Pecha kucha 2


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Pecha kucha 2

  1. 1. Pecha Kucha 2 TV TV can be educational but there consequences, one of them is that TV viewing reduces how much parents talk with their children. Diminished parent-child interaction can have negative effects on children. In a recent study of toddlers and preschoolers, observed the interaction between mothers and their children while reading books, watching a prosocial TV program, and playing with toys. The findings showed that viewing suppressed both the amount and quality of mother-child communication. Mothers made relatively few comments to their children while co-viewing. When they did speak, their comments were often unrelated to what their child said, thereby creating an unproductive exchange that could hinder children's opportunity for learning. On the other hand moms who read books to their children, talked significantly more and also used a very high-quality form of communication that included asking questions, labelling objects, affirming their child, and responding to their child's statements or questions with relevant information. This difference reflected the communication that occurred above and beyond the actual reading that the mother did with the child. Playing with toys also drew out a high amount of communication, including some high-quality forms of interaction. Despite not being better than books, toy playing was significantly better than shared TV viewing at encouraging communication. Judging from these results, when a child who spends a most of the day in front of the TV . The problem is not so much the content, although that plays a part as well. Instead, it lies on the fact that the child may be missing out on valuable - even crucial - interactions with parents during a critical point in their development. Parent-child interaction, even with children who can't yet speak, is vital to children's healthy development. The American Academy of Paediatrics released a new TV guideline for children aged 2 and under stating that young children should not be watching TV. One of the main reasons for this recommendation is that it reduces parent-child communication. Today it is hard for children to avoid watching tv. In some homes, there might be siblings or parents who are frequently watching TV and in other homes the TV is continuously turned on despite anyone watching it. In some cases the TV functions as a substitute babysitter and some parents may even purchase DVD of programmes who claim can help educate children. However there is some research that might suggest the opposite effect.
  2. 2. Bad points: -A child under 2 years gains no educational benefit from TV. This time should be spent in activities that offer real interaction with other people or things, this helps them develop their brain, they learn a lot more efficiently this way. -Rather than watching TV young children should spend time developing important skills, such as language, social skills, motor and creativity, which are developed in during the childs first two years. These skills are only achieved through conversation, play and exploration. Language for example can only be developed when taking and listening is used as part of real life rather than passively watching it on screen. -Watching TV numbs the minds of children, by as it preventing them from exercising initiative, thinking analytically, being intellectually challenged, and using their imagination. -TV viewing takes away time from reading and improving reading skills through practice (Comstock, 1991). -Kids watching cartoons and entertainment television during pre-school years have poorer pre- reading skills at age 5 (Macbeth, 1996). -Dr Sally Ward, an expert in speech and language, carried out a research for 20 years on children who are bombarded by background TV noise in their homes. Consequently he found that these children found it difficult to pay attention to voices when there was any kind of background noise. -Watching TV can also cause problems in school. Children are used to the fast-paced visual stimulation on TV, so they find it hard to pay attention their teachers during a long period of time. They can also find it hard to adjust from being visual learner to aural learners because of lack of communication in the home. However because of their short attention spans they may find it hard to pay attention to other people and things not just school. Another negative impact TV can have in school is that children tend to spend less time on their homework and learn less from it if they have the TV on in the background. -A study done by Millennium Cohort Study and published in 2013. Found that children who spent more than 3 hours in front of the TV a day have a bigger change of facing problems, emotional symptoms and relationship problems by the time they turn 7, compared to those who did not. The study also showed that this problem was not found with children who played video games for the same amount of time. -TV exposes children to bad influences and promoted negative behaviour. Violence, use toxic substances and sex re shown in a positive light. A child’s mind can easily take in what they see. This gives a child an early impression that determines how they see the world. For example a research was carried out over 20 years and found that children who are exposed to media violence are more likely to behave violently; they are taught that violence is the way to resolve conflict such as in super hero cartoons. -TV contributes to children becoming over wait by exposing them to junk food commercials that influence them to eat unhealthy foods. The American Medical Association point out those children often eats snacks while watching TV, Instead of being active and engaging in activities that burn calories and increase metabolism. This may lead them to become obese adults unless they change their habits
  3. 3. -Researchers from the University of Sydney report a link between total screen time and retinal artery width in children. Kids with lots of screen time were found to have narrow artery in their eyes, which may indicate heart risk. through/2012/jun/8/no_television_for_babies_tv_bad/ Today, not only are there the standbys like Sesame Street and after school cartoons, but there are entire channels geared towards kids that provide a non-stop stream of programming, in addition to this there is also the media exposure through computers and iPads, parents and infants are overwhelmed with media. TOYS Toys stimulate learning through long lasting creative play with exciting features to discover which help develop and feed young imaginations. From basic motor skills to more advanced social interactive role-play, the toys provide children with a fun way to make sense of the world around them and assist with early development. We live in the age of video games, YouTube, and instant online movies, some parents may question if children still need toys. However the benefits toys offer children are huge, they offer them a fun time, in addition to giving them educational and therapeutic benefits as well. Different toys offer children the chance to develop different skills, even children with disabilities can benefit from having the right toy for them. Benefits of playing with toys: -Personal Interaction. By playing with toys children are able to interact with siblings and friends as well as offer an opportunity for parents to take part. One of the benefits of play is the conversation that imaginative play delivers. - Builds a Child's Sense of Confidence. Children become confident through learning news skills such as riding a bike or learning to play the same thing as their older siblings.Playing helps children practice and master skills. It helps them learn creative problem solving skills. -Teaches Motivation. Playing with toys disguises the process of learning and turns it into something fun which motives the child to continue learning. It gives the child a chance to be in control, try new skills and things their way, while learning about who they are as a person and what they are good at. Children are more motivated to discover and learn things when it's fun. -Stress Reduction. Playing with toys allows children to relive stress. They offer them an escape after a hard day at school etc. Finger painting, riding a tricycle, or playing an instrument is a way to recharge and renew.
  4. 4. -Stimulates the Senses. One of the benefits of play is the sensory stimulation. There are things to see, smell, feel, and hear. Active play is a fun reward for a child as an after school treat. Or a soothing musical toy can bring instant peace to a child who is exhausted. benefits of play. -According to a 2009 study in the journal Paediatrics, kids behave better in the classroom when they have the chance to blow off steam on the playground during the day. Researchers compared teacher ratings of 8- and 9-year-olds' behaviour in schools with and without recess periods. The kids who had more than 15 minutes a day of breaks behaved better during academic time. -Teaches children to play nice and be aware of others feelings. "You get to try things out with no consequences," said Kathy Hirsch-Pasek, a child development psychologist at Temple University, who researches the benefits of play. "[Play] also allows you to wear different hats, to master social rules. That's huge." -The American Heart Association recommends that children over the age of 2 engage in at least an hour a day of moderate, enjoyable physical activity. There's evidence that active children grow into active adults, thus decreasing their risk of heart disease and other problems of a sedentary lifestyle. Role play Babies and children learn the vast majority of what they know from watching adults and those people around them. Most children have an identifiable primary carer –the person to whom the child is most strongly attached, and whom they watch and learn from at an amazing rate. The more closely attached a child is to a person, the more easily they will learn from him/her. Young children spend a lot of time at home whilst the primary carer is engaged in everyday activities .Children learn from watching this activities being performed but they will learn a lot more if they are able to take part in this as well. Since this is not also practical or safe, it is important to find an alternative that is safe and age-appropriate so that they can understand adult behaviour, this is offered by role playing. Role playing provides children with an opportunity to copy the behaviour of those around them using props that are appropriate for them. Instead of using highly prescriptive products, toys that can be used as props for a child’s own game can help them develop their creativity and imagination. Toys which encourage role play also develop communication and social skills if playing with friends or siblings. As a child there are many rules that they must follow so having an opportunity where they are in control and can create their own play is a great experience. Similarly by playing with others offer even more benefits to the child, and the parent who is able to learn more about their child if they let them dictate the game. Today childhood obesity and anorexia is an issue. However role play with toy food can help children to understand the importance of a balanced diet. By cutting food with toy knife children explore that food and develop a healthy balanced attitude towards nutrition.
  5. 5. This is the same for other adult activities. By allowing children to feel more grown up through copying everyday adult behaviour, parents have the chance to bond with their child and acknowledging their efforts. Many of the life skills that children need to develop in order to live successfully as an independent adult are learned through bonding with their parents, and increasing imagination and communication skills through role play so parent should encourage this style of play. Barbie Psychologists claim there are social benefits to Barbie doll play; they say it provides an opportunity for little girls to learn how "big girls" behave and what they value. However, as researcher Brian Sutton-Smith observed, the Barbie doll image and the personas of most television characters correspond closely. "Much more than a mere toy, Barbie has become an icon. She has come to represent much of what we, as Americans, most admire and fear about ourselves. She embodies our love/hate relationship with our consumption-oriented society." —Marily Ferris Motiz, Popular Culture Reader sold by Mattel, Mrs. Heart doll, her doll family and their accessories support a traditional home environment and a mother whose first care is her family. "The Mrs. Heart doll is a mother who loves her children. That's what the Heart family is all about: the love and warmth and caring of a family relationship," comments Candace Irving, manager of marketing/public relations and Mattel spokesperson. Children playing with the Hearts not only practice motherhood and fatherhood; they also can imagine themselves the centre of their mother's attention, which may appeal to some of the children whose mothers work outside the home. She-Ra the Magnificent is a spin-off from the popular Masters of the Universe television program. It was visualized as an action figure for girls. A doll-for-the-80s, She-Ra was designed to combine fashion and glamour with action and adventure. "We found out that the way to portray power for little boys is with physical stamina and muscles. But for little girls it means being beautiful and having a strong body, but also to power to guide your own destiny," according to Mattel's former director of marketing Janice Varney. In Dolls commercials companies include a series of things that suggest who the doll is and how its character would spend her time. These props, together with the doll's own features, contribute to a personality, a set of values, attributes and behaviours identified with the doll. But are the children listening? Why do children choose the dolls they do and what are the implications of their choice? Do children internalize dolls they like as role models? To find out research was conducted on 17 4-6 year olds 11 girls, six boys. Both sexes were asked questions designed to measure their perceptions of each doll's intended personality, focusing on her reaction to stress, emergencies and leisure time choices.
  6. 6. What would Barbie (She-Ra, Mrs. Heart) do if one of her friends were mean to her and started calling her names? If Barbie (She-Ra, Mrs. Heart) had to decide something important, would she: If she had her choice of what to do on a Saturday night would Barbie (She-Ra, Mrs. Heart) be: If Barbie (She-Ra, Mrs. Heart) was watching a movie about a little girl who cries Because her dog is run over by a car, would she: Then they were asked which doll they would like as a mentor(Girls)/Girlfriend(Boys), friend and mother. For the girls and the boys the order was the same for all three, Mrs Heart came in first place, Barbie in second and She-ra in third. The girls’ thought: Motherhood won over glamour. Mrs Heart was viewed as a model mom and preferred friend by the girls. The reason for their choice was that they were enthusiastic about her child-care role. "I like her beautiful babies," they liked her and felt she liked them. "She's warm.". She-Ra was chosen as a good mentor, with more than twice as many girls picking her for that role than Barbie despite her being seen as more friendly and mother-like than She-ra. "She-Ra has the most exciting life of all," one six-year-old said. "I like her because she knows what she wants and how to get it," another commented. Although Barbie was seen as a more friendly and mother than She-Ra, she was an also-ran in all three categories. Her status with these children contrasts strikingly with her marketing success, with 500 million Barbie dolls sold worldwide by late 1988. The children who did choose Barbie as their preferred choice offered an explanation that revolved around her beauty, popularity and ability to engage in exciting activities. "She's tall," one child noted. "She gets to do a lot of things," said another. Most of the kids mentioned She-Ra's cartoon when making a reference to the doll, illustrating the influence of the television screen on children's perceptions. As one put it, "I want a friend who is a TV star."
  7. 7. Despite some studies suggesting that boys reject female heroes, in this study the group showed a clear preference for the figure She-Ra over other dolls. With over 70 percent preferring her as mother, girlfriend and friend. One boy mentioned "She-Ra is strong and smart. She knows what's happening." "She doesn't whine or cry," said another. Mrs. Heart was the runner up with the boys, with some viewing her as "friendly." One five-year-old wanted Barbie as a girlfriend because he wanted to protect her, although he preferred She-Ra in the other categories. The rest of the boys scorned Barbie with comments like, "She-Ra's strong and really smart. All Barbie is worried about is wearing her clothes and living in her dream house." The image What does this finding show about the female images portrayed by these dolls? Are they truly role models or only incidental choices? The marketing experts who created these characters recognize the multifaceted roles possible for today's women. Evidently even a doll can't "have it all." All three dolls each represent characteristics that might blend into the makeup of a modern woman struggling to integrate the various aspects of women's expanded roles. Little girls who wanted "to be like" both She-Ra and Mrs. Heart recognized this split. The dolls provided images "to grow on," but not a model of integration. The boy's future preferences are harder to predict. Will they continue to prefer powerful women? Or are they merely more comfortable as children with girls who match their masculine self-image? Whatever the answer, it's clear that children will continue to shape their images of both female and male roles through their toys. And the toys they play with will continue to be determined by what the toy manufacturers — and the media — are able to sell. Modern moms are increasingly interested in how toys for girls shape their perception of the world and herself. Barbie is a topic that circle of moms members debate whether she's a bad influence or not on their daughters. Why Moms are Anti-Barbie Barbie's unrealistic body proportions make her an unquestionably bad influence on young children. It teaches young girls to have unrealistic expectations of their own bodies. When they are older, they may have low self-esteem because of it.” In addition to this other moms mentioned that she can also set a bad example for boys "Barbies and princesses are such unhealthy, unrealistic examples of women that I wouldn't encourage them for children, regardless of their sex." Why Moms are Pro-Barbie 1) Barbie's negative effect on self-esteem is exaggerated. "It's just a doll," argued mother of three, who herself played with Barbies and feels there was no negative impact. She added, "I really don't think many 5–7 year olds...actually analyze Barbie's breast size." Another mother shared a similar view: "My daughter played with Barbie and Bratz. She does not dress like Bratz now (she's 11) nor does she expect to be built like Barbie."
  8. 8. 2) Barbie as a positive creative influence. "I see them as a toy that promotes creative play....My daughter has several Barbie dolls, as well as a dollhouse for them…She also designs her own clothes for Barbie out of pieces of fabric, ribbon, elastic bands, and any other bits and pieces she can find. It really has stimulated her imagination in a positive way." 3) Suggest yet another potential Barbie benefit—exposing young girls to diverse career options: "The thing I like about Barbie is that she has so many careers, including more traditionally male-dominated careers. She teaches little girls that they can be anything they want to be. -Barbie have a great personality, which will affect children positively. In her movies Barbie is friendly, kind, caring, motivational and a lot more. She has many positive traits than negative that's why she really is a good model for young children. -Barbie encourages role play, the child is able to develop their creativity skills. Barbie dolls also nurture a child’s vocabulary skills. As the child uses words to help the dolls interact and form 'relationships', he or she is being taught about the complexities of language. These are some quotes by Barbie from movies. “Anything is possible” "What makes you different makes you special." "You're braver than you think." "Even the smallest person can make a big difference." "There's a difference only you can make." "The most beautiful thing you can be is yourself." "What makes you different just might be your greatest strength." "True courage is pursuing your dream, even when everyone else says it's impossible." The miniature world of downsized objects and people – dolls, beds, high chairs, strollers and more – provides an opportunity for children to begin to see their own place in the world and to learn the different roles people play. By assuming roles and interacting with other children, preschoolers develop language and social skills including sharing, cooperation, helping, and problem solving. By writing the scenarios themselves and putting the dolls into the now miniaturized situations, doll play allows children to resolve situations that may be new, mysterious or troubling to them. By dressing and feeding dolls, toddlers enhance fine motor skills. Pushing their dolls in small sized strollers and putting them in and out of bed helps develop coordination and large motor skills. By assuming roles and interacting with people around them, toddlers begin to develop language and social skills such as sharing and helping. -child holding hands with doll and mom -Child playing -A child watching TV -Barbie in different careers -three dolls
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