and retrieve data. ARPANET was
introduced in 1967. Due to this introduction
it became clear that globally
there were different independent
researches done on this subject. By the end of 1969, four
host computers were connected
through ARPANET: Internet was
off the ground! In the period of
1971 – 1972, the development
of application started, as well as
the first public demonstration of
ARPANET. Fast after this demonstration one of the most important
application was published: Email. This was the first application
that lead to the growth of peopleto-people traffic through the web.
Around 1985, Internet was used
as a technology supporting a broad community
of researchers and developers and started to
be used for daily computer communication.
From that point on Internet evolved and developed more and more, and became a common instrument in the households. Internet
made communication worldwide easier and
more accessible. Though the development of
Internet is still not over, this is just the start!
What is it bringing us?
Now the history of television and Internet is
clear, what is this actually bringing us? Television is still the main instrument in a living room
and computers are also not indispensable at in
the modern households. While Television was
mainly developed to provide information, news
and entertainment, with the development of Internet, the majority of people are using Television more as a form of entertainment instead
of a source for the latest news and information.
People are now earlier and faster up to date
by the Internet than through Television. Due to
the fact that Internet is easier accessible for the
people and through the social networks there
can be communicated even faster. Is Internet
able to replace the Television, because of this
change? Different research has been done on
this aspect and the overall conclusion is, no.
Yes, Internet is bringing more to communication and the social environment we are living in now. Internet does give the people the
capability to control the production, storage
and dissemination of information. Internet
also encourage the interpretation and editorializing. However, the Internet will not replace the old media as Television, but it will
bring something extra, due to the strong
communication impact Internet has. What is
this extra element that Internet can bring?
At the moment, people are not only watching
Television. Research has shown that the majority of people are doing other things while
watching Television. As at the beginning,
watching Television was a social aspect of people’s life, because they were
watching the same show all together.
Nowadays it is more common that one
person is watching Television, while the
other is working on the Laptop and the
third is playing with his mobile phone
while being in the same room. Sometimes even the same person is watching
Television, in the meantime reading an
article on his/her laptop and is also playing a game on his mobile phone. The
whole environment of social interaction is changing and gaining a different
definition. Due to the development of
digitalization, people are proposing social activities differently. As we thought
earlier that social activities were only
activities where people saw each other,
talked to each other and did something
together. Nowadays, talking through
mobile devices, e-mail and video
games is also seen as a social activity.
Martijn, hier kan je wel een division
longer period of time, but was mainly used to
watch movies or series. For example instead
of going to the cinema, now the movie could be
seen at home and for a lower price than in the
cinema. This development worked, because
people could watch something they want for
cheap, at their own time and in their own comfortable environment. Even though the USA
this ‘on demand’ button was incorporated well
and a success, this needed to be introduced
to the rest of the world as well. This is down
for a new Idol” show, but they added an extra
value through the blind auditions. This was
something new and attractive for the viewers.
Though what they do now is making the blind
auditions also blind for the viewers. In addition
they made an application for the show, so the
viewers at home could also vote. After the audition the score of the viewer was shown as well,
so the people knew if the home viewers would
send the candidate home as well. This example is one the many examples that is coming
Besides the fact that the social perception is changing, the lifestyle of people is
also changing. This change has influence on the
use of Television and Internet. Initially people
could only watch their favorite show on a specific date and time, because that was how Television was scheduled. Since the past 5 years,
people are also able to watch shows back on
the Internet. This started with small shows, and
now almost every show you are able to watch
back on the Internet. This can be done through
“Is Internet able to replace the Television?”
the website of the programs, or the so called
“I missed a program” websites, as well as
through downloading. Due to this development,
people are suddenly able to plan and control
their own digital entertainment schedule. They
do not have to stay home to see a program
anymore, they can now decide to do something else and watch the show back whenever
they want to. Even though people made use
of this option, it was not a booming business,
because the quality of watching back on the Internet was lower than the quality at Television.
Although this development, did influence the
Television and also the development of digitalization. This extra element of watching back
on the Internet showed, that there is a need of
watching on demand. This need comes from
the change of lifestyle. People do need to work
harder and mostly do not have the time to adapt
their lifestyle to the Television schedule. Televison needs to adapt to the lifestyle of the viewer.
This is where the development of digitalization
comes in place. Research showed that watching back on Internet was not a booming business, because of the bad quality. In order to let
this new element work, the quality of watching
on Internet needed to become better as well
as incorporating the Television in here. Over
the years de quality on the Internet became
better and people used this option more and
more. In the meanwhile another development
took place as well, namely the ‘on demand’
button on the television remote. In the USA
the “on demand” button is already known for a
with platform called Netflix. Netflix offers 1000
movies and series to their clients. People are
able to subscribe and have than unlimited access to those movies and series. This platform
is not available for free of course but is still a lot
cheaper than renting or going to the cinema.
Netflix is a rather new platform, but because
of the success and need of the people, this
on demand approach is becoming more well
known and successful amongst the people.
Does it work?
Still that one question is remaining, do Internet and Television work together? As you
can read above, Internet and Television do
encourage each other, but is this a positive or
negative effect? As stated earlier, Internet will
probably not be able to replace the Television,
but will affect the traditional Television as we
know from the early ages. As we now know,
people have unlimited access to media as well
as to Internet, because of the mobile phones,
applications, social networks, tablets etc. All
those developments make it harder to stand
up for the Television. Though it is also something that broadcaster and programs can use
in their advantage to make their shows more
and more attractive. This is something that is
also used a little more the past years, the usage of the media that is available. More producers are using the opportunity of Internet
to make their show more attractive. A good
example of this is the TV show “The Voice of
..”. This show started as one of the “looking
up more and more. Broadcasters and production companies are actually using the Internet
in their advantage in order to make their show
more attractive. In addition they want to attract
the people to stay at home again and watch
Television together on the time scheduled.
So, to conclude: do Internet & Television work
together? Based on the research and articles
consulted the answer could be “Yes”. Television is hard to replace and this is also not
something people and business, in general,
should want. Through the development of digitalization the world is already becoming more
and more individualized. The option of using Internet & Television together, brings the
society together again. Whether, it is through
the “on demand” button or just the traditional
television, including the advantage of Internet,
that should not matter. Those media can definitely help each other to make entertainment
even more entertaining than it is nowadays and
then especially entertaining in a more interactive way. Not only interactive as an individual
but also interactive and entertaining together!
How did internet change bullying for kids?
Bullying is there since children go to school. The definition of bullying is unwanted and
aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power
imbalance. Bullying has potential to happen more often and usually takes place during
recess or after school. There has been a change in bullying over time. Since the emerge
of the internet and the social media it is easier to be an anonymous bully because it can
be done from the safety of the bully’s bedroom.
The old fashion bullying happened at the
schoolyard or after school. There are 2
types; there is the kind that is aggressive
and physical. This kind of bullying is used
to intentionally hurt someone. The characteristics are kicking, hitting, pushing and
threatening. Not only aggression is part of
the bullying but also intimidation is involved.
Relational bullying is intended to hurt the relation between other age members and their
own reputation and confidence. It is done by
using verbal aggression, excluding from the
rest of the class mates and gossiping (Pesten,
2006). The old school bullying happened face
to face. It was easier for the victim, when having the confidence to speak up to either the
parents, teacher or even the bully. It was less
complicated to point out the bullies and there
for punishment can be given. Over the years
bullying changed. Because the internet and
social media came to live and developed really steep. With this development a new type
of bullying was born. Where the old schoolyard bullying mostly stopped after school
ended, there is no escape from cyber bullying.
Cyber bullying is when a child or teen is tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child
using the internet, social media or a cell phone
. Cyber bullying seems to have no boundaries.
Stopping cyber bullying is very hard because
methods used for this type of bullying, are limited to the bullies imagination only and to his
access to technology. It is also very hard to exile because it is anonymous. The bullying does
not happen face to face and it can easily go on
for a long, long time. The bully can do ‘their job’
from every possible place as long as there is an
internet connection. And, let’s face it that’s eve-
rywhere! The only thing the bully has to do is to
type his nasty message and to send it. From a
bully’s perspective there is not an instant satisfaction from his actions. But because of the
anonymity the bully can continue for a long
time and will get more addictive to the behavior.
How the victim is effected is seen at school. By
the way the fast majority of the children (81%)
thinks it is easier to get away with cyberbullying than the so called face to face bullying.
There are two different kinds of cyber bullying; the direct attack and cyberbullying by proxy. The direct attack works by:
• instant messaging or text harassments
• stealing passwords
• posting pictures on the internet
• internet polling
Most of the examples above speak for themselves. Maybe two need further explanation.
Internet polling e.g. is very scary and is ‘big’
among young minors! The polls include questions like; who is the biggest slut of the 6th
grade?, who is the ugliest? or who is the most
hated? The bully and his classmates (fallow
bullies) are able to vote anonymous. The kid
that gets the most votes will feel very hurt and
insecure. When the bully pretends to be a victim in chat rooms it is called impersonation. The
bully acts by posting hateful messages as ‘victim’ and as such he attacks on the real victim.
Cyber bullying by proxy is very fictitious. The
bully has other people doing his dirty work.
These people are not aware that they are actually helping the bully. Cyberbullying by proxy is
dangerous because even parents get involved
in the bully’s play. For example the bully maybe
notify the parents about an illegal act done
by the victim. This way the victim will get punished for something they did not do. This way
the parents are the innocent accomplishers of
the bully. the victim will feel all alone and will
feel even more hated. The most violent manner of cyberbullying by proxy is when the bully
gets access to the victims accounts and is able
to control will them. He will send hateful messages to all the victims friends. These friends
will think that the victim has send those messages and will get angry. This way the victim
will end up having arguments and fights with
his friends. In this manner the friends are used
by the bully to make the victim’s life miserable.
Practice shows that 4/10 middle school kids
have had their accounts stolen and got locked
out of it, while the bully send hateful messages
(Statistics). This ratio shows that Cyberbullying by proxy must not be underestimated.
The effects of cyber bullying are very impactful.
The victim feels left out and alone. Over time,
dealing with the bullying becomes harder and
harder because of the ongoing cyber- attacks. It
can even get to a point that the victim does not
know how to deal with his life anymore. Cases
are known that victims commit suicide. It is hor-
- Practice shows that 4/10 middle school kids have had their accounts stolen and got locked out of it,
while the bully send hateful messages.
- Bully victims are 5 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims
- The fast majority of the children (81%) thinks it is easier to get away with cyberbullying than the so
called face to face bullying.
rible and impossible to understand that the bully
is capable of making someone’s life so extremely miserable that the victim can only think
of one way out. According an American study,
bully victims are 5 times more likely to consider
suicide than non-victims (Yale). Another study
shows ( British) that half of the suicides committed by young people are bully victims (Young).
The internet has many web pages containing information about minors that committed
suicide after being victimized by cyber bullying. Even many forum discussions can be
read. It is hard to believe but is shows how
minors treat each other these days. Can we
blame the internet and social media for these
deaths? It cannot be the main reason this happens but it is a fact that the existence of internet and social media makes it a lot easier to
target victims anonymously. The youngest victim of cyber bullying ever stated is an eleven
year old boy from England. He had taken an
overdoses of pills and suffered a severe heart
attack. This act was done after a long time of
bullying only because he was very intelligent
and did not fit in with other boys of his age
(Tozer). The fact that this boy got bullied be-
carefully documented by the family. As blue
was her favorite color, a social media event
— blue4grace — was begun by friends and
quickly went viral. The mourners at her funeral
wore blue nail polish, blue-striped ties, blue
jewelry, and blue dress shirts (Real life stories).
Puresight.com shares stories from cyber
bully victims that took their own life. These
stories can open our eyes and reflect on
what type of world we live. It is horrifying that
such young children do not trust parents or
lack the faith that it will all become better..
“There is no escape from cyberbullying”
cause he was different is worrying. Everybody
is different! And that is what makes the world
great! is not a reason to bully people into their
dead! Here’s another example of someone
that committed suicide due to cyber bullying:
Grace McComas, a 15-year-old Glenelg High School sophmore from Baltimore, whose favorite color was blue, took
her life on Easter Sunday, to end the pain
of a cyberbullying campaign against her.
According to her father, Chris McComas the
cyber bullying had lasted for months and was
not tell their parents out of fear for overreaction. This can make the bullying worse. “It will
all be fine!” is also much feared. It is important
for parents to understand that words due hurt
and that a cyber-attack will follow your child always (every action on the internet will always
be traceable). Parents are smart to take precautions by making full use of privacy settings.
Next to that children need to be taught to think
before they post. The internet is a very public
space. “Do not give out any personal information on who you are or where you live”. Parents
should not only educate their children but also
themselves on this matter. It will help parents
to become more aware and in understanding the phenomenon of cyber bullying. School
should put bullying on the agenda from time
to time. And have open discussions with students. Unfortunately there will be still a lot of
water under the bridge before bullying will have
stopped. But it all starts with open communication at school, at home and amongst friends.
You can’t protect children 24/7! But how do you
prevent children from being a victim of bullying?
It is hard to find one concrete solution because
bullying is of all times and all bullies have different motives to bully. Nowadays it certainly
starts with educating children on consequences of cyber bullying. Who is responsible? What
is the role of the school and parents when cyber bullying occurs? This is a difficult discussion, schools do not have any say over any
student after school. There for it would be good
for parents to work together with the schools.
Parents are in general the most trustworthy
people for children. Child victims however do
Before writing this essay I had no clue that
cyberbullying is so huge. After reading all the
articles on this matter, it became very clear
to me that internet did change bullying. I was
in tears while surfing the internet and reading all the personal stories of victims and
parents. After watching the documentary
‘Bully’ I was curious how the victim was doing. I googled him and found out that he was
no longer bullied. This simply happened after
airing this documentary and people became
more aware of his situation and the bullying
stopped. This showed me that there is hope.
It raised my awareness as well and I made a
promise to myself that I will never become a
bully and that I will not become a victim. This
by being careful with what I put on the internet.
My dream goal for the future is that everybody
accepts each other for who they are. Whether
they are tall, short, fat, skinny, dumb, intelligent or whatever item people can be bullied
on. Energy should be focused on more important things in life like world peace, hunger, education and human rights. Reality is
that life is everything but a dream. Do I think
that bullying will disappear? No I do not think
so but I hope that we will find a way to make
the ones that bully more aware of the damage
that they cause to their victims. There needs to
be a way to educate people about cyber bullying… maybe the internet can be the answer.
Ordering a pizza on your tablet while your friend is using his on-demand TV application to purchase a movie which was recommended to
him by a program which analyzes his preferences. Fifty years ago this might look like a scene from a science fiction movie…but times
During the last decades, media and technology have evolved. The rise of internet brought a new level of possibilities to the world and
the development in mobile devices changed the behavior of consumers. In the western world, a large number of individuals has a device
available in their pocket which can request every piece of information that is available on the internet. The possibilities are endless.
An upcoming trend in this development is online shopping on mobile devices (M-Commerce). This trend reflects in the advantage where
people are able to do their own research, find what they are looking for and even purchase it without leaving the comfort of their home.
The fact is given that there is a growing use of smartphones and tablets. Together with the rise of online shopping possibilities, this is
the perfect environment for M-Commerce to evolve . This change in shopping behavior influences the way consumers are operation, but
more important; it should influence how businesses market their product. Businesses must consider this mobile use and commerce as a
In this article you will be guided through the intriguing world of M-Commerce and how this growth in market share forces businesses to
change their marketing strategies.
Media is changing
It is not that long ago when printed media was
giving in to new media. Printed folders were losing market share and bigger investments were
made in TV/Radio commercials. This major
change made a huge move visible in the marketing strategies of companies. New strategies
had to be developed to keep up with this changing media and technology. This evolvement
heavily influenced the way of how messages are
transported from the company to the customer.
Although this influenced the way messages
were spread, the main change in shopping behavior was visible during the rise of the internet.
The internet gave the customer the possibility
to stay at home while finding, researching and
purchasing products. This reflected in the development that less people were visiting physical stores. The cause of this decreasing number
of visitors can be found in roughly two theories:
•Customers are able to find the needed information about a product themselves. This destroys the added value of a physical store having an employee who is able to provide you with
•Time is money. We are living in a fast world
where time is money. If the customer has the
possibility to reach the same success (purchasing a product or service) in less time, the choice
is easily made.
Currently, a new trend in online purchasing is
arising; Mobile Commerce (M-Commerce).
M-Commerce has been defined as a process of conducting commercial transaction
via a mobile telecommunication networks using a communication, information, and pay-
ment device such as a smartphone or tablet.
M-Commerce has a rapidly growing share of
the total E-commerce industry (buying and
selling products or services by using an electronic system. For example the internet).
In the end, it can be concluded that online shopping has taken over a large part of the market share
compared to the old (physical) way of shopping.
Obviously, there is a possibility to create extra value for physical stores (compared to
an online store) but at this moment a closer
look will be taken at what trends are upcoming in the world of M-Commerce on how these
trends can be used in marketing strategies.
Upcoming trends for M-Commerce
Payments through an online device has always been a point of discussion considering
safety. A research done by MarketReponse
gives some interesting numbers. They found
out that around 50% of the European consumers isn’t convinced of the safety of online payments in general. This number is even higher
(67%) looking at people who are not convinced
of the safety of payments made by credit card.
Over the years, the trust in online payments has
grown, but there is still a generation gap between online and offline consumers. The “older”
generation is less convinced in the possibility of
online payments due to safety reasons. They
are used to purchase products in a physical environment and are somehow afraid of change.
The younger generation grew up with the internet and has become more familiar with it. The
internet is a reliable environment for them and
although they are aware of the dangers, they
are not holding back looking at online payments.
Another upcoming trend is the existence of a
NFC (Near Field Communication) chip which
can be placed in a mobile device. This chip,
which is incorporated in normal payment cards,
provides the possibility to make a physical
payment. At the moment, 1 in 5 cell phones
have an integrated NFC chip. Google predicts that in 2014 50% of the cell phones will
use NFC technology. This upcoming technology is able to change a smartphone into a
device which is capable to replace your wallet.
Maybe the most important upcoming trend is
the possibility to follow possible customers. Mobile devices can transfer information about their
location. This provides the option to focus marketing campaign on locally relevant products.
Research by JiWire shows that 80% of mobile
users prefers this locally relevant advertising
and that 75% of these people is willing to take
action after seeing a location-specific message.
-76% of the consumers is doing online research before purchasing
-80% of the mobile users prefers locally relevant advertising
-72% of the marketers are aware of the rise of M-Commerce
Statistics of global M-Commerce
M-Commerce is growing, and it’s growing rapidly. This adoption of mobile web shopping
has a growth which is 8 times larger than the
general web adoption between the years 1990
and 2000. At this moment, the number of owners of a smartphone varies per country. The
US holds a percentage of 58% of owners of a
smart phone where in Singapore 90% of the
people are in possession of a smartphone.
The use of global mobile traffic has grown to
a percentage of 15% of all internet traffic. This
growth is related to the rise of the tablet. Tablets
are winning the battle against desktop computer looking at an average European home. The
comfort of using a mobile device on the couch
is gaining share from actually moving yourself
from that same couch to a desktop computer.
This also reflects in the fact that online purchases done by using tablets are growing rapidly.
Google found out that a lot of mobile purchases come out of spontaneity. These
purchases aren’t planned but the figures
show that customers can be triggered to
make purchases with their mobile device.
Research from Ipsos Mediact shows us that
76% of the customers are doing research on
the internet before purchasing a product. In
ingly enough there is over 25% of the marketers
unaware of this change. But the main question
will be: How will it be possible to for marketers to use this knowledge in their advantage?
Marketing strategies for M-Commerce
After stating the technology, trends and statistics behind M-Commerce the point is reached
of discussing how it will be possible to incorporate this information into marketing strategies.
The first step in creating a good M-Commerce
environment is to optimize your website.
Figures above have shown that it is important to have a website which is easy in use,
clear, and fast. If the shopping environment
is created, the real marketing strategies will
need to be set up. This will be divided into
two parts; new and retuning customers.
In M-Commerce, it is important to be able to
reach your customers. Customer data has
a high level of value. The more data is available, the more possibilities there are to focus
on a specific target group. It is possible collect data by using background information
but the power of interaction shouldn’t be underestimated. People are willing to tell you
what they want and what they are looking for.
Analyzing is of high importance. Using ana-
enlarge the number of returning customers.
A returning customer is very valuable for
a business. In this era, a customer can
easily switch between companies with
just a few clicks. There are a few essential reasons to focus on repeat customers.
•It costs more money (on average six times as
much) to make a sale to a new customer compared to making a sale to a repeat customer.
•Happy customers spread positive messages
about goods or services.
•Repeat customers give a competitive advantage
•Repeat customers are clearly somehow related to a brand. They are capable of providing a lot of (free) information on how to extend
These strategies can be combined with the
trend of using location-specific messages to
Online shopping trends and behavior are constantly changing and there is a large growth in
M-Commerce. At this moment there are a lot of
opportunities for starting and existing companies to take advantage of these developments.
Although a lot of marketing techniques are
comparable to E-Commerce, there is definitely
a specific way to obtain the interest of user
“Locally relevant adversising
is the future of M-Commerce”
2013, 51% of these people did do research
online before buying the product in the actual store, where 49% did buy that particular
product online. There is also a smaller group
who prefers to do their research in physical stores and buy the product online by using a mobile device. The main reason to
prefer an online purchase over a purchase
in a physical store is the difference in price.
An important research done by MoPowered
shows us that 30% of the mobile shoppers, who
are willing to buy a product online, abandon a
transaction because the experience is not optimized for mobile devices. This lack of experience reflects in websites which aren’t optimized
for mobile browsers and the speed of the website. Research from Amazon shows us that
71% of the people are expecting that a website will load faster on a mobile device and that
every 100ms increase in load time decreases
sales by 1%. If it takes more than 3 seconds
to load a site, 57% of the people will leave.
Combined, these statistics show that M-Commerce is growing rapidly. The main factor
which is holding back this growth is ease in
use and speed. This is related to a lot of websites which aren’t optimized for M-Commerce.
A logical prediction of the future will be that
sites will be optimized for M-Commerce and
that the growth will reach even higher levels.
It is needless to say that businesses have to
adjust their strategies to this market. Forrester
Research revealed that 72% of the marketers
are aware of this rise of M-Commerce. Surpris-
lytics provides the option to see how people
are using an online environment. This gives
the possibility to follow their traces, see how
they move in a mobile environment, trace
how a website has been found, what the customer is looking for etc. All this data provides
important information about why a customer
is buying a product. Analyzing these statistics and locating strengths and weaknesses
is the way to get a clear view of customers.
This clear view generates the possibility to
set up a trail to lead customers to a products.
The payment barrier is a difficult issue in MCommerce. There is a certain amount of people
that isn’t convinced of the safety of this
new trend in shopping and is therefore
not willing to do any online purchases.
A very large number of mobile users
are connected to social media. These
social channels will provide lots of possibilities. Enlarging your business names,
influencing buyers behavior, generating
traffic for your website, interacting with
your customers, influence on search engine results. Needless to say that these
channels have a high level of importance for M-Commerce
strategies. It provides
the opportunity to stay
in contact with the
customer and create
that bonding that is
possible in a physical store. That bonding will
of mobile devices. The best advice is to create a good mobile shopping environment, be
creative with your campaigns, connect to your
customers and keep analyzing and improving
while aiming at location-specific messages.
The world is changing very fast, be ahead of
your customers and don’t just follow them.
Social Media; we can’t imagine a world without it anymore.
Since the development of the smartphones, tablets, notebooks and other digital devices, the use of social media has
increased. Everywhere you go, people are busy keeping up with everything that’s going on in each other’s’ lives.
Instead of interacting face to face, we now focus on interacting through social media on our mobile devices.
Many people experience this behavior as a antisocial, even rude. You don’t pay attention to your environment anymore, you are only busy reading what happens online. You’ll probably share that opinion, but
still, you’re one of the people who also shows this behavior. Why? Why do we want to be connected
to everyone around us 24/7? Can’t we live without social media anymore? Would that actually be a
problem or a useful addition to society? In this article the influence of social media on teenagers, the
older generation, the psychological effects, friendships, work, news and crime will be discussed.
Without even realizing social media started becoming part of our lives.
There are hundreds of blogs, researches, articles, and so forth, about the impact of social media
on our society. Many of them describe the negative effects of social media; how we become less
social, how teenagers get a lower self-esteem, how FOMO (fear of missing out) is taking over our
lives. The other articles try to convince the reader it’s not that big of a deal. After doing extensive
research, it soon became clear the positive effects are mostly being overshadowed by the negative effects.
The Definition of Social Media
First we will start with the definition of social
media. Everybody uses the term, but what is
the exact definition of social media? ‘Social
media’ is the collective noun for online platforms which are mainly being maintained
by the user. It’s a platform on which you can
share information and interact with each other.
A Brief History
The history of social media goes back to
the 80’s when the first e-mail was send.
Slowly platforms started sharing information online, arrange meetings and interact
online. It was also a start of sharing information and documents, for example by using
blackboard, an online course management
system for educators and learners. However, there wasn’t a huge breakthrough yet.
In 2002 Friendster, a social networking website, started. Soon after that, Myspace as a
clone of Friendster was launched in 2003. Also
LinkedIn, the platform for business-oriented
networking, was launched this year. In 2004,
Facebook was started as a college version of
Friendster. It was a website to ‘rate’ the prettiest girls at college, but soon turned into a social networking site. This was a slow start in the
development of social media we know today.
It started quite innocent. People were able to
share thoughts, experiences, documents. It
was a quick and easy way to keep up with people and information. Soon companies and experts noticed social media wasn’t just a trend.
They were aware of the importance of social
media. People liked sharing thoughts and feelings online, maintaining friendships, looking up
information about products and searching for
jobs. The development of smartphones contributed to the fast development of Social media. It became an integrated part of our daily
lives, both in business and in private surroundings. In the last two years, social media use
has increased by 60,3% to 818.4 million users.
Social Media Use Among Teenagers
and the Older Generation
Nowadays, we can’t imagine a world without
social media anymore. People share feelings,
photos, video’s music, anything you can imagine online. They interact with each other,
have conversation and organize parties. It’s an
easy way of staying in touch with everybody
all over the world. Social media is always with
you. You can access it through many sources;
tablets, smartphones, computers, they all enable you to access social media platforms.
In recent studies teenagers claim that their
behavior online is similar to their offline behavior. Teenagers who show pro-social behavior
online also show this offline. They don’t show
more or less aggression or behave very differently. About 90% of the teenagers from the
age of 13 to 17 in America has used a form of
social media. From this group of teenagers,
51% visits social networking sites every day.
The teenagers from this research claim the
impact of social media isn’t that big. The teenagers that did mention social media influenced
their lives, often said it was a positive influence.
The main purposes are staying connected with
friends, meet new friends, share photos and experiences, play games and promote things they
believe in. They say it makes them less shy and
more confident and lead to a lower chance of
depressions. It also is a source of information
and a way to deal with different opinions and
point of views. Despite the results of this study, a
study from Dr. Lary D. Rosen, professor at California State University shows social media also
has a negative impact on teenagers’ behavior.
It increases the chance of disorders such as
narcissism, aggression or
antisocial behavior. An important bad impact social media has
on teenagers is the addiction to it. It’s not
literally an addiction to social media but more
an obsession and fear of missing out on something in their social world. The needs to check
social media all the time leads to less time to
spend with friends face to face, distraction from
people they are actually with at that moment and
sleeping disorders. The many impulses from
checking social media websites before they go
to bed negatively influence their night’s rest.
Also the older generation becomes more involved in social media. From 2012 to 2013 the
use of the most popular social media sources
has increased tremendously. The use of twitter among people of the age from 55 to 64
has grown with almost 80%. LinkedIn got over
60% more members older than 55 years. Also
Facebook, Google+ and Pinterest have experienced a growth in usage among people
between 55 and 64. 43% of the 65+ internet
users nowadays also uses social networks. It’s
a way to find back old friends and keep track
of their children or grandchildren. Besides
that they like Social media just for the same
reasons younger people do: to communicate
with other, express their feelings and keep up
with everything that’s going on in the world.
It’s clear social media has become part of everybody’s daily lives. But what effect does social
-In the last two years, social media use has increased by 60,3% to 818.4 million users.
-The use of twitter among people of the age from 55 to 64 has grown with almost 80% in 2013
If social media makes us feel that way, why
don’t we just delete our accounts and start
living in the real world again? Research has
shown that many people suffer from FOMO
(fear of missing out). This creates the urge to
keep going online and see what everybody’s
up to and the need to show yourself to them
as well. People want to go to as many parties
as their friends, have diner in those fancy restaurant as well and go on the same amazing
holiday as your (social media) friend. When the
smartphones developed, this got the change to
grow even further, because the smartphones
enable you to constantly check everything that
happens online. In other words, you constantly
feel the need to prove to others your life is just
as fun, interesting and successful. The FOMO
disorder is a serious and problematic downside.
A positive side of social media is that it enables
you to maintain friendships with people around
you and people who live far away. However it
also creates a false sense of connection to a
large number of people, while actually only a
small group turns out to be your real friends.
Although social networks are an easy way to
keep up with friends effectively, the need to
have as many friends as possible is growing.
Besides that social media allows us to show
the person who we want to be instead of the
person we actually are. In an actual conversation, you say things and express them the
way you do. In social media, you can adjust
your message just as long till it’s perfect. This
way a large network of so called friends gets
“FOMO (fear of missing out) is taking
over our lives.”
media has psychologically? It’s an important
source for self-profiling. People need to sell
themselves in the current culture in order to
be seen and/or heard. Self-profiling is a way to
avoid the feeling of loneliness. It’s something we
need for our self-esteem. People feel the urge to
‘belong’ and be accepted. Social media enables
you to satisfy this need. You can upload photos
and show the audience where you are, what
you do. People are searching for acceptance.
to know you the way you are online. While actually the group of friends who really knows
you starts becoming smaller. This way online
friendships creates the feeling of loneliness.
So if it makes us unhappy, why do we keep doing what we do? We got used to the constant
connection with everybody around us. People
have the inherited need to be connected to as
many people as possible. It’s a way to show
your status, your popularity. And why do so
many people participate? This is caused by the
need for self-disclosure, which has the same effect on the brain as food and sex; satisfaction.
We want to show the world we’re interesting.
The Influence of Social Media on Our
Study and Career
Even though it’s a possibility to create a higher
self-esteem by showing your life to others, research has shown that many people feel unhappy, because of social networking. People
are constantly being confronted with the milestones, the highlights of other people’s lives.
This creates the feeling you are not as successful, don’t have as many friends or highlights in
your life as the other person. Besides that it can
be used to communicate gossips or mean messages about a person rapidly which can also
have a negative influence on a persons’ level
of happiness. A girl in The Netherlands committed suicide because she heard a rumor of
being on the ‘Bangalist’ a list with names of
girls who are being described as sluts. This
list was spread through social media. This
shows the impact of social media can be huge.
Social media is nowadays also an important
source for study or job related issues. Teenagers or adolescents can ask fellow students to fill
out a survey, or you can promote yourself in the
labor market by describing your working experiences. A social media site which focuses on this
is LinkedIn. LinkedIn is a website on which you
can show your CV and show yourself to possible employers. For employers it’s a way to find
new employees who would fit your company.
Despite the advantages of social media related to work opportunities, it’s also a way to
destruct your career. It has become increasingly common for employers to check your Facebook, Twitter or other social media account
before inviting or hiring you. Therefore you
should be very careful on what to post online.
Also social media can have a negative effect
on your career while you are already work-
ing for a company. The addiction of checking social media sites can cost you your job,
but also complaining about your company,
your employer or other issues related to the
company you’re working at on a Social media
Site can lead to the end of your career. People need to be aware of what they’re posting,
because many websites say and warn you
about: what goes online, stays online. Even if
you deleted it, it can always be traced back.
News and Crime
News and crime is also being influenced by social media. Spreading the news through social
media goes a lot faster than with the old sources, as for example papers. Everybody can keep
up online with what’s happening in the world.
A disadvantage is that the chance of reading
false news items becomes bigger. All the news
providers want to be the first one to send out
the news, and therefore aren’t critical enough
whether the news is accurate. It’s easier to
hack a news provider and send out fake messages. This can lead to confusion, disagreements among sender and receiver and tension.
Besides that social media causes and solves
crime. In The Netherlands, a girl was killed
because of a fight with her best friend that
started on Facebook. Messages through Facebook got out of hand and eventually one
girl was killed because of the miscommunication. This is an unfortunate effect social media can have on crime. Luckily social media
also helps solving crimes. It’s easy to send
out a message to people to look for criminals, find back stolen goods and find criminals based on their activities on social media.
As shown in this article, social media has a
big impact in our social lives. It’s the cause of
several mental and psychological disorders.
On the other hand it can contribute to your
self-esteem by self-profiling but also makes
you feel insecure because other people’s
lives sound more interesting. It enables you
to maintain friendships but the large number of friends can also make you feel lonely.
Both the younger and older generation can
easily keep up with old friends, family and
the news. On the other hand social media decreases the need for people to interact face to
face and makes us less social. People get isolated and less personal in actual conversations.
You can make or break your career with social media. Do you promote yourself or do you
destroy yourself? News items can be send
out easily but also cause trouble because
of the chance to send out fake messages.
Luckily it also contributes to solving crime.
Overall the effects of social media appear to
be more negative than positive. The strange
thing is that social media keeps growing. This
is caused by the development of all the technological devices. The smartphones are still
developing and the number of people using
smartphones and using social media through
their smartphone increases. Another reason is
the growing need to be connected all the time.
What will the future look like? Personally, I
think social media will stay an integrated part
of our lives for the upcoming years. Despite
the fact people consider the development of
social media as negative, the need for connection and self-profiling is stronger. Social
media will keep developing till the needs
and trends start shifting again and another/
new need/trend will take over the society.
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