Published on

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

  1. 1. Prepared by: Giselle M. Manabat AB-PSYCH IV
  2. 2. Integrative model PHASE I: Open-ended Phase PHASE II: Causal Phase PHASE III: Hypothetical Phase PHASE IV: Closure/Generalization
  3. 3. Background (Professional Training and Field of Specialization) Nature and Basis of Theory Relevance and Function
  4. 4.  Field: Developmental Psychologist & Ego Psychologist  Known for: Theory on Social Development/ Psychosocial Stages of Development  Influences: Sigmund Freud and Anna Freud ERIK HOMBERGER ERIKSON
  5. 5. Salient facts  So what’s in a name? Erik, son of Erik  artist  Reason why he pursue psychology?  When he was 25, his friend Peter Blos -- a fellow artist and, later, psychoanalyst -- suggested he apply for a teaching position at an experimental school for American students run by Dorothy, a friend of Anna Freud. He was psychoanalyzed by Anna Freud herself.
  6. 6. Nature/Basis of theory  EPIGENETIC PRINCIPLE  This principle says that we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stages. Our progress through each stage is in part determined by our success, or lack of success, in all the previous stages.
  7. 7. Epigenetic Principle: the unfolding of a rose bud…
  8. 8. RELEVANCE AND FUNCTION  RESEARCHES: 1. The Recovery Process Utilizing Erikson’s Stages of Human Development  The authors offer a psycho-developmental model that parallels Erik Erikson’s theory of human development, and theorize that the process of psychiatric recovery involves a psychic reworking of these fundamental steps.
  9. 9. Stages Developmental Stages of Recovery Erikson’s stages of Human development Stage 1 Trust vs. Doubt Trust vs. Mistrust Stage 2 Hope vs. Shame Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Stage 3 Empowerment vs. Guilt Initiative vs. Guilt Table 1. Comparison human development & recovery stages 2. The Use of Erikson’s Developmental Theory with Gay Men from Rural Communities by Keith W. Beard, Psy.D. Amy Hissam, M.A.
  10. 10. Similarities Differences
  11. 11. Similarities  Freud and Erikson's theories on stages of development contain similar themes for 1 to 3 years, 7 to 11 years and adulthood.  During the 1 to 3 years old stage, both theories agree the child initiates control of specific actions.  Freud and Erikson's stages of 7 to 11 years focuses on mastering new skills and activities.  The adulthood stage in both theories demonstrates a focus on romantic relationships at some point.
  12. 12. differencesSigmundFreud -concentrates on 5 stages of psychosexual stages. -biologically and sexually oriented theory (incorporation of sexual pleasure) -believed that if failure occurs during any stage, the individual becomes fixated. The fixation of a stage could later lead to personality disorders. ErikErikson -postulates not 5 but 8 stages of psychosocial stages. -much more society and culture-oriented -outlines that if an individual does not complete a stage successfully he moves on to the next stage carrying remnants of the older stage.
  13. 13. TErminologies Psychosocial Crises- developmental tasks having 2 conflicting forces which are psychosocial in nature (Ex. Trust vs. Mistrust) Optimal Time- a certain time for each task Psychosocial Virtue- are “psychosocial strength” which will help us through the rest of the stages of our lives.
  14. 14. TErminologies Maladaptations- is not quite as bad & involves too much of the positive and too little of the negative (ex. A person who trusts so much)  Malignancy- is the worse of the two & involves too little of the positive and too much of the negative aspect of the task (ex. A person who can’t trust.)  Mutuality- interaction of generation
  15. 15. Hypothesis and Applications
  16. 16. Erik Erikson says… “Each individual must learn how to hold both extremes of each specific life-stage challenge in tension with one another, not rejecting one end of the tension or the other. Only when both extremes in a life-stage challenge are understood and accepted as both required and useful, can the optimal virtue for that stage surface.”
  17. 17. Mom, can I trust the world?
  18. 18. 1. Trust vs. Mistrust Stage (age) Psycho- social crisis Significant relations Psycho- social virtues Maladaptations & malignancies I (0-1) -- infant trust vs. mistrust mother hope, faith sensory distortion - - withdrawal  Task: develop trust without completely eliminating the capacity for mistrust.
  19. 19. What if a proper balance is achieved? Psychosocial Virtue: “Hope” -even things are not going well, they will work out well in the end.
  20. 20. Is it okay to be me?
  21. 21. Task: achieve a degree of autonomy while minimizing shame and doubt. 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Stage (age) Psycho- social crisis Significant relations Psycho-social virtues Maladaptations & malignancies II (2-3) -- toddler Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt parents will, determination impulsivity -- compulsion
  22. 22. • ImpulsivenessMaladaptive Tendency • Compulsiveness • A person feels as if their entire being rides on everything they do so everything must be done perfectly. Malignant Tendency
  23. 23. What if you get the proper, positive balance of autonomy and shame and doubt? Psychosocial Virtue: “Will or determination” - “CAN DO!” is their motto
  24. 24. Is it okay for me to do, move and act?
  25. 25. Task: confronting child is to learn initiative without too much guilt. 3. Initiative vs. Guilt Stage (age) Psycho- social crisis Significant relations Psycho-social virtues Maladaptations & malignancies III (3-6) -- preschooler Initiative vs. Guilt Family Purpose, Courage Ruthlessness – Inhibition
  26. 26. • Ruthlessness • person takes the initiative alright; • The goals are everything, and guilty feelings are for the weak. The extreme form of ruthlessess is sociopathy. • Develop aggressive behaviors Maladaptive Tendency • Inhibition • inhibited person will not try things because "nothing ventured, nothing lost" and, particularly, nothing to feel guilty about. Malignant Tendency
  27. 27. A good balance leads to… Psychosocial Virtue: “Purpose” -the capacity for action despite a clear understanding of your limitations and past failings.
  28. 28. Can I make it in the World of People and Things?
  29. 29. Task: to develop a capacity for industry while avoiding an excessive sense of inferiority. Stage (age) Psycho- social crisis Significant relations Psycho-social virtues Maladaptations & malignancies IV (7-12 or so) -- school-age child Industriuos ness vs. Inferiority Neighborhood and School Competence Narrow virtuosity – Inertia 4. Industriousness vs. Inferiority
  30. 30. • Narrow Virtuosity • We see this in children who aren't allowed to "be children," the ones that parents or teachers push into one area of competence, without allowing the development of broader interests. Maladaptive Tendency • Inertia • . This includes all of us who suffer from the "inferiority complexes" • Others never developed social skills -- the most important skills of all -- and so we never go out in public. We become inert. Malignant Tendency
  31. 31. the kids without a life: child actors, child athletes, child musicians, child prodigies of all sorts. What are the examples of Maladaptive tendency of Narrow Virtuosity?
  32. 32. “And I remember going to the record studio and there was a park across the street and I’d see all the children playing and I would cry because it would make me sad that I would have to work instead…” -An adult who’d never grown up
  33. 33. The childhood bullying by her classmates automatically caused Stefanie to feel inferior. In order for others to like her, she thought she needed to “produce” something that was not genuine to whom she believed she was. In the classroom environment, she did not achieve a healthy sense of self-worth, and according to Erikson, this is an essential part of childhood growth (Cloninger, 2008). CASE ANALYSIS OF STEFANI GERMANOTTA
  34. 34. What if a proper balance is achieved? A happier thing is to develop the right balance of industry and inferiority -- that is, mostly industry with just a touch of inferiority to keep us sensibly humble. Psychosocial Virtue: “Competency”
  35. 35. Who am I and what can I be?
  36. 36. Stage (age) Psycho- social crisis Significant relations Psycho-social virtues Maladaptations & malignancies V (12-18 or so) -- adolescence Ego- Identity vs Identity Diffusion Peer groups, Role models Fidelity Fanaticism – Repudiation 5. Ego Identity vs. Identity Diffusion
  37. 37. Ego identity - means knowing who you are and how you fit in to the rest of society. It requires that you take all you've learned about life and yourself and mold it into a unified self-image, one that your community finds meaningful.
  38. 38. Identity Diffusion - meaning an uncertainty about one's place in society and the world. When an adolescent is confronted by role confusion, Erikson says he or she is suffering from an identity crisis.  Psychosocial Moratorium - He suggests you take a little "time out." - Take a break, smell the roses, get to know yourself. - We tend to want to get to "success" as fast as possible, and yet few of us have ever taken the time to figure out what success means to us.
  39. 39. • Fanaticism • A fanatic believes that his way is the only way. Adolescents are, of course, known for their idealism, and for their tendency to see things in black-and-white. These people will gather others around them and promote their beliefs and life-styles without regard to others' rights to disagree. Maladaptive Tendency • Repudiation • They repudiate their membership in the world of adults and, even more, they repudiate their need for an identity. Malignant Tendency
  40. 40. What if you successfully negotiate in this stage? Psychosocial Virtue: “Fidelity” -means loyalty, the ability to live by societies standards despite their imperfections, incompleteness and inconsistencies.
  41. 41. Can I love??
  42. 42. Task: to achieve some degree of intimacy, as opposed to remaining in isolation. 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation Stage (age) Psycho- social crisis Significant relations Psycho-social virtues Maladaptations & malignancies VI (the 20’s) -- young adult Intimacy vs Isolation Partners, Friends Love Promiscuity – Exclusivity
  43. 43. Intimacy - Emphasized around the age of 30 - is the ability to be close to others, as a lover, a friend, and as a participant in society. Because you have a clear sense of who you are, you no longer need to fear "losing" yourself, as many adolescents do. - Young adults are still eager to blend their identities with friends. They want to fit in.
  44. 44.  Isolation - The "fear of commitment" some people seem to exhibit is an example of immaturity in this stage. - Erikson believes we are sometimes isolated due to intimacy. We are afraid of rejections such as being turned down or our partners breaking up with us. - We are familiar with pain, and to some of us, rejection is painful; our egos cannot bear the pain. “I don’t know which is worse. Keeping your love for someone a secret or telling them and risk being rejected?”
  45. 45. • Promiscuity • referring particularly to the tendency to become intimate too freely, too easily, and without any depth to your intimacy. Maladaptive Tendency • Exclusion • refers to the tendency to isolate oneself from love, friendship, and community, and to develop a certain hatefulness in compensation for one's loneliness. Malignant Tendency
  46. 46. What if you successfully negotiate in this stage? Psychosocial Virtue: “Love” -Love, in the context of his theory, means being able to put aside differences and antagonisms through "mutuality of devotion."
  47. 47. Can I make my life count?
  48. 48. Stage (age) Psycho- social crisis Significant relations Psycho-social virtues Maladaptations & malignancies VII (late 20’s to 50’s) -- Middle Adult Generativity vs. Self- absorption Household, Workmates Care Overextension – Rejectivity 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation  Task: here is to cultivate the proper balance of generativity and stagnation.
  49. 49. Generativity - an extension of love into the future. It is a concern for the next generation and all future generations. - Erikson considers teaching, writing, invention, the arts and sciences, social activism, and generally contributing to the welfare of future generations to be generativity as well -- anything, in fact, that satisfies that old "need to be needed."
  50. 50. Stagnation - is self-absorption, caring for no-one. - The stagnant person ceases to be a productive member of society. - a dissatisfaction with the relative lack of productivity.
  51. 51. • Overextension • Some people try to be so generative that they no longer allow time for themselves, for rest and relaxation. Maladaptive Tendency • Rejectivity • you are no longer participating in or contributing to society. And much of what we call "the meaning of life" is a matter of how we participate and what we contribute. Malignant Tendency
  52. 52. The Stage of Midlife Crisis - Sometimes men and women take a look at their lives and ask that big, bad question "what am I doing all this for?" - Men are often the most flambouyant examples: They leave their long-suffering wives, quit their humdrum jobs, buy some "hip" new clothes, and start hanging around singles bars.
  53. 53. What if you successfully negotiate in this stage? Psychosocial Virtue: “Care” -you will have a capacity for caring that will serve you through the rest of your life.
  54. 54. Is it okay to HAVE BEEN me?
  55. 55. Stage (age) Psycho- social crisis Significant relations Psycho-social virtues Maladaptations & malignancies VIII (50’s and beyond) -- old adult Integrity vs Despair Mankind or “my kind” Wisdom Presumption – Disdain 8. Integrity vs. Despair  begins sometime around retirement, after the kids have gone, say somewhere around 60  Rocking chair stage
  56. 56. Despair - a detachment from society, from a sense of usefulness, for most people in our culture. - is a sense of biological uselessness, as the body no longer does everything it used to. - Women go through a sometimes dramatic menopause and illnesses of old age. - Along with the illnesses come concerns of death. Friends die. Relatives die. One's spouse dies.
  57. 57. Despair - Preoccupation with the past (Retrospection) - We find some older people become depressed, spiteful, paranoid, hypochondriacal, or developing the patterns of senility with or without physical bases.
  58. 58. Ego Integrity - coming to terms with your life, and thereby coming to terms with the end of life. - .If you are able to look back and accept the course of events, the choices made, your life as you lived it, as being necessary, then you need not fear death.
  59. 59. • Presumption • This is what happens when a person "presumes" ego integrity without actually facing the difficulties of old age. Maladaptive Tendency • Disdain • by which Erikson means a contempt of life, one's own or anyone's. Malignant Tendency
  60. 60. “You know what that reflects? Unsatisfied lives. Unfulfilled lives. Lives that haven’t found meaning. Because if you’ve found meaning in your life, you don’t want to go back. You want to go forward. You want to see more, do more. You can’t wait until sixty-five.” -Morrie Schwartz Tuesdays with Morrie
  61. 61. What if you successfully negotiate in this stage? Psychosocial Virtue: “Wisdom” -. He calls it a gift to children, because "healthy children will not fear life if their elders have integrity enough not to fear death."
  62. 62. Erikson believed that healthy personality development is based on a sensible balance between positive and negative disposition at each crisis stage. Erikson's psychosocial theory basically asserts that people experience eight 'psychosocial crisis stages' which significantly affect each person's development and personality.
  63. 63. Value of the theory More importantly, Erik Erikson’s theory of Psychosocial development provide answers for practical application.
  64. 64. Question # 1 What is the basis of Erik Erikson’s theory? Question # 2 It is the worse of the two & involves too little of the positive and too much of the negative aspect of the task. Question # 3 It refers to the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction and is constantly changing due to new experiences we acquire.
  65. 65. Question # 4 When an adolescent is confronted by identity diffusion (role confusion), Erikson says he or she is suffering from ____________________? Question # 5 TRUE or FALSE? The malignant tendency of narrow virtuosity is characterized by over suspiciousness, depression, paranoia, insecurity and possibly psychosis.
  66. 66. Question # 6 Anne, a preschooler, insists on dressing herself each morning for school, even though she generally selects mismatching outfits, misses buttons, and wears her shoes on the wrong feet. When her mother tries to dress Anne or fix her outfit, Anne brushes her mother off and insists on doing it herself. What stage of psychosocial development best describes Anne’s behavior?
  67. 67. Question # 7 Stella is a 42 year-old woman who feels depressed. She was the one whose daughter is happily married and her son is away at college. She now feels alone and unfulfilled in a boring marriage and a lonely house. What is the psycho- social crisis this woman ought to be facing at her present age?
  68. 68. Question # 8 Eight-year old Chu Ming has a difficult time making friends at school. She has trouble completing her schoolwork accurately and on time, and as a result, receives little positive feedback from her teacher and parents. According to Erikson’s theory, failure at this stage of development results in _____________? oA. A sense of guilt oB. A poor sense of self oC. Feelings of inferiority oD. Mistrust
  69. 69. Question # 9 The central conflict in the eighth stage of Erikson’s theory focuses on integrity vs. despair and involves reflecting back on your life. According to Erikson, those who are successful in this stage emerge with ______________. oA. hope oB. fidelity oC. purpose oD. wisdom
  70. 70. Question # 10 The central theme of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial stages was the development of: oA. Personality oB. Ego identity oC. Psychosocial conflict oD. Social status