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The philosophy of open by glenda cox final

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Presentation on open education and the potential of open textbooks

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The philosophy of open by glenda cox final

  1. 1. The Philosophy of Open By Dr Glenda Cox Open access seminar series, University of Pretoria 16 November 2018
  2. 2. This presentation: • Introducing the Philosophy of Open • Discussing the Opens • Collective Openness • Individual Openness • Why open now?
  3. 3. http://www.moddou.com/ Open EDUCATION: No cost to the user/student Degree of openness depends on rights of the licence that the creator of content has granted to the user. Application beyond single classroom or institutional context (legally enabled by open licensing).
  4. 4. Open is most often used as an adjective as in ‘open access’. We need to move to having open as a verb. Biswas-Diener argues “in the first instance the word open is equated with free as opposed to its more accurate meaning in which it includes greater potential for collaboration, innovation and localisation” (2017:259)
  5. 5. Open is based on the philosophical view of “knowledge as a collective social product and the desirability of making it a social property” (Prasad & Ambedkar cited in Downes, 2007:1) Photo by freestocks.org on Unsplash
  6. 6. Open is not giving away knowledge
  7. 7. “Open Movement” The Open Movement Open Source Software Open Access Open LicencesOpen Science Open Society
  8. 8. Open Educational Practice “the creation, use and reuse of open educational resources (OER) as well as open pedagogies and open sharing of teaching practices” Cronin, 2017
  9. 9. Key value propositions of open educational practices ● Conceptualise alternative epistemic views on educational issues and curricula. ● Create OER collaboratively with colleagues or co-create with students. ● Circulate or share these OER with other colleagues or students. ● Open these up for critique by others so that they can be quality assured and possibly recognised for formal certification. Source: Hodgkinson-Williams (2018)
  10. 10. Photo by Lubo Minar on Unsplash Openness as a means of alleviating student financial burden Obama administration support for Open Textbooks in the USA OER movement saved students in USA and Canada USD1 billion over the past five years (https://sparcopen.org/news/2018/1-billion-in- savings-through-open-educational-resources/ )
  11. 11. Photo by John Schnobrich on Unspla
  12. 12. Collective Photo by M. B. M. on Unsplash
  13. 13. Photo by Руслан Гамзалиев on Unsplash Individual philosophy of open
  14. 14. My PhD main research question: What are the relations between culture, structure and agency and how does this influence contribution and non-contribution of OER by academics in a Higher Education institution?
  15. 15. Culture Interplay Structure Agent “How does structure influence agency?” Social Realism (Archer 2003) SOCIAL CHANGE
  16. 16. Ultimate concerns Ultimate Concerns Projects Practice ...Individuals develop and define their ultimate concerns, those internal goods that they care about most (Archer 2007:42) ...develop course (s) of action to realise that concern by elaborating a project... Translated into a set of practices
  17. 17. Who are the contributors of OER: Altruism as ultimate concern (Global South) Ambitious, confident and self- assured Multi task: research and teaching Technical ability (not essential for contribution) Social media use (not essential for contribution) Who are the non-contributors of OER: Altruism focused on the classroom (Concern) Belief in the value of teaching Critical of self and society Range of Technical ability (not essential) Most no social media use Findings: Academics at the University of Cape Town
  18. 18. Why Openness matters in SA Higher education
  19. 19. Fees must fall, Picture by Ian Barbour; Wikimedia, CC BY-NC-SA https://www.flickr.com/photos/barbourians/22697273532/in/photostream/
  20. 20. Curriculum change in Higher Education in South Africa What Knowledge? Whose Knowledge? Representativity Exclusion and inclusion Positionality Gaps, silences and absences Invisibility Marginalisation
  21. 21. Potential of Open Education # feesmustfall Economic dimension # Rhodesmustfall Cultural dimension Political dimension
  22. 22. Social Justice (Fraser, 2005) Fraser’s concept of social justice as “parity of participation” Dimension Injustices Economic Maldistribution of resources: economic inequality Cultural Misrecognition attributes of people & practices accorded less respect, status inequality Political Misrepresentation Lacking right to frame discourse
  23. 23. OER and Social Justice Framework (Adapted from Fraser, 2005) Dimension Injustices Ameliorative (Affirmative) response Addresses injustice with ameliorative reforms Economic Maldistribution ● Intermittent power supply ● Inadequate access to computing devices ● Expensive and/or poor connectivity ● Only digital OER Redistribution ● Printed OER ● Easy and cheap to download ● OER available in various formats, including Open Source Software ● MOOCs where the resources are OER OER Use Hodgkinson-Williams & Trotter, (forthcoming)
  24. 24. OER and Social Justice Framework (Adapted from Fraser, 2005) Dimension Injustices Ameliorative response Addresses injustice with ameliorative reforms Transformative response Addresses the root causes of inequality Economic Maldistribution ● Intermittent power supply ● Inadequate access to computing devices ● Expensive and/or poor connectivity ● Only digital OER Redistribution ● Printed OER ● Easy and cheap to download ● OER available in various formats, including Open Source Software ● MOOCs where the resources are OER Restructuring ● Stable power supply, adequate access to functional computing devices and affordable and stable connectivity in rural environments in particular ● Government and/or institutional funding for OER creation, adaptation and dissemination ● Mechanism for acceptance of OERs or MOOCs as micro- credentialsOER Use Hodgkinson-Williams & Trotter, (forthcoming)
  25. 25. Intersectionality the interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage (Crenshaw, 1989) https://iwda.org.au/what-does-intersectional-feminism-actually-mean/
  26. 26. Potential of Open textbooks in SA
  27. 27. Models of textbook provision Print textbooks Print open texbooks Digital textbooks Digital Open Textbooks Digital Analogue Full Copyright Open licensing A form of copyright provision where permissions for use are granted up front Materials are usually free to the user, or have a minimal cost Source: Czerniewicz (2017)
  28. 28. What are open textbooks? Open textbooks are ● open access materials (usually digital) ● published under an open licence ● in formats that provide for the integration of multimedia, ● remixing of various content components ● and printing and redistribution. Open textbooks provide academics with a means to build on openly published materials produced in other parts of the world (particularly when using platforms that are designed with this affordance in mind), while integrating a more localised approach in terms of the examples used as well as the assessment activities.
  29. 29. Project general objective: To contribute to improving inclusion in South African higher education by addressing equitable access to appropriate and relevant learning resources.
  30. 30. DOT4D: Advocacy ● Landscape survey of intellectual property (IP) policies at South Africa’s 26 public universities. ● A series of meetings and discussions with interested academics and managers, government and other statutory bodies, such as DHET, USAf, CHE and HELTASA in order to inform and support the policy-making agenda around open textbook publishing and implementation in the South African HE sector. ● The IP policy landscape survey and case study research component (which encompasses an institutional landscape survey of open textbook publishing at UCT) will provide a data-informed approach to articulation of a authentic operational definition of open textbook publishing in South Africa.
  31. 31. Key stakeholders in DOT4D advocacy activity
  32. 32. Boundary Partners • UCT academics • UCT institutional managers • UCT Library • UCT students Stakeholders • Academics SA HE institutions • Managers SA HE institutions • Government bodies • Transnational bodies (UNESCO, COL) • SA HE students • Open Textbook publishers DOT4D project
  33. 33. Global South voices
  34. 34. #openmustrise #southvoicesmustrise #opentextbooksmustrise
  35. 35. Student voices openstax We visited Rice University and spoke with students about their perspectives on free textbooks. Check back tomorrow to see another student’s perspective. #ForStudentsForever
  36. 36. “Open is a gift on offer. Like any gift, it is up to you whether you think it is worthwhile to accept it. We only ask that you consider” (Biswas-Diener & Jhangiani, 2017:6)
  37. 37. Further reading: http://roer4d.org/ ROER4D edited volume: http://www.africanminds.co.za/dd-product/adoption- and-impact-of-oer-in-the-global-south/ ROER4D published data sets: https://www.datafirst.uct.ac.za/dataportal/index.php/catalog/ROER4D Twitter: @ROER4D @dot4_d
  38. 38. References • Archer, M. S. (2003). Structure, agency and the internal conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Biswas-Diener, R. 2017. You Can’t Sell Free, and Other OER Problems. In: Jhangiani, R S and Biswas-Diener, R. (eds.) Open: The Philosophy and Practices that are Revolutionizing Education and Science. Pp. 257–265. London: Ubiquity Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/bbc.u. License: CC-BY 4.0 • Cox, G, Trotter, H, Hodgkinson-Williams, C, Arinto, P, Cartmill, T and King, T. (2018) Surfacing agency and power: A social realist perspective on select findings from the ROER4D projects. OER18, April London, Englan • Cronin, C (2017). Openness and Praxis: Exploring the useof Open Educational practices in Higher Education. IRRODL 18:5. http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/3096/4301 • Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalising the intersection between race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. Retrieved from https://philpapers.org/archive/CREDTI.pdf • Czerniewicz, L (2018). Open Textbooks presentation to Universities South Africa. Slides on request. • Czerniewicz, L (2018) Unbundling and Rebundling Higher education in an age of inequality. Educause Review. Retrieved from L https://er.educause.edu/articles/2018/10/unbundling-and-rebundling-higher-education-in-an-age-of-inequality • Fraser, N. (2005). Reframing justice in a globalizing world. New Left Review, 36, 69–88. Retrieved from https://newleftreview.org/II/36/nancy-fraser-reframing-justice-in-a-globalizing-world
  39. 39. References continued • Jhangiani, R S. 2017. Open as Default: The Future of Education and Scholarship. In: Jhangiani, R S and Biswas- Diener, R. (eds.) Open: The Philosophy and Practices that are Revolutionizing Education and Science. Pp. 267–279. London: Ubiquity Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/bbc.v. License: CC-BY 4.0 • Jhangiani, R S & Biswas-Diener, R C. 2017. Introduction to Open. In: Jhangiani, R S and Biswas-Diener, R. (eds.) Open: The Philosophy and Practices that are Revolutionizing Education and Science. Pp. 3–7. London: Ubiquity Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/bbc.a. License: CC-BY 4.0 • Hodgkinson-Williams, C., Arinto, P. B., Cartmill, T. & King, T. (2017). Factors influencing Open Educational Practices and OER in the Global South: Meta-synthesis of the ROER4D project. In C. Hodgkinson-Williams & P. B. Arinto (Eds.), Adoption and impact of OER in the Global South (pp. 27–67). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1037088 • Hodgkinson-Williams, C.A. & Trotter, H. (forthcoming). A social justice framework for understanding open educational resources and practices in the Global South, Journal of Learning for Development. • Walji, S. & Hodgkinson-Williams, C. (2017). Understanding the nature of OEP for OER adoption in Global South contexts: Emerging lessons from the ROER4D project. Presented at OER17, 5–6 April 2017. London, UK. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/ROER4D/understanding-the-nature-of-oep-for-oer-adoption-in- global-south-contextsemerging-lessons-from-the-roer4d-project

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