Tuuli Steward - Criminal Penalty - a Form of Exclusion and Marginalization


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25 April 2013
Constitutional Hall, Parliament of the Republic of Lithuania, Gedimino av. 53, Vilnius

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Tuuli Steward - Criminal Penalty - a Form of Exclusion and Marginalization

  1. 1. Tuuli StewartEstonia
  2. 2. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013 the question, how to re-integrate today’s prisoners (criminal offenders)back to society through entrepreneurialism how to find and define the ones who are suitable for possible courses,developmental plan, entrepreneurial activity comparison of our philosophy with Scandinavian model – are therecultural differences that matter Entrepreneurial activity might be a solution for people, who’sopportunities to be employed legally are limited Legal occupation and self-driven income is a cornerstone for societalintegration for immigrants as well as for those, who have been relegatedfrom the same society It is a mindset that needs to be encouraged for alternatives afterrelease. For all participating parties – the offender, lawmakers andsociety
  3. 3. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013 The felons are minority in society who’s number is increasing.Integration capability of those aliens defines the society’s own well-being through numerous channels Our reforms have decreased the number of prisoners, and that’s adorablebut the number of people, who hold criminal records is increasing in society Is the problem increasing?Illustration: Baltics had more people on 2010 as in previous years in prisons thanin the army forces; The amount of people with criminal record is abnormal; The cost for society rises both as fiscal cost and as social effect. Since those numbers mostly reflect young men, their fate is related to children,workforce and health of the society in general
  4. 4. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 20131. Statisticswith anemphasis onBaltic migrantsin Nordiccountries(prisons)2. What happened?Political /social andother consequenceshow these men endedup in this situation(being prisoners, beingexcluded from society)3. Who are they?Social anddemographiccharacteristics ofprison-migrants4. What can wedo?What are thechallenges (ways)to reintegratethem into societyI was proposed to open a discussion on the following topics:Unfortunately, I can here only briefly focus on the 1st one, but the others are veryimportant in order to understand the cause effect chain. Perhaps next time…
  5. 5. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013RETURN / recidivism inBaltic states: 30% - 2 years 60% - 5 years 90% - 10 yearsCould we hope to be a part of the Nordic area some day?
  6. 6. TuuliStewartVilnius 20131. What is the connection betweenBaltics and Scandinavia throughprisons?2. Are we interested in those peoplein our prisons?
  7. 7. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013Rate of captivesin Europeper 100 000persons ofpopulationGeographical location andtraditions in connections fillthrivingly Scandinavianprisons with foreigners.In the last 40 years thenumber of their localcaptives hasn’t risen.Rehabilitation and after careprograms used in thoseprisons, however, aredesigned for integration intolocal society, ran in locallanguage and are based onlocal culture and mentality.
  8. 8. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013MISSION IMPOSSIBLE?From 2013 Norway has thefirst prison openedseparately for foreigners.Read more:• Norway needs separate jailsfor foreigners• Separate prisons for foreignprisonersWork in Norwegian prisons with Eastern European felons2012 proved – success in communication largely dependson cultural understanding.Eastern Europeans are not al the same but they definitelyare not same with Scandinavians.Scandinavia has the best prisons for locals but need assistance of the specialistsand researchers from the same culture as captives
  9. 9. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013Thanks: Ragnar Kristoffersen The IRCE research task force*Notice thedifferences on levelsand dynamics
  10. 10. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013Thanks: IRCE research task forceThose two charts are filled with many questions and some answers to policiesthat might work. Further study is following in cooperation with Nordic colleagues*Notice thedifferences on levelsand dynamics
  11. 11. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013
  12. 12. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013Thanks: Ragnar Kristoffersen The IRCE research task force
  13. 13. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013
  14. 14. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013COMMON PROBLEMS IN LITHUANIAN AND LATVIAN PRISONS:• Undereducated / under 4th or 9th grade• Tuberculosis, HIV / Aids• Gray prisoners – over 60 years old• Chronic health problems due to conditions• Certain types of crime – child molesters, wife beaters etc.• Addictions / alcohol and drugsCOMMON PROBLEMS AMONG BALTIC PRISONERS IN NORDIC PRISONS:• Language barriers, incl access to programs• Absence of the family and communication• Cultural interpretation
  15. 15. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013 Many male prisoners from Lithuania and Latvia in Scandinavianprisons are well educated first-times in their prime years, who haveyoung families and quite realistic plans for future compared to theaverage among prisoners in their home countries This is a well-needed potential in Lithuania and Latvia. Most of themdo want to go home, not to stay in Norway or Sweden. Most of themdo want to study and find a legal alternative. Estonia and Finland as a destination are different because Estoniansare commutersVilnius prison -- Lukiškių tardymo izoliatorius kalėjimas.Built 1904, active in 2013
  16. 16. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013
  17. 17. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013
  18. 18. (re)integration of prisoners into society means:1. Integration from a long term damaging exile2. In many cases into a new culture, unknownpreviouslySo, in terms, it is a migration caseYou are welcome to ask about the following approaches and programs
  19. 19. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013Whateverprogram isgoodNothingworksIn 1974 D. Lipton, R. Martinson and J. Wilks, using ‘meta-analysis’, assessed allthe evaluations of criminal rehabilitation programs between 1945 and 1967.They reached the following conclusion:‘With few and isolated exceptions, the rehabilitative effortsthat have been reported so far have had no appreciableeffect on recidivism’.The results of this assessment convinced them that not much seems to workand one program did not seem more effective than another.
  20. 20. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 20131. ?2. ?3. These people have damaged others AND (have been damaged)THEMSELVES. More damage during imprisonment shouldnot deepen this process.Bernard Shaw: black plus black does not add up as whiteWhat’s „socializing“?-- Mix socially with others.-- Make (someone) behave ina way that is acceptable totheir societySocialization is a concept concerning the “study ofthe developmental processes by which peopleacquire cognition, attitudes, and behaviors”
  21. 21. Changing LensesI have been involved in photography formany years. One of the lessons I havelearned is how profoundly the lens I lookthrough affects the outcome.My choice of lens determines in whatcircumstances I can work and how I see.Tuuli StewartVilnius 2013
  22. 22. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013We will have to look toalternative ways of viewingboth problem and solution.The source of many of our failures,I am arguing, lies in the lens throughwhich we view crime and justice,and that lens is a particular constructionof reality, a paradigm.It is not the only possible paradigm.
  23. 23. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013• Are those prisonersdifferent people? Domestic Migrants• Are they different fromother migrants? In which way?• Are they migrants?• Motivation for crime-freelifestyle.• Motivational interviewingand pro-social modeling as away for learning.• Practical help andinformation.• Breaking exclusion, buildingtrust and inclusion.• No, this is not a guaranteedroad that works on all but is itworth a try?
  24. 24. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013PrisonerLearn-acyPublicTrustMotive?RespectLegalAdministrationConsistencyLearnacy - ability tolearn newinformation and skills
  25. 25. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013Learn-ACYSkillsSocial,practicalKnowledgeHow does itwork?„Language“Terminologyto operateValues,normsReligion
  26. 26. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013 A game = an ideal world with rules (for all) Reality games – rules differ (change the chairs with ablind, tied up etc. )Obstacles in life – are there rules?Confusion in relationships – expectations for rules- - - - - - - - - - Picturing, story telling, reading, writing A plant, the wheel of life etc Role play – write your script, a letter to yourself Movies –> community & court vs youWhat works?
  27. 27. Conflict analyze course for inmatesTuuli Stewart
  28. 28. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013One of those:Or pick your own…
  29. 29. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013ISSUESPERSONALITIESEMOTIONSINTERESTS, NEEDS, ANDDESIRESSELF-PERCEPTIONS AND SELF-ESTEEMHIDDEN EXPECTATIONSUNRESOLVED ISSUES FROM THE PAST“an iceberg of conflict” – we maytake just one conflict situation froma movie (or reading) and discuss itin those layers/Do we find similar conflict layersaround us?*I do avoid bringing personalexamples, I do not want to knowpersonal stories, we do notdiscuss each others cases – wejust “play”Just the tip ofthe iceberg
  30. 30. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013The course is aimed to three main directions:1. To see, what others see in us2. To adapt our behavior, to adjust expectations, to learn the “language”3. In order to see the point of the conflictThe groups could be from 1-2 people up to 12 people, depending oncircumstances.The course could take up to 5-6 meetings.At the end, we watch the movie again. Not the same one and hopefully, not withthe same eyes, as in the beginning.
  31. 31. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013
  32. 32. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013Outerworld
  33. 33. Example:Elevator program inFreTex Norwayagainst poverty andfor Green Earth everywhereThe program is creating JOBs for immigrants and newly released from prisons
  34. 34. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013• lots of clothing (tons) in Oslo, big part of which havenever been used• Need of practical help with clothing in other countries• Our wish to form a better practical aid-network withother countries• A wish to integrate migrants and prisoners through legalnetworks and occupation
  35. 35. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013• A receiving country would create a project where releasedoffenders can be occupied• The project is SELLING donated clothes and this money is givingsalary / coverage to released persons for a new start Housing Food Transportation Consultation Etc… DIGNITY! – slogan from Scandinavian prisons: all we takeaway is freedom
  36. 36. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013Learn to ask for a missing piece
  37. 37. TuuliStewartVilnius 2013TuuliStewartVilnius 2013Tuulist@yahoo.com