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Retórica e Argumentação - 2016 - Aula 1

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Disciplina de Retórica e Argumentação (Licenciatura) - Turma A - Ano letivo 2015/16 - Aula nº 1 (16 de fevereiro)

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Retórica e Argumentação - 2016 - Aula 1

  1. 1. Disciplina de Retórica e Argumentação (A) Departamento de Ciências da Comunicação Ano letivo 2015/16 Giovanni Damele Retórica e Argumentação
  2. 2. Retórica e argumentação Giovanni Damele giovanni.damele@fcsh.unl.pt www.slideshare.net/GiovanniDamele
  3. 3. Retórica e argumentação Objectivos da disciplina de Retórica e Argumentação:  Familiarizar os alunos com a disciplina de Retórica enquanto estudo de modos racionais e argumentativos de persuasão.  Dar a conhecer a génese histórica da Retórica como disciplina.  Dar a conhecer interpretações contemporâneas do estatuto e funções da Retórica.  Estudar o conceito de argumento como dedução lógicamente válida e as suas principais figuras lógico-formais.  Avaliar criticamente a concepção formal do argumento, seus limites empíricos e contextuais.  Estudar a argumentação falaciosa, através de algumas figuras principais.  Aplicar os modelos teóricos a exemplos retirados de diferentes esferas da vida real
  4. 4. Retórica e argumentação Bibliografia: - Aristóteles, Retórica, Imprensa Nacional/ Casa da Moeda, Lisboa, 2006 - Sofistas – Testemunhos e Fragmentos, (ed. Mª José Vaz Pinto), Imprensa Nacional/ Casa da Moeda,Lisboa, 2005 - Christof Rapp, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-rhetoric/ - Michel Meyer, Histoire de la Rhétorique des Grecs à nos Jours, Livre de Poche, Paris, 1999 - Anthony Weston, A Arte de Argumentar, Gradiva Lisboa, 1996 (trad. portuguesa de “A Rulebook for Arguments” do mesmo autor)
  5. 5. 1. Definição e âmbito da Retórica. 1.1 A Retórica face à Dialéctica. O que é a Dialéctica ou a argumentação dialéctica? - É aquela em que partimos de opiniões geralmente aceites acerca de um qualquer problema e concluímos algo aceite por todos ou pela maioria. (Exemplo: a riqueza é um bem; um bem é um fim em si mesmo; a riqueza é um fim em si mesma) - Na Dialéctica a uma tese ou definição opõe-se uma outra tese, cuja defesa visa destruir a validade da tese do opositor. (Exemplo: o opositor dá uma definição de riqueza ou de bem, em conjunto ou separadamente, e mostra que há algo de não verdadeiro na tese apresentada, Tópos da definição, Aristóteles, Tópicos, II, 2, 109b30) - Retórica e argumentação
  6. 6. 1.2 A Retórica face ao raciocínio científico (silogismo). - O que é o raciocínio científico ou a argumentação científica? - Aquele em que, a partir de certas premissas evidentes, se conclui necessariamente algo diferente das premissas. - Contrariamente ao que acontecia com a Dialéctica, não se põe em causa a evidência ou verdade das premissas. (Exemplo: o homem é um ser mortal; o João é homem; o João é um ser mortal) Retórica e argumentação
  7. 7. 1.3.1 Definições de Retórica: - “A capacidade de descobrir o que é adequado a cada caso com o fim de persuadir”. (Aristóteles, Retórica, 1355 b) - “A faculdade de descobrir os meios de persuasão sobre qualquer questão dada” Aristóteles, Retórica, 1355 b) - “A Retórica é uma parte da Dialéctica e a ela se assemelha, pois nenhuma das duas é ciência de definição de um assunto específico” (Aristóteles, Retórica, 1356 a) Retórica e argumentação
  8. 8. 1.3.1.1 Definições de Retórica: - “O objeto desta teoria é o estudo das técnicas discursivas que permitem provocar ou aumentar a adesão dos espíritos às teses propostas ao seu assentimento” (Perelman & Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1988, 5). Retórica e argumentação
  9. 9. 1.3. 2. Definições de Retórica A Retórica visa a persuasão feita através do discurso argumentativo e utiliza provas de três tipos: a) carácter moral do orador; b) formas de dispor o ouvinte; c) baseadas no próprio discurso Retórica e argumentação
  10. 10. 1.3.3. Definições de Retórica - Sobre o carácter moral do orador: “Três são as causas que tornam persuasivos os oradores, e a sua importancia é tal que por elas nos persuadimos, sem necessidade de demonstrações: são elas a prudência, a virtude e a benevolência” (Aristóteles, Ret., I, 1378 a 13) Retórica e argumentação

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