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Day 3: Presentation of Individual Mid-term Paper


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Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies
Waseda University, 15 February 2007

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Day 3: Presentation of Individual Mid-term Paper

  1. 1. Reinventing Indonesia Day 3 ay Presentation of Individual Mid-term Paper Mid- Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies Waseda University, 15 February 2007 y, y
  2. 2. Reinventing Indonesia Constitutional Reform
  3. 3. Democratic Consolidation In previous discussions, it was highlighted that electoral processes and procedures are b i elements i a d d d basic l t in democracy and the institutionalization of democratic norms is an important task of democratic consolidation. In a constitutional democracy, the constitution is how the democratic norms, processes and procedures are to be instituted. instituted Although a democratic constitution by itself does not guarantee the survival of a democracy, the mere existence of the constitution may inhibit any attempt to reverse the democratization process, to impose an alternative system of government or to stray from democratic norms of governance. In that light, we will discuss the amendments to the constitution that have just been completed in Indonesia. GSAPS-2007-Day3 3
  4. 4. The Constitution: A Sacred Document? The Reformasi (reform movement) spurred widespread introspection on the failings of the New Order, specifically of the Indonesian democracy. Many intellectual circles laid part of the blame on the 1945 Constitution. Academicians, Academicians university students political parties students, parties, NGOs and the press were quick to point out weaknesses in the constitution that contributed heavily to the lack of law and order, shallow citizen representation opacity of order representation, governance, and the high incidence of human rights abuses, all antithetical to the shared tenets of reform. GSAPS-2007-Day3 4
  5. 5. Th Constitution: A Sacred Document? . . . The C tit ti S dD t? Due to common regard of the 1945 Constitution as a sacred document, suggestions to change or even q question any of its p y provisions had always been seen as y betraying the ideals of the founding of the republic. Those who dared to suggest a review of the Constitution were regarded as subversive elements or worse could worse, be accused as enemies of the state. The MPR resolution in1998 had removed the requirement of national referendum for an amendment to the 1945 Constitution. Reformasi in post-Suharto Indonesia created more of the p right conditions for change. GSAPS-2007-Day3 5
  6. 6. The weaknesses of the original UUD ‘45 The constitution was written in a very broad and general way. It has only 37 articles and 6 transitory provisions. y y yp There is strength to the way it was written that makes the constitution flexible and easily adaptable. The weakness is that it is so broad, general and flexible broad flexible, that it can be—and has been—interpreted in different ways. GSAPS-2007-Day3 6
  7. 7. Th weaknesses of th original UUD ’45 The k f the i i l ’45… It gives a lot of room to the incumbent president to i l t f t th i b t id t t maneuver and concentrate power in his or her hands, as history has shown with Indonesia’s first and second y presidents. Despite the allowance of the tendency for the presidency to hij k the legislature, many still f lt th t th MPR it lf t hijack th l i l t till felt that the itself was always endowed with too much power by the o g a constitution. original co s u o Such an institutional imbalance led to the failure of checks and balances and to a disconnect between the wishes of th people and th MPR i h f the l d the MPR. GSAPS-2007-Day3 7
  8. 8. The Evolving Political System Period Constitution System of General Situation Government 1945-1949 1945 Unitarian/ • The system of Presidential government was parliamentary li t • War for Independence • Rebellion: Communist (1948), Islamic Extremist 1950 Federal F d l Federal/ F d l/ Parliamentary GSAPS-2007-Day3 8
  9. 9. The Evolving Political System . . . Period Constitution System of General Situation Government 1950-1959 Provisional Unitarian/ • Functioning parliamentary Parliamentary y democracy (1955 g y( general election) • Political Instability • Rebellion: Regional Islamic Regional, Extremist 1959-1966 1945 Unitarian/ • Guided Democracy Presidential • Campaign to win back Irian Jaya • Confrontation with Malaysia and its allies • Deterioratering economy • Coup attempt 1965 p p GSAPS-2007-Day3 9
  10. 10. The Evolving Political System . . . Period Constitution System of General Situation Government 1966-1998 1945 Unitarian/ • New Order Presidential • Stability • Economic progress • Restrained democracy • Concentration of power • Dominant role of military in politics and governance 1998-Now 1998 Now 1945 Unitarian/ • Political reforms (amended) Presidential • Democratization GSAPS-2007-Day3 10
  11. 11. Political Institutions: 1945 Constitution People’s Consultative Assembly ( y (MPR) ) Supreme Supreme Court Advisory Board (MA) ( ) (DPA) President House of Supreme A di S Audit Representatives Board (BPK) (DPR) GSAPS-2007-Day3 11
  12. 12. Political Institutions: 1945 Constitution The People People Consultative Assembly (MPR) President House of Representatives (DPR) Cabinet Provincial House of Governor Representatives (DPRD I) District House of District Chief (Bupati) Representatives (DPRD II) GSAPS-2007-Day3 12
  13. 13. Political Institutions: 1959-1966 1959- President Supreme Supreme Court Advisory Board (MA) ( ) (DPA) MPR House of Supreme A di S Audit Representatives Board (BPK) (DPR) GSAPS-2007-Day3 13
  14. 14. Political Institutions: 1999-2004 1999- People’s Consultative Assembly ( y (MPR) ) Supreme Supreme Court Advisory Board (MA) ( ) (DPA) President House of S Supreme A di Audit Representatives Board (BPK) (DPR) GSAPS-2007-Day3 14
  15. 15. Goals of reform Constitutional reform on a practical l C tit ti l f ti l level meant creating l t ti mechanisms that ensured better governance. Reforming the vaunted UUD ’45 reflected new national 45 aspirations which included: the ending of the military “dual functions , dual functions” the establishment of the supremacy of law, human rights, good governance, the increase in regional and local autonomy (decentralization), and the th creation of a free press. ti f f GSAPS-2007-Day3 15
  16. 16. Goals of reform . . . On the level of governmental institutions, this meant: c ec s and balances between the branches of checks a d ba a ces bet ee t e b a c es o government, addressing the tendency for “executive heaviness”. GSAPS-2007-Day3 16
  17. 17. Goals of reform . . . There was a consensus in the polity not to change the preamble of the constitution which contains Pancasila and other basic values laid down by the founding fathers. It was also a consensus established at the onset of the amendment process not to change the presidential d t tt h th id ti l system of government. GSAPS-2007-Day3 17
  18. 18. The methodological model of constitutional reform The Th model of reform that ultimately settled upon was d l f f th t lti t l ttl d intended to minimize conflict and garner the most cooperation from disparate interests, from ardent p p , reformers to the most reluctant conservatives. Two features stood out: The incremental amendment process, which was i hi h inspired more b th A i d by the American i system rather than a rewriting that would mirror the French s y e o co s u o a reform, a d to a o d e c style of constitutional e o , and o avoid settling conflict over the most crucial clauses and language by voting as far as possible. GSAPS-2007-Day3 18
  19. 19. The methodological model of constitutional reform . . . Reform by addendum allowed especially the more conservative and nationalist legislators to feel that a part of resistance-era history had been honored and y preserved for future generations Incremental reform on an existing constitution would also mean that future generations could more easily trace its evolution Change would be slow but gradual, and carefully and collectively considered and implemented GSAPS-2007-Day3 19
  20. 20. The mechanics of reform and public participation Public Participation Public TV and Media Comparative Studies Regional Visits • Germany, • England, MPR Working Group • th U it d St t the United States, Public Meetings • Sweden, Amendment Process • Denmark, • China, • Japan, J Seminars • Russia, and Constitutional Commissions • Malaysia • Thailand, Thailand NGO NGOs • South Korea, • Germany, and • the United States (NGO’s) GSAPS-2007-Day3 20
  21. 21. The Amendment Process The 1st Amendment 1999 The 2nd Amendment 2000 The 3rd Amendment 2001 The 4th Amendment 2002 GSAPS-2007-Day3 21
  22. 22. The First Amendment 1999 A term limit of two consecutive five-year terms Returned the power of legislation to p p g parliament Ambassadors to foreign countries and from foreign countries to be confirmed by the parliament and not simply appointed b th president i l i t d by the id t GSAPS-2007-Day3 22
  23. 23. The Second Amendment 2000 Enhanced decentralization and regional autonomy. Members of the parliament would have to be elected through public elections. Thi provision sends th th h bli l ti This i i d the message that there should be no more appointed members to the parliament. parliament GSAPS-2007-Day3 23
  24. 24. The Second Amendment 2000 . . . Enshrining the E h i i th separation of th police f ti f the li from th military. the ilit Through a separate decree that is not part of the constitution, constitution the appointment of the commander of the armed forces and the chief of police have to be confirmed by the parliament. This provision sent a clear signal th t the military i subordinate t civilian authority. i l that th ilit is b di t to i ili th it A new section on human rights was constituted that incorporated statements from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. GSAPS-2007-Day3 24
  25. 25. The Third Amendment 2001 Provides for direct election by the people of the president and the vice president as a ticket, which may be put forward by one political party or a group of parties parties. To be elected, the candidate will have to get more than 50% of the popular vote with at least 20% of the vote in at least half of all the provinces. GSAPS-2007-Day3 25
  26. 26. The Third Amendment 2001 . . . Sets t l d d S t out rules and procedures f th ifor the impeachment of h t f the president. The president can be impeached by the assembly (MPR) at the recommendation of p y( ) parliament, if , he is proven guilty of crime or is found no longer suitable to hold the office of the presidency. The li t Th parliament can only propose th t th president b l that the id t be impeached after requesting that the Constitutional Court e a examine the c a ges aga s the p es de a d a e e e charges against e president and after receiving from the court a finding that the president is guilty as charged. This Thi mechanism i i t d d t prevent abuse of h i is intended to t b f impeachment proceedings by the legislature. GSAPS-2007-Day3 26
  27. 27. The Third Amendment 2001 . . . Affirms that judicial power lies with the Supreme Court and the courts beneath it, as well as the newly constituted Constitutional Court. The C Th Constitutional C t h th authority: tit ti l Court has the th it to preside over charges against the president in an impeachment p process; ; to resolve the disputes between the various branches of the state; to order the dissolution of political p p parties and to resolve disputes p concerning the results of an election. to review the constitutionality of laws, while the Supreme Court tests the legality of governmental rules and decrees to existing laws. GSAPS-2007-Day3 27
  28. 28. The Third Amendment 2001 . . . Established that appointments of the members of the Supreme Court by the president have to be proposed by a newly constituted independent judicial commission commission, and approved by the parliament. The Judicial Commission is a judicial watchdog established by the constitution to uphold and safeguard the honor, integrity and conduct of judges. GSAPS-2007-Day3 28
  29. 29. The Third Amendment 2001 . . . In a major structural change to the legislative body, although Indonesia remains a unitarian state, the third amendment constituted a bicameral system of representation. It established the House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah-DPD), representing each of the provinces equally, similar to the US Senate. GSAPS-2007-Day3 29
  30. 30. The Third Amendment 2001 . . . Established the l E t bli h d th rule on general election. G l l ti General l election is to be held once every five years. It provides that the participants in the election for members of parliament are political parties, while for the Regional Council they are individuals. The elections are carried out by an independent general election commission. GSAPS-2007-Day3 30
  31. 31. The Fourth Amendment 2002 Defines that the MPR consists of the parliament (House of Representatives or DPR) and the House of Regional Representatives (DPD). This provision also permanently barred non-elected members of MPR, such as those representing the functional groups including the military of p g p g y past y years. The MPR as the join session of DPR and DPD, although no longer possesses the absolute power it had had before the amendment, sill retains the authority to amendment amend the constitution and impeach the president and elect president when both the president and vice president are simultaneously permanently incapacitated incapacitated. GSAPS-2007-Day3 31
  32. 32. The Fourth Amendment 2002 . . . Specifies that in a presidential election, if no ticket can achieve the 50-20% threshold, the two tickets with the most votes will run in another direct election by the people. GSAPS-2007-Day3 32
  33. 33. The Fourth Amendment 2002 . . . Incorporation of clauses relating to social justice justice. Guaranteeing universal government-sponsored primary education, minimum aggregate education spending of gg g p g 20% from the national government and regional government’s budget. Strengthened language on social justice and environmental friendliness. GSAPS-2007-Day3 33
  34. 34. Political Institutions (2003-Now) (2003- MPR DPR DPD 550 4 x Number of Provinces DPRD Province 35 s.d 100 DPRD Kab/Kota 20 s.d 45 Political Parties General Election The People Source: Law No. 22/2003 GSAPS-2007-Day3 34
  35. 35. Political Institutions (2003-Now) (2003- P People’s l ’ Consultative Assembly (MPR) House of Regional g Representatives Representatives (DPR) Council (DPD) The People General Election President GSAPS-2007-Day3 35
  36. 36. Closing The main idea behind the reforms begun in 1999 was to ensure that a newly revised constitution established an effective system of checks and balances between the various branches of the state, primarily by limiting the power of the executive branch branch. GSAPS-2007-Day3 36
  37. 37. Closing . . . At the same time the reforms sought to ensure that the sovereignty of the people was reflected in the way the government was organized The four amendments have successfully been able to conclude and reached th l d d h d those objectives th l i th bj ti thus laying the foundation for democracy to develop in Indonesia, as the third largest democracy in the world GSAPS-2007-Day3 37
  38. 38. Reinventing Indonesia PRACTICING DEMOCRACY The 2004 General Elections: Significant Beginnings Si ifi tB i i
  39. 39. Constitutional Reform The 1945 Constitution was regarded as a near sacred document The 1998 MPR session passed a resolution, VII/MPR/1998, removing the requirement that a national referendum was needed to amend the 1945 Constitution Among the amendments to the Constitution two stand out as most significant: the direct election of the President (and Vice Vice- President), the establishment of a bicameral system of the y legislative branch of government. GSAPS-2007-Day3 39
  40. 40. State Institutions Under the Amended Constitution Legislative Executive Judiciary MPR DPD DPR BPK President MA MK KPU KPK KY MPR : Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat People’s Consultative Assembly DPR : Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Lower House DPD : Dewan Perwakilan Daerah Upper House BPK : Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Supreme Audit Board MA : Mahkamah Agung Supreme Court MK : Mahkamah Konstitusi Constitutional Court KPU : Komisi Pemilihan Umum General Election Commission KPK : Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi Corruption Eradication Commission GSAPS-2007-Day3 Komisi Yudisial KY : Commission Judicial 40
  41. 41. Remaking the political institutions The new laws for the 2004 elections of the DPR DPD DPR, DPD, DPRD, and the President and Vice-President. The new election laws strengthen the role of p g political parties as the main democratic institutions and lowers barriers to entry. The parliamentary elections (DPR and DPRD) are based on the proportional system with open lists of candidates submitted by the participating political parties. A candidate has to be a certified member of the participating political party and at least 30 percent of the candidates from each political party must be women. GSAPS-2007-Day3 41
  42. 42. Remaking the political institutions . . institutions. The candidates in the election of DPD are individuals individuals. To become a candidate one has to collect the signatures of a minimum number of eligible voters, the number depending on the number of voters in each province. A candidate for the DPD may not have served as board y member of any political party for four years prior to becoming a candidate. Members of the civil service, the military (TNI) and the police cannot run for a seat in DPD and anyone from those services wishing to run for a seat in the DPD has to resign before becoming a candidate. GSAPS-2007-Day3 42
  43. 43. Remaking the political institutions . . . The number of members of DPR is 550 (an increase of 50 from its previous size) distributed among the provinces in proportion to the population. All members of DPR are elected, eliminating the previously reserved places for military and police. The number of members of the DPD should not exceed one-third of the number of members of DPR. The Constitution does not give the DPD legislative g g power. Ironically, though they have less power, it is much more difficult t b l t d diffi lt to be elected a member of DPD th t b b f than to become a member of the Parliament. GSAPS-2007-Day3 43
  44. 44. Remaking the political institutions . . . The President and Vice-President are directly elected on one ticket. Only a party or a coalition of parties that holds at least 15 percent of the seats in DPR or receives 20 percent of popular votes in the election of DPR can nominate candidates for president and Vice-President. For the 2004 presidential election the threshold is lowered t 3 percent of th seats in DPR or 5 percent of l d to t f the t i t f popular votes. The election is implemented and supervised by the Commission for General Election. GSAPS-2007-Day3 44
  45. 45. Legislative election Electoral process 42 political parties participated in the legislative election for the DPR and DPRD on April 5 20045, The DPD election featured candidates who contested for seats to represent their respective province in their individual capacities. In general, the entire electoral process p g , p proceeded in a smooth, orderly, secure, and democratic manner, as witnessed by national and foreign election monitoring agencies. GSAPS-2007-Day3 45
  46. 46. Legislative election DPR election The results of the legislative election for members of both the DPR and DPRDs were unforeseen and changed significantly the configuration of the p g g y g political map. The Golkar Party regained a plurality with a 24.5 million votes (21 6%) with PDI-P as the first runner- (21.6%), up with approximately 21 million votes (18.5%). PKB, which came in third, gained close to 12 million votes (10.6%). t (10 6%) Other parties with significant support included The Prosperous Justice Party ( p y (PKS), which drew around ), 8 million votes (7.3%), and the newly founded Democratic Party, which secured almost 8.5 million votes (7.4%). GSAPS-2007-Day3 46
  47. 47. DPR election Only 17 parties won seats in the national parliament. Indonesian Law permits all participating political parties to file court challenges with the Constit tional co rt ith Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi), if they can provide evidence of material errors in the ballot counting process. Out of the 24 participating parties, 23 filed lawsuits with the Court, contested the vote count. , Following a series of brief court hearings, the Court reached a final verdict on the election results. The verdict altered the KPU’s allocation of parliamentary seats. GSAPS-2007-Day3 47
  48. 48. DPR election The legislative election results changed the configuration of political power within the DPR. According to the prevailing DPR R les and pre ailing Rules Regulations, all members of the DPR are obliged to register as faction members. A faction must consist of at least 13 members. f tl t b Factions within DPR may be formed by a single political p y This is the model used by the Golkar p party. y Party Faction and the PDI-P Faction. Factions can also be established by a coalition of two or more political parties Such coalitions are parties. generally formed when a party fails to meet the 13- seat requirement to establish an independent faction. faction GSAPS-2007-Day3 48
  49. 49. DPR election The coalition factions: the Democratic Party Faction, which includes The Democratic Party and The Indonesia United and Justice Party (PKPI); and The Democratic Pioneer Faction, which merges The Crescent and Star Party (PBB), The Nationalist United Democratic Party (PDK) The Pioneer Party (PDK), (PP), The Indonesia Democratic Supremacy Party (PPDI), and PNI Marhaenisme. GSAPS-2007-Day3 49
  50. 50. DPR election DPR membership is divided into the following factions: No Faction Seats % 1. The Golkar Party 127 23.22 2. PDI-P 109 19.93 3. The United Development Party (PPP) 57 10.42 4. The Democratic Party (PD) 57 10.42 5. The National Mandate Party (PAN) 53 9.69 6. The National Awakening Party (PKB) 52 9.51 7 7. The P J ti Party Th Prosperous Justice P t (PKS) 45 8.23 8 23 8. The Democratic Pioneer Star (BPD) 20 3.66 9. 9 The Reform Star Party (PBR) 14 2.56 2 56 10. The Prosperous Peace Party (PDS) 13 2.38 547 GSAPS-2007-Day3 50
  51. 51. DPD election The legislative election also allowed Indonesians to vote for their representatives in the House of Regional Representatives ( g p (DPD).) For the first time in Indonesian political history, voters held the right to directly elect members of a national legislative body body. The DPD consists of 128 members representing 32 provinces. Each province, irrespective of the size, is represented by four members, i.e. individuals who members i e are restricted from holding positions in a political party structure. GSAPS-2007-Day3 51
  52. 52. DPD election The DPD’s membership features a blend of p prominent public figures originating from various backgrounds, some best known for their roles in religious, cultural, or educational domains. g , , Other DPD members are former government officials, including former ministers and governors , lawyers and businessmen, religious scholars and businessmen leaders, and prominent NGO activists. GSAPS-2007-Day3 52
  53. 53. Presidential election Nomination of the candidates The legislative election marked the beginning of a new chapter in Indonesian politics as the country politics, entered a historic new phase of democracy. For the first time ever in modern Indonesian politics, p the President and Vice-President were directly elected by the people. This development reflected the maturing of Indonesia’s citizenry and civil society. The direct presidential election was also considered as a significant democratic reform. GSAPS-2007-Day3 53
  54. 54. N Nomination of the candidates i ti f th did t The results of the legislative election, combined with a threshold requirement established by the relevant election law, left only seven parties eligible to independently nominate a ticket with presidential and vice-presidential candidates. These parties were: The Golkar Party (21.58%), PDI-P (18.53%), PKB (10.57%), PPP (8.15%), The Democratic Party (7.45%), PKS (7.34%) and PAN (6.44%). (6 44%) GSAPS-2007-Day3 54
  55. 55. N Nomination of the candidates i ti f th did t In the run-up to the p p presidential election, six tickets , of presidential and vice-presidential candidates emerged: 1. Megawati – Hasyim Muzadi, nominated by PDI-P. 2. Wiranto – Salahuddin Wahid, proposed by the Golkar Party. Party 3. Amien Rais – Siswono Yudho Husodo, backed by PAN. 4. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono – M. Jusuf Kalla, representing the Democratic Party. 5. Hamzah Haz – Agum Gumelar, proposed by PPP. 6 Abdurrahman Wahid – Marwah Daud, nominated by PKB 6. Daud PKB. GSAPS-2007-Day3 55
  56. 56. N Nomination of the candidates i ti f th did t Five of these six tickets were determined through the political parties’ internal decision. Only the Golkar Party conducted an open election to select its presidential nominee through a convention, which involved the party’s organizational structure from the grassroots level up to the provincial and national level. For Indonesia, this was a first. GSAPS-2007-Day3 56
  57. 57. First round presidential election Following a series of verification procedures, KPU officially confirmed five out of the six tickets mentioned y above were eligible for the presidential and vice presidential election. The five tickets comprised the official candidates for the p July 5, 2004 Presidential Election. Abdurrahman Wahid and Marwah Daud Ibrahim fell short in the KPU’s verification process due to health p requirements which disqualified PKB presidential candidate Abdurrahman Wahid, in accordance to the Presidential Election Rules and Regulations. The KPU later confirmed that this decision was based on health test results approved by the appointed medical team from the Indonesian Doctors Association (IDI).( ) GSAPS-2007-Day3 57
  58. 58. First round presidential election p The first round of the presidential election took place on July 5, 2004. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Jusuf Kalla received a plurality of the vote. The official results are as follows: 1. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono-Jusuf Kalla gained 39,838,184 votes (33 5 %), o es (33.574%), 2. Megawati Soekarnoputri-Hasyim Muzadi obtained 31,569,104 votes (26.605%), 3. Wiranto-Salahuddin Wahid gained 26,286,788 votes g , , (22.154%), 4. Amien Rais- Siswono Yudo Husodo received 17,392,931 votes (14.658%), 5. Hamzah Haz-Agum Gumelar won 3,569,861 votes (3.009%). From the above vote tally, none of the tickets surpassed y p the designated threshold of fifty percent of the total votes. The two top-presidential and vice presidential tickets proceeded to the runoff election. GSAPS-2007-Day3 58
  59. 59. Runoff election The second round election was held on September 20, 2004. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Jusuf , g y Kalla won the election with a final tally of 69,266,350 votes. This figure far exceeded Megawati Soekarnoputri- Hasyim Muzadi’s total of 44,990,704 votes. The official KPU tally of 114,257,054 votes in the presidential runoff election reflected a 60 62% id ti l ff l ti fl t d 60.62% majority for Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Jusuf Kalla, while Megawati Soekarnoputri-Hasyim Muzadi received th support of 39 38% of th electorate. i d the t f 39.38% f the l t t GSAPS-2007-Day3 59
  60. 60. Runoff election The parties that backed Megawati’s ticket later formed a coalition under the name of Koalisi Kebangsaan (The National Coalition). The official results of the presidential and vice p presidential election were announced on October 4, 2004 by the KPU. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Jusuf Kalla (also known as SBY-JK) were officially declared as President-elect President elect and Vice President elect of the Vice-President-elect Republic of Indonesia for the period of 2004-2009. They were officially sworn in on October 2004 in 2004, front of a special plenary session of the MPR. GSAPS-2007-Day3 60
  61. 61. The Significance of the 2004 Election The 2004 General Election has opened a new chapter in Indonesia’s march towards democracy. Many had expressed concern over whether the election could take place in a peaceful manner characterized by manner, fairness and transparency. Many also expressed concern over the possibility of clashes between groups of political party supporters especially during the supporters, presidential election. This concern was understandable, as at almost the same titime that Indonesia held it election, I di and th th t I d i h ld its l ti India d the Philippines also carried out elections, but these were tainted by physical violence which resulted in y y casualties. GSAPS-2007-Day3 61
  62. 62. The Significance of the 2004 Election . . Election. By contrast the Indonesian General Election took place contrast, peacefully, without conflicts or casualties. Political observers –domestic as well as foreign– unanimously acknowledged that the 2004 Elections, both the legislative and presidential elections, had been conducted in a fair and open manner without major manner, irregularities. The elections marked a significant and positive step toward a democratic future. GSAPS-2007-Day3 62
  63. 63. Direct Regional Elections For decades, the idea of direct regional elections for local leaders was unthinkable. But things change and Indonesia embraced direct regional elections for governor and district chief/mayors in 2005, which promises to deepen and institutionalize democratic traditions at the grassroots level. The village chief however had been directly elected for many years, the only democratically elected leaders for a long time. The elections of the village chiefs, however, however have been marked by horizontal conflicts which sometime are quite violence thus creating doubt whether Indonesia was ready for direct election for its political leaders leaders. GSAPS-2007-Day3 63
  64. 64. Direct Regional Elections . . . Direct regional elections --the first in the country's country s history-- are scheduled to be held in over 200 mayoralties, districts and provinces. y p GSAPS-2007-Day3 64
  65. 65. Direct Regional Elections . . . The regional elections, which had their starting point in the regional autonomy that was introduced in 2001, were g y , held in the high spirit that followed the free and fair general elections in 1999 and 2004, and marked a giant leap of faith to embrace a system that had been disregarded for over four decades. Regional autonomy itself has long been criticized for doing little for people at the lower levels of society society, serving only to transfer power from the hands of unscrupulous politicians in the central government to even more unscrupulous ones at the local level level. There is now hope that the regional elections will eventually bring a more democratic rule to the local level and lead to the rise of local leaders who are more f accountable and qualified, and able to carry out the wishes of the people. p p GSAPS-2007-Day3 65
  66. 66. Direct Regional Elections . . . g There were also some surprises in the elections. Golkar p Party, which had been widely tipped to win most of the seats in the elections, and announced its goal of winning 60 percent of the seats in the regional elections, did not do as well as expected.d After the regional elections, a new pattern of relationship between the local and central governments will emerge. The g g locally elected leader will consider himself to be more independent and more predisposed to oppose the central government if its policies are considered to be against the interests of his community. i t t f hi it With more elections to come, and despite some imperfections in the polls that have been held, this undertaking -- a learning experience i it early stages th t should b conducted with i in its l t that h ld be d t d ith patience and perseverance -- holds the dreams and ideals of a democratic country. GSAPS-2007-Day3 66
  67. 67. どうもありがとうございました Terima Kasih GSAPS-2007-Day3 67