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There is a deep malaise affecting education in India, and remedying it requires tackling the lack of teacher accountability in government schools. In 2014-15, 35% of government schools (i.e. 3.72 lakh out of the total 10.5 lakh schools across India) had 50 or fewer students, with an average of 29 students per school and 12.7 students per teacher! This is a huge waste of public funds on pedagogically enviable schools. The New Education Policy (NEP) is a golden opportunity to tackle this, if the government can take a principled stance in the face of opposition from powerful lobbies. The draft NEP’s vague accountability-raising promises – e.g. “Issues relating to… teacher accountability will be resolved with strong political consensus and will” – are simply insufficient. Instead, the government must take a leaf from the book of almost all good education systems internationally, by introducing incentives in the grant formula of funding for government and aided schools. A system of school vouchers to parents, or Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT), improves accountability by empowering parents. With voucher funding, parents monitor the school; thus schools face accountability as parents can choose to withdraw their children and give their voucher to a different school. We urge the government in formulating the NEP to prioritize accountability and introduce a DBT system, in order to push India’s education system towards greatness.