Writing strategy

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Writing strategy

  1. 1. English Developmental Continuum P-10Writing - Writing Strategy © 2007Developmental OverviewEach table contains the progression points and standards related to the WritingDimension and the Indicators of Progress for the focus on Writing Strategy.Progressing towards Level 1Progression Point 0.5At 0.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 1 demonstrates, forexample: • understanding that their writing can communicate ideas, feelings and information • use of letters and some words in the writing of brief texts about topics of personal interest • emergent writing showing concepts about print, including left to right, top to bottom • reading back from their own writing at the time of writing • approximate use of letters for some letter–sound relationships and common words • use of a variety of writing tools, including crayons, pencils and computer software. Indicators of ProgressThe students use at least Students see oral language Students read back to otherssome of the following being recorded in print; they what they have written orwriting strategies: dictate text, see it written believe they have written. and then say it aloud. They may retell/paraphraseStudents show an emerging or say the main ideas of theability to control how they Students plan what they message rather than readinguse a pencil or crayon. This intend to write by saying it it ‘word for word’.includes the appropriate first or drawing a picture orpencil grip. They can trace symbols to create a draft. Students learn to copyover and around letters, familiar words by saying theoutlines and shapes, write Students write what they word to themselves and thenletters ‘in the air’, in sand, in say, perhaps saying each telling themselves some offinger-painting activities, word as they write it. the letters. They can copydevelop the visual–motor words from the environmentcoordination skills necessary or from their favouritefor writing (for example, books.eye–hand and hand–armcoordination skills), engage Students articulate some ofin finger play, and develop the sounds and represent them with appropriatewww.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/teachingresources/english/englishcontinuum Writing Strategy, Level 1 to 6 - Page 1 of 24
  2. 2. Writing Strategy - Developmental Overviewbody posture and symbols.movements that permit themto write more easily.Standard 1.0At Level 1, students write personal recounts and simple texts about familiar topics toconvey ideas or messages. In their writing, they use conventional letters, groups ofletters, and simple punctuation such as full stops and capital letters. Students areaware of the sound system and the relationships between letters and sounds in wordswhen spelling. They form letters correctly, and use a range of writing implementsand software. Indicators of ProgressStudents plan what they Students check what they Students say how writing isintend to write by saying have written for correct useful or helps them (foraloud or ‘conferencing the letter formation, spaces example, to remembertopic’ or by drawing pictures between words and letters, something, to let otherof the key ideas. use of full stops, and use of people know what they capitals for names and the think) and suggest activitiesStudents say what they will beginning letter of a in which they could usewrite in sentences and write sentence. writing.a first draft. As they writethey may say aloud what Students read their writing Students transfer what theythey are writing. to others. know about writing in one context to another, forStudents read what they Students form letters more example, telling a story inhave written to see if it accurately with correct different contexts.makes sense (that is, ‘sounds starting points andright’), and, if necessary, increasing legibility. Students show improvedadd to or change the text. physical control of Students say how planning handwriting; they are more and reading over what they able to coordinate pencil have written helps them. grip, body posture and the position of the paper or keyboard.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 2 of 24
  3. 3. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 2Progression Point 1.25At 1.25, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 2 demonstrates,for example: • inclusion of their own experiences when writing for personal purposes and audiences such as in lists, letters, cards, posters • inclusion of one or more generally readable sentences • some correct use of capital letters and full stops • drawings that support the intended meaning of their writing • plausible attempts at spelling unfamiliar words, matching sound–letter relationships and using some simple spelling patterns. Indicators of ProgressStudents plan aloud, with Students read their writing Students check for spellingpictures, or in writing the to others. and punctuation.key ideas, and use theplanning ideas to write a Students form letters more Students transfer what theyfirst draft. accurately and write more know about writing from legibly. one context to another, forStudents say how planning example, they write about aand reading over what they Students say how writing is birthday party usinghave written helps them. useful and how it helps different text types or write them, and suggest activities a brief message for differentStudents read what they in which they could use people they know well.have written either to writing.themselves or to others tosee if it makes sense or‘sounds right’, and, ifnecessary, add to or changethe text.Progression Point 1.5At 1.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 2 demonstrates, forexample: • experimentation with a range of short text types; for example, recounts, letters, lists, proceduresLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 3 of 24
  4. 4. Writing Strategy - Developmental Overview • sequencing of a small number of ideas in short texts for different purposes and audiences • rereading of their own writing, checking that it makes sense • combination of writing with drawings or computer graphics to support meaning • correct spelling of some high-frequency words and plausible attempts at spelling unfamiliar words. Indicators of ProgressStudents describe some of (2) understand that Students modify theirthe differences between paragraphs separate key proofreading and editing tospeaking and writing and ideas. While aware of these include rereading what theyexperiment with new text text organisational features, have written to check fortypes. they may not use them meaning, sentence form and correctly. their use of vocabulary.Students combine their They:writing with supportive Students use sentencedrawings or computer writing strategies in which (1) reread their writing tographics. they: themselves or to others to revise or clarify ideas, andStudents begin to plan what (1) write in complete are assisted to modify theirthey will write about by sentences; writing if necessary; andusing discussion or drawing (2) vary the length ofto identify what they want to (2) edit for use of sentence; andwrite prior to writing, say, punctuation and for spelling‘what they want to tell’ the (3) experiment with errors.reader. During planning they combining or expanding Students use explicitorganise the ideas prior to sentences. publishing strategies fortheir first draft, for example, Students use word- and deciding how to presentby describing how they will: vocabulary-selection their edited piece of writing.(1) clearly define a topic; strategies more effectively; Students articulate some ofand they: the strategies (that is, the(2) add detail to a topic. (1) try out unfamiliar words; actions) they used while writing.Students begin to use (2) select words by takingexplicit text organisational account of the likely readers; Students learn strategies forstrategies, they: and copying sentences one or a few at a time; they learn to(1) sequence the ideas in the (3) try to avoid words that vocalise each sentencewriting with a clear lack ‘voice’ such as before beginning to writebeginning, body or middle, mundane or trite words and and rehearse it.and end; and overuse of words or phrases such as and or then.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 4 of 24
  5. 5. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 2Progression Point 1.75At 1.75, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 2 demonstrates,for example: • inclusion of information and ideas in short texts for known audiences and selected purposes • use of strategies to revise writing; for example, reading aloud, use of feedback from others • mostly correct use of capital letters, full stops, and question marks • correct spelling of unfamiliar words, using knowledge of sound–letter patterns. Indicators of ProgressStudents plan what they will (2) continue to develop (2) select words by takingwrite about by using paragraphing skills. account of the likelyinformation gathering readers; andstrategies such as word Students use draftingmapping and charting prior strategies such as (3) select words that targetto drafting. They reflect on elaborating on a topic and most directly their intention.‘what I want to tell the giving supporting ideas, and integrate these by using a Students modify theirreader’. They use the wider range of sentence proofreading and editing bystrategies to assist writing strategies in which using computer resources tothemselves to: they: check sentence form,(1) narrow their focus on a punctuation and spelling.topic; and (1) write in complete sentences; Students broaden their(2) add detail to aspects of publishing strategies, forthe idea. (2) vary the length of example, by using word sentence; and processing in different ways.Students begin to useexplicit text organisational (3) experiment with Students discuss the writingstrategies; they: combining or expanding strategies they use and the sentences. values and purpose of each,(1) sequence the ideas in the for example, of editing andwriting into an introduction, Students use word and revising and how they takea body and an end; and vocabulary selection account of the readers when strategies more effectively; they write. they: (1) experiment with novel words;Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 5 of 24
  6. 6. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewStandard 2.0At Level 2, students write short sequenced texts that include some related ideas aboutfamiliar topics. They write texts that convey ideas and information to knownaudiences. They select content, form and vocabulary depending on the purpose forwriting, and describe the purpose and audience for their own and others’ writing.They use appropriate structures to achieve some organisation of the subject matter.They link ideas in a variety of ways using pronouns; conjunctions and adverbialphrases indicating time and place. They accurately spell frequently used words, andmake use of known spelling patterns to make plausible attempts at spellingunfamiliar words. They use capital letters, full stops and question marks correctly.They reread their own writing and use a range of editing resources to revise andclarify meaning. They write upper- and lower-case letters legibly with consistent size,slope and spacing. Indicators of ProgressStudents select content and (2) graphic organisers, word Students ask questions aboutform depending on their mapping and charting to others’ writing and theirpurposes for writing and plan what they will write. own writing.describe the purpose and Students use draftingaudience for their own and strategies such as one’s own Students use correctiveothers’ writing. vocabulary and graphic feedback from others to organisers to create a first revise their writing.Students use planning draft.strategies such as: Students publish their Students reread their own writing in different forms,(1) saying what questions writing and use a range of including the use of wordthey want to answer for editing resources to revise processing in e-learningpeople who read what they and clarify meaning. focus groups.write, for example, for Aproject on Antarctica, Howcold is it? andLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 6 of 24
  7. 7. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 3Progression Point 2.25At 2.25, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 3 demonstrates,for example: • composition of short, sequenced factual and imaginative texts in print and electronic forms • related ideas, linked in sequence, to convey meaning to known audiences • simple, and some compound, sentences joined by appropriate conjunctions • effective vocabulary to convey meaning, including nouns, verbs and adjectives • correct spelling of words with regular spelling patterns and plausible attempts at some words with irregular spelling patterns. Indicators of ProgressStudents select content and (2) graphic organisers, word Students use planningform depending on their mapping and charting; and strategies such as graphicpurposes for writing and organisers to create a firstdescribe the explicit purpose (3) library resources such as draft.and audience for their own dictionaries and taxonomiesand others’ writing. to collate information about Students reread their own the topic. writing and use a range ofStudents talk about their editing resources to reviseaction plan for writing, the Students say what the and clarify meaning. Theysteps they will go through finished outcome might proofread paragraphs aboutand the actions they will use ‘look like’, what it might familiar events consisting ofto produce each draft. say, and the key ideas it will up to four sentences for mention. punctuation and simple one-Students use planning syllable spelling patterns.strategies such as: Students select the most appropriate nouns, Students ask questions about(1) visualising their topic; adjectives and verbs to others’ writing and their convey a message and can writing. write in a way to tell someone who was not there what happened.Progression Point 2.5At 2.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 3 demonstrates, forLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 7 of 24
  8. 8. Writing Strategy - Developmental Overviewexample: • composition of short texts of more than one paragraph to describe experiences, tell a story, express a point of view • appropriate ordering of events and ideas in print and electronic texts • compound sentences linking two ideas or events, with correct use of verb tenses • development of character, setting and plot in short narrative texts • correct use of full stops and question marks, and experimentation with other punctuation; for example, commas, quotation marks. Indicators of ProgressStudents describe their Students use knowledge of Students edit the text bywriting plan, that is, the text structures to organise correcting errors in spelling,strategies they will use to their ideas, for example, punctuation, and‘get their knowledge ready’ compare/contrast, capitalisation. They may usebefore beginning to write. problem/solution, a dictionary, other cause/effect, description. references and/or computerStudents describe their technology to assist inpurpose for writing and the Students describe how they editing text.questions they intend to sequence the ideas in aanswer in their writing. paragraph. Students name sources when writing reports.Students consistently Students paraphraseorganise and plan their accurately what they write to Students begin to usewriting and use available check that it meets their available technology (e.g.,resources in the school, such purpose. word processor) consistentlyas libraries, to assist. throughout the writing Students prepare a first draft process.Students describe the main by mapping the ideasidea and the supporting developed during planning Students publish their textideas for their writing. into phrases, sentences and by producing a legible and paragraphs. effective final product using technology when Students revise their draft by appropriate. adding or changing appropriate language and/or Students write legibly. graphics to enhance text and style.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 8 of 24
  9. 9. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 3Progression Point 2.75 At 2.75, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 3 demonstrates, for example: • composition of texts for different purposes; for example, to narrate, inform, describe, present a point of view or explain • composition of texts of three or four logically ordered paragraphs • composition of texts that take account of the needs and interests of familiar and some unfamiliar audiences • combinations of written and visual elements in print and electronic texts • correct spelling of two-syllable words with regular spelling patterns, and plausible attempts at spelling two-syllable words with irregular spelling patterns. Indicators of ProgressStudents describe an updated (1) using a sequence of Students extend their use ofwriting plan. drawings or key words to paraphrasing what they show a text pattern; write, use their knowledgeStudents describe their of vocabulary to substitutepurpose for writing and the (2) using a ‘circle text’ (a for over-used words in theirquestions they intend to sequence of pictures that writing, and refine aanswer in their writing. shows a particular character sentence to express the going through a story); and intended meaning mostStudents describe alternative clearly.ways of ‘getting their (3) record the sequence ofknowledge ready’ for key words. Students convertwriting and for collating the message in these formatswhat they know for more to a first draft.complex texts, for example:Standard 3.0At Level 3, students write texts containing several logically ordered paragraphs thatexpress opinions and include ideas and information about familiar topics. They writenarratives which include characters, setting and plot. They order information andsequence events using some detail or illustrative evidence, and they express a point ofview providing some information and supporting detail. They combine verbal andvisual elements in the texts they produce. They meet the needs of audiences byincluding appropriate background information.They write a variety of simple and compound sentences and use verb tenses correctly.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 9 of 24
  10. 10. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewThey use punctuation to support meaning, including exclamation marks andquotation marks, and accurately use full stops, commas and question marks. Theyuse vocabulary appropriate to context and spell most one- and two-syllable wordswith regular spelling patterns, and frequently used words which have less regularspelling patterns. They use sound and visual patterns when attempting to spellunfamiliar words. Indicators of ProgressStudents describe their Students sequence and Students use rhythm, flow ofwriting plan, that is, the organise the main ideas and language and imagery wherespecific actions they will the supporting ideas for their appropriate, for example, intake to complete the task. writing and sequence the verse. ideas in a paragraph.Students describe their Students edit the text bypurpose for writing and the Students paraphrase correcting errors in spelling,questions they intend to accurately what they write to punctuation, andanswer in their writing, check that it meets their capitalisation. They may useparticularly for the new text purpose. a dictionary, othertypes. references and/or computer Students prepare a first draft technology to assist inStudents use strategies to by mapping the ideas editing text.generate relevant ideas, for developed during planningexample, how to into sentences and Students cite sources whencontextualise a topic in an paragraphs, combine and writing reports.alterative culture or sequence written and visualhistorical era, and organise information, and use a range Students use availableand plan the resources they of sentence lengths and technology (e.g., wordwill use to complete the types. processor) more regularlywriting, such as library and consistently throughoutsources and on-line Students revise their draft by the writing process.databases. adding or changing appropriate language and/or Students publish their text graphics to enhance text and by producing a legible and style. effective final product using technology when appropriate.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 10 of 24
  11. 11. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 4Progression Point 3.25At 3.25, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 4 demonstrates,for example: • inclusion of familiar ideas and information for different purposes and audiences in print and electronic texts • use of strategies for planning, drafting, proofreading, editing and revising • appropriate vocabulary, punctuation and tense according to context, purpose and audience • typical features and structures of different texts such as narratives and reports • correct spelling of frequently occurring two- and three-syllable words and use of strategies to spell unknown words. Indicators of ProgressStudents describe their Students sequence and Students revise their draft bymodified writing plan, that organise the main ideas and adding or changingis, the strategies they will the supporting ideas for two appropriate language and/oruse to complete the task. simultaneous sets of events, graphics to enhance text and for example, by allocating style.Students describe their one paragraph to each of thepurpose for writing, the simultaneous sequences. Students identify and writequestions they intend to the key ideas in a text fromanswer in their writing, Students integrate the ideas which they need to learn asparticularly for the new text in two or three sentences they handle the information,types learnt here, and how into a single sentence, for example, as they watch athey indicate the purpose in identify the ‘paragraph idea’ short video or read a simplethe text they write. in a set of sentences and text with a few key ideas. summarise a sequence ofStudents use strategies to sentences. Students use various editinggenerate relevant ideas, for strategies such as aexample, how to Students prepare a first draft proofreading checklist, acontextualise a topic in a by mapping the ideas dictionary, and computer-fantasy or adventure, a developed during planning based materials, to monitorreport or an argument and into sentences and their use of spelling,organise and plan the paragraphs, combine and punctuation, grammar, andresources they will use to sequence written and visual capitalisation.complete the writing; these information, and use a rangeinclude libraries and of sentence lengths anddatabases. types.Progression Point 3.5Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 11 of 24
  12. 12. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewAt 3.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 4 demonstrates, forexample: • production of texts for a range of different audiences and purposes in print and electronic forms • use of strategies for planning; for example, using models of others’ writing or mind mapping • deletion of unnecessary information or addition of new information when editing and revising writing • inclusion of appropriate visual images and information in print and electronic texts. Indicators of ProgressIn addition to the Students organise the ideas into Students use redrafting ofstrategies described in main and subordinate ideas, their writing to develop theirlevel 3, students use the and sequence and organise the text through multiple drafts.following methods. ideas, for example, for two simultaneous sets of events in a Students use revisingStudents describe a narrative and two points of strategies; they reread themodified writing plan, view in a persuasive text. They text to check its sense andthat is, the actions they link the ideas with the topic may discuss it with others.will take to complete the and their intended message and They can recognise whentask. narrow or expand the set of their writing shows ideas according to the topic. redundancy and can correctStudents describe their this. They allocate the main andpurpose for writing, the supporting ideas to paragraphs.questions they intend to Students use editinganswer in their writing, Students map the ideas and strategies; they use a rangeparticularly for the new perspectives into a first draft. of sources to edit a text, suchtext types learnt here and They examine the development as their proofreadinghow they indicate the of details, organisation, and checklist, a dictionary, andpurpose in the text they voice in the draft and elaborate computer-based materials towrite. the initial ideas if necessary. monitor their use of spelling, punctuation, grammar, andStudents use a range of Students select and use more capitalisation.strategies to generate and appropriate vocabulary,organise relevant ideas, language structures and Students use publishingfor example, visualise a features for their purpose, strategies; they select atopic, use brainstorming audience and type of text. format for publishing that isor network mapping, appropriate to their message,organise and plan the Students evaluate two or three their purpose for writing andresources they will use to sentences in each paragraph their audience, for example,complete the writing; this and integrate the ideas into a a speech, a poster, an essay,includes the use of library single sentence; they or a report.and databases. summarise the sequence of Students use technology-Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 12 of 24
  13. 13. Writing Strategy - Developmental Overview sentences to develop the topic oriented strategies sentence for each paragraph. throughout the writing process.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 13 of 24
  14. 14. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 4Progression Point 3.75At 3.75, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 4 demonstrates,for example: • use of structures and features appropriate to purpose and audience of print and electronic texts • appropriate use of topic sentences and organisation of main and subordinate ideas • selection of vocabulary, text structures and visual features to effectively communicate ideas and information • maintenance of plot, characterisation and setting throughout extended narrative texts • use of knowledge about spelling patterns, including morphemic knowledge, visual and phonic patterns. Indicators of ProgressIn addition to the strategies Students show they have • while revising,described in 3–3.5, students use linked the writing strategies proofreading stagethe following methods. into a sequence of self- scripts such as—Is the instructional scripts that text on the right track?Students selectively use a Does it do what it isvariety of strategies for writing they can use to guide them supposed to do? Does itaccording to the given purposes, through a writing activity as say too much/too little? Issuch as note making, using follows: the text easy tomodels, planning, editing and • while pre-writing and understand? Are thereproofreading. planning stage scripts such confusing parts? Are theStudents select and use specific as—What do I know about main points in the rightvocabulary according to the the topic? Have I collected order? Does the writing enough information? Why begin smoothly? Does thetopic of the writing and its am I writing this? Who will writer take too long to getpurpose. started? Does each read what I write? WhatStudents use multiple drafting form should my writing take? paragraph have one mainin a systematic, organised way How well does the idea? Are the paragraphsto obtain a final product. information I have gathered linked together well? Does answer the set the writing finish well?Students express and clarify Have I used any wordstheir thoughts, feelings and question/topic? that I am not sure of?values through writing. • while writing stage scripts Have I checked the writing such as—What is the first for correct grammar andStudents use a range of sentence important idea I want to say?and paragraph writing sentences? Have I checked How will I say it? What ideas the writing for correctstrategies, for example, they go with it? What is the spelling? Have I checkedvary the style of sentence forms second important idea? What the writing for correctand use indexing, sentence ideas go with it? How will I punctuation? Does eachLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 14 of 24
  15. 15. Writing Strategy - Developmental Overvieworganisation, compound start the writing? What do I sentence have one idea?sentences, and subordinate and want to tell the reader first? Have I used pictures etc.,embedded clauses. How will I tell the reader well? What will I call the about the main idea of the passage of writing? Will IStudents use several drafts in a passage? How will I finish use subheadings?systematic, organised way to off the writing? What willlead to a final product. Students begin to adapt each paragraph be about? What is the main idea in the steps in the self- each paragraph? instructional sequence to match different types of texts.Standard 4.0At Level 4, students produce, in print and electronic forms, a variety of texts fordifferent purposes using structures and features of language appropriate to thepurpose, audience and context of the writing. They begin to use simple figurativelanguage and visual images. They use a range of vocabulary, a variety of sentencestructures, and use punctuation accurately, including apostrophes. They identify anduse different parts of speech, including nouns, pronouns, adverbs, comparativeadverbs and adjectives, and use appropriate prepositions and conjunctions. They use arange of approaches to spelling, applying morphemic knowledge and anunderstanding of visual and phonic patterns. They employ a variety of strategies forwriting, including note-making, using models, planning, editing and proofreading. Indicators of ProgressStudents use a range of Students use drafting strategies Students use editingstrategies including the in which students: strategies to check the usefollowing: of spelling, punctuation, (1) use the ideas and grammar, andStudents describe their perspectives generated to write capitalisation; students useaction plan for writing, and a first draft; several resources such as athe actions they will use to dictionary, computer andachieve their goals or (2) elaborate initial ideas and style guides.purposes for writing. identify subordinate ideas; and Students use publishingStudents use idea generation (3) focus on developing ideas, strategies such as:and collation strategies, details and organising them.orientation strategies, and Students use revising strategies (1) selecting a format foridea organisation strategies, such as rereading the draft to publication appropriate forfor example, brainstorming check that there is consistency the audience (for example,and semantic mapping of meaning and main ideas, a letter, a poster, an essay,(including computer and language use and style, and a report); andgraphic organisers in modify the draft accordingly.planning and collating (2) using technology toknowledge for writing support the publishingLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 15 of 24
  16. 16. Writing Strategy - Developmental Overviewdifferent text types), and process.strategies for narrowing orexpanding a topic prior todrafting.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 16 of 24
  17. 17. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 5Progression Point 4.25 At 4.25, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 5 demonstrates, for example: • composition of print and electronic texts for a range of purposes, including speculative, imaginative, explanatory and persuasive • development of topics in coherent ways according to the purpose, and the needs and experience of the intended audience • use of a variety of sentence structures, including combinations of simple and compound sentences for particular effects • awareness of grammatical conventions; for example, tense and subject–verb agreement, appropriate punctuation • use of a range of planning strategies. Indicators of ProgressStudents use the types of Students use drafting Students use revisingstrategies described in level strategies in which they: strategies that take account4 and modify these to of the new text types as (1) use the ideas andaccount for the types of texts identified in 4.25 Ideas perspectives generated todescribed. communicated in writing. write a first draft;Students describe their Students use editing (2) elaborate initial ideasaction plan for writing a strategies that take account and identify subordinatereview of a film or a of the new text types 4.25 ideas; andspeculative text. Ideas communicated in (3) focus on developing writing.Students use idea generation ideas and details andand collation strategies, Students use publishing organising them.orientation strategies, idea strategies includingorganisation strategies and computers and graphicstrategies for narrowing or organisers for publishing theexpanding a topic prior to text types.drafting for an interpretativeessay.Progression Point 4.5At 4.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 5 demonstrates, forexample:Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 17 of 24
  18. 18. Writing Strategy - Developmental Overview • composition of print and electronic texts in a wide range of forms, including narratives, reports, explanations, procedures and points of view • composition of persuasive texts about contemporary issues, including justification of personal points of view with supporting arguments • experimentation with different techniques to influence audiences and achieve the intended purpose of their writing • correct spelling, except of unfamiliar words with unusual spelling patterns • use of headings and subheadings in the organisation of information in texts • use of editing and proofreading skills for clarity and cohesion of ideas. Indicators of ProgressStudents use the types of (3) strategies for focusing or Students use editing andstrategies described in expanding a topic prior to proofreading strategies; theylevels 4–4.25 and modify drafting for an interpretative (1) monitor for clarity andthese to account for the essay (for example, by for the cohesiveness of ideastypes of texts described aligning the questions asked in communicating theabove, as follows: by a topic with the questions intended message;Students describe their answered by the ideas). (2) use multiple resources toaction plan for writing Students use drafting edit the text (for example,instances of the texts above strategies; they dictionaries, computer-basedand discuss what they know (1) integrate ideas across facilities, peer feedback andabout writing for different sentences within a paragraph writing guides; andpurposes in a range of for the text types taught;contexts. (3) begin to cite sources (2) coordinate ideas and (e.g., references, footnotes,Students use various perspectives; and endnotes).planning strategies: (3) gradually use these Students use various(1) idea generation and drafting strategies publishing strategies; theycollation strategies such as independently.researching, mapping, (1) select a format forsurveys and interviews; Students use revising publishing (e.g., multimedia strategies; they formats, essay, research(2) idea organisation presentation) appropriate forstrategies such as (1) reread what they have written for sense; the audience and purpose;networking the main ideas andfirst, followed by the (2) confer with others tosubordinate ideas, modify the text; (2) produce a legible andidentifying the questions effective final outcome (3) adapt recommendations; using a variety ofanswered by the main ideas and technologies.(for example, using thewho, what, when, where, (4) modify the languagewhy framework); and and/or accompanying non- text information to enhance text and style.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 18 of 24
  19. 19. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 5Progression Point 4.75At 4.75, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 5 demonstrates,for example: • control of writing texts in various forms, including narratives, reports, explanations, procedures and persuasive texts • composition of imaginative and informative texts presenting challenging ideas and issues • appropriate use of figurative language to achieve particular effects • strategic use of headings, subheadings, graphics, photographs and art work to support the meaning of the text • use of a variety of software packages to plan, organise, revise and present electronic texts. Indicators of ProgressStudents use the types ofstrategies described in levels4–4.5 with greaterspontaneity and accuracy.Standard 5.0At Level 5, students produce, in print and electronic forms, texts for a variety ofpurposes, including speculating, hypothesising, persuading and reflecting. They writeextended narratives or scripts with attention to characterisation, consistency ofviewpoint and development of a resolution. They write arguments that state andjustify a personal viewpoint; reports incorporating challenging themes and issues;personal reflections on, or evaluations of, texts presenting challenging themes andissues. Students improve the accuracy and readability of their writing, developingconfidence in the identification and use of grammatical conventions and features oflanguage and in their use of figurative language. They use a range of punctuationaccurately to support meaning, including the use of ellipses, dashes, colons and semi-colons. They control tenses, and subject-verb and noun-pronoun agreement. Theyaccurately identify and use different parts of speech. They edit their writing forLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 19 of 24
  20. 20. Writing Strategy - Developmental Overviewclarity, coherence and consistency of style, and proofread and correct spelling,punctuation and grammatical errors. Indicators of ProgressStudents modify and update Students develop strategies Students broaden theirtheir writing plans to for using a variety of strategies for linking mainaccommodate the broader sentence structures and supporting ideas withinrange of texts and purposes selectively so that they and between paragraphs byfor writing. convey their intention most using a range of connectives effectively. to communicate a sense of coherence. Students develop strategies for improving the focus, the Students edit their writing accuracy and the readability for clarity, coherence and of their writing so that it consistency of style, and achieves its purpose proofread for spelling, effectively. punctuation and grammar.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 20 of 24
  21. 21. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 6Progression Point 5.25At 5.25, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 6 demonstrates,for example: • composition of sustained narratives with some control of main plot and sub-plots and consistent character development • use of writing to explore complex issues and points of view • use of a variety of language techniques to present an argument and influence audiences to share a point of view • effective use of vocabulary and sentence structures appropriate to the intended purpose of the text • effective use of strategies for redrafting, editing for audience appropriateness, prioritising and sequencing ideas. Indicators of ProgressStudents plan how to write Students plan how to write Students write creatively insustained narratives and texts that explore a complex terms of open-endedhow to prioritise and current issue from different possibilities.sequence the ideas in a perspectives or that argue asustained narrative; they particular point of view, how Students use composing,say how they organise the to support a clear position and, if necessary, redraftingideas in terms of main plot and to account for alternative strategies.and sub-plots; use language opinions and different Students proofread their(for example, vocabulary, perspectives, and how to use writing and revise and edit itsentence forms); allow key language techniques to argue for vocabulary and spelling,characterisation to evolve; and persuade for a particular for audienceand maintain cohesion and point of view. appropriateness, clarity,develop a resolution. cohesion and consistency of viewpoint.Progression Point 5.5At 5.5, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 6 demonstrates, forLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 21 of 24
  22. 22. Writing Strategy - Developmental Overviewexample: • expression of thoughts, feelings, opinions and ideas in print and electronic forms • use of writing to explore complex issues and to argue for a particular point of view • integration of complex ideas and multiple perspectives in writing • the written conventions, structures and features appropriate for a range of different text types • proofreading and redrafting for accuracy, clarity, coherence and consistency of style. Indicators of ProgressStudents plan, organise, Students use composing Students use redraftingprioritise and sequence the strategies, for example, strategies to improve clarity,main and supporting ideas in actions to integrate complex coherence, creativity andtheir writing, for example, ideas and multiple consistency of style ifhow they will achieve perspectives in their writing. necessary.character development,consistency of viewpoint or Students use writing to Students proofread theirdevelopment of a resolution, explore a complex issue writing and reflect upon andachieve cohesion in their from different perspectives, evaluate how well they havewriting and argue decisively to examine the links achieved their goal orfor their point of view, between ideas and to intention, for example, howexpress alternative opinions generate possibilities. well they have stated theirand attempt to correct the viewpoint to positionuse of sociocultural bias. readers.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 22 of 24
  23. 23. Writing Strategy - Developmental OverviewProgressing towards Level 6Progression Point 5.75At 5.75, the work of a student progressing towards the standard at Level 6 demonstrates,for example: • composition of expressive and sustained narratives with attention to chronology, coherence of viewpoint, consistency of plot and character development, and development of effective resolution • use of writing to explore, speculate and reflect on complex themes and issues • strong arguments for particular points of view, using effective language to persuade readers • evaluation of the extent to which they have been effective in meeting the demands of purpose, audience and context in their writing • use of a range of strategies for gathering information, planning, structuring, composing, proofreading, revising and editing. Indicators of ProgressStudents update their writing (2) reflect upon and Students proofread theirstrategy plans to include evaluate how well they are writing and reflect upon andwhat they have learnt about conveying their intended evaluate how well they havewriting and to show these as message and take further achieved their goal orself-scripts. action if necessary; and intention and met the demands of purpose, contextStudents use modified (3) use prioritising and and audience, and modifycomposing strategies, for sequencing strategies. the text if necessary, forexample, they: example, how well they Students use writing to have stated their viewpoint(1) evaluate alternative explore and to speculate to position readers.perspectives and synthesise about a complex issue froma position; different perspectives, to examine the links between ideas and to generate possibilities. Standard 6.0 At Level 6, students write sustained and cohesive narratives that experiment with different techniques and show attention to chronology, characterisation, consistentLast updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 23 of 24
  24. 24. Writing Strategy - Developmental Overview point of view and development of a resolution. They write persuasive texts dealing with complex ideas and issues and control the linguistic structures and features that support the presentation of different perspectives on complex themes and issues. They select subject matter and begin to use a range of language techniques to try to position readers to accept particular views of people, characters, events, ideas and information. They compose a range of other texts, such as feature articles, web pages and workplace texts. They plan and deliver presentations, sequencing and organising complex ideas. They write accurately punctuated, grammatically sound and complex sentences with embedded clauses and phrases. They are able to maximise the effects of rhythm and tone, and write with developing fluency. They proofread and edit their own writing for accuracy, consistency and clarity. Indicators of ProgressStudents say their writing Students write accurately (1) accuracy, consistencystrategy plan, that is, the punctuated, grammatically and clarity;strategies they will use in an sound and complex (2) sentence use and theyintegrated way to create a sentences with embedded rephrase and clarifywritten text. This will clauses and phrases. sentences and grammar ifinclude consideration of necessary;their purpose for writing and Students use a variety of literary devices such as (3) paragraph clarity andthe questions they intend they may rearrange the ordertheir writing to answer or to simile, metaphor and other figurative techniques to of paragraphs, and delete orraise. add paragraphs; enhance their clarity ofStudents select subject writing, and to increase the (4) relevance of the contentmatter and language to try to rhythm, tone, and fluency of for their intended purpose;position readers to accept their writing. andparticular views of people, (5) overall coherence andcharacters, events, ideas and Students proofread and edit fluency.information. their writing for: Students use written self-Students use composing reflection and goal setting tostrategies to write a range of analyse academictexts, such as feature articles achievement and behaviour.or web pages and workplacetexts.Last updated: 14.01.08 (c) State of Victoria, 2008 Page 24 of 24

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