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FRANCE
FOR DATACENTERS

France offers the best economic and environmental
advantages to build and operate your Datacenter
CONTENTS
Executive summary	

p. 3

1. 	
1.1	
1.2 	

Energy : the best quality for the lowest price in Europe	
Electrical energy: the key issue for datacenters 	
Power Quality: another French asset	

p. 7
p. 5
p. 5

2. 	
	
2.1 	
2.2 	
2.3 	
	
2.4 	

Telecom Network: high quality, ubiquitous high bandwidth
telecoms and business opportunities 	
General context 	
What future developments can be expected?	
What is the relative importance of telecom
in the development strategy of datacenters? 	
France’s advantages in terms of telecommunication networks	

3. 	
3.1 	
3.2 	

Worldwide leaders on building, engineering and financing 	
The strengths of France in terms of construction 	
State of the art - Dynamic and comprehensive	

p. 19
p. 19
p. 20

4. 	
4.1 	
4.2 	

Skills and best practices	
Design, project and management conception	
Operating capabilities, operation and maintenance	

p. 23
p. 23
p. 25

5. 	

Risk assessment & Management	

p. 27

“France for Datacenters” Workshop contributors
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	

Paul-François CATTIER	
Murielle COMBES	
Jacques PERROCHAT	
Gérard du BESSET	
Sébastien ORIFICI	
Julien PALENGAT	
Ahcène LATRECHE	
Nicolas ZERBIB	
Roger DURAND	
Michel GROSBOST	
Luc PHILIPPE	
Alain LE CALVÉ	
André ROUYER	
Pierre BISCARAT	
Didier GALINDO	
Eric STERN	
Dominique ROCHE	
Xavier MANCEAU	
Serge SINAPI	
Serge BRION	

APC by Schneider Electric
APC by Schneider Electric
APC by Schneider Electric
APL FRANCE
AREVA T&D
BREZILLON
BULL
CORNING
COTEBA
CRIP
EDF
GIMELEC
GIMELEC
INEO
NEXANS
ORANGE
ORANGE
SDMO
STULZ
VINCI ENERGIES

p. 11
p. 11
p. 11
p. 11
p. 12
Deciding where to locate your future Datacenter is the first strategic
decision for any company seeking to optimize the value of its investment
and secure its asset on a long term basis.
This is a strategic equation that needs a careful due diligence process
to assess critical factors. Among them are political stability, security,
competitive and growing market, international laws and compliance, and
many other key benefits such as cost, engineering capabilities, availability
and quality of power, fibre connectivity, tax incentives...
FRANCE provides significant guarantees and advantages to ensure
successful strategic investments.
Five key competitive factors make France a strategic choice for
Datacenter investors:
1/ Electricity prices are by far the lowest in Europe and are guaranteed
on the long term thanks to France’s strategic energy policy.
100

France

100
124

Denmark

125

133

Portugal

135

United Kingdom

135

Sweden

135

167

389

200

Ita

Po

542

229

Italy

Sp

514

212

Ireland

De

361
206

Germany

		

Slo

347

Spain

150

Ire

306
165

100

Th

264

Slovenia

50

Ge

222

153

0

Un

167

141

Belgium

Be

139

Rumania

The Netherlands

Ile

250

Sw

694
800

Ru
600

400

200

Example of electricity costs for datacenters: (paid by members of the CRIP*)

…

*	 CRIP: Club des Responsables d’Infrastructures et de Production (includes some thirty members,
legal persons from the Datacenters world).



0
2/ Ubiquitous high bandwidth telecom services offered at the most
competitive price, both for local and long-distance services.
3/ France is the place where your carbon footprint will be the lowest in
Europe. The Electricity Emission factor, as defined by the International
Energy Agency Data Services, 2006, listed France with only 87g per kWh,
compared to an average for Europe of 460g (TBC), or to Ireland with
573g/kWh or 467g/kWh for the UK.
4/ State-of-the art engineering skills guarantees high-level services
during design, construction phase and for operating even the most
complex datacenters.
5/ French regulations promotes a “Digital Economy Policy” and grant
barrier-free entry and legal protections to investors.
This document highlights the key arguments for locating a datacenter
in France.
Skills 
best practices

Ubiquitous
high bandwidth

Energy cost
and reliability

Low barrier regulation
Worldwide leaders on
Building, Engineering
and Financing
The best quality for the
lowest price in Europe
1.1 Electrical energy:
the key issue for datacenters

The 225 and 400kV electricity
transport networks

AVELGEM

SELLINDGE
ACHENE

Whether managing, reconfiguring, operating,
or implementing a new datacenter, energy is
the key issue.

UCHTELFANGEN

EICHSTETTEN

The increase in electrical power required
to operate computer equipment (servers,
blade servers, and mainframes), energy-efficient cooling, and associated equipment has
weighed more heavily in the energy costs in
recent years. Energy is becoming an “operational cost” in some cases even exceeding
equipment depreciation costs.

Competitive electricity prices…
The organization of the electricity sector,
the structure of generating facilities in
France and the technologies used (nuclear
power plants) offer competitive prices to its
European customers, including industrial and
service companies.
The comparison drawn by the Energy
Observatory in January 2007 illustrates these
facts by comparing the electricity price for
industrial use including transportation and
distribution (excluding VAT and all taxes).
Among the countries of the EU 15, France, and
Finland, are the countries whose electricity is

ROMANEL
VERBOIS

RONDISSONE
VENAUS

HERNANI

0

100

400 kV grid
225 kV grid
UK-France interlinking
(270 kV DC)

200 Km
VICH

Source: RTE

Electricity price €/MWh (without taxes)
120

Average price for UE 15: 80,3
Average price for UE 27: 78,6

111.5
104.6
98.3

100

92.7

80

75.4

70.9

69.8

73.5

73.3
63.1

54.1

60

56.0

54.8

54.0

93.2

90.1

85.8

83.4

75.2

73.8

70.0
58.7

48.4

44.0
40

35.9

20

0

nd

nd

Au
st
Be ria
lg
iu
Bu m
lg
ar
ia
Cz
ec Cyp
h
Re rus
pu
bl
De ic
nm
a
Es rk
to
n
Fi ia
nl
an
Fr d
an
Ge ce
rm
an
Gr y
ee
Hu ce
ng
ar
Irl y
ea
nd
It
al
y
La
Li tvia
t
Lu hua
xe nia
m
bo
ur
g
Ma
lt
Po a
la
nd
Po
rtu
Ru gal
m
an
Sl ia
ov
a
Sl kia
ov
en
ia
Sp
ai
Th
n
e Sw
Ne ed
Un th en
ite erla
d
n
Ki ds
ng
do
m

For a foreign investor, the choice of location
of a datacenter is strategic. France is highly
competitive in terms of energy (see map).

LAUFENBURG
ASPHARD
BASSECOURT

Source: Eurostat
Evolution of power quality in Europe
Unplanned interruption excluding exceptional events:
minutes lost per year

least expensive (54 €/MWh), well ahead of
Germany (92.7 €/ MWh), Ireland, Italy and
Belgium (83.4 €/ MWh).

500

…independent of the changes in the
price of fossil resources and supplies…

400

The nature of electricity generation in
France - 80% nuclear - makes electricity
somewhat independent of price changes
for fossil resources. This is a guarantee of
price stability in France in an environment
in which energy prices in Europe are very
volatile and dependent on supply, safety
and pressure from investors.

300

200

100

... and electricity production emits
less CO2

0
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Unplanned interruption excluding exceptional events:
number of interruptions per year
6

5

95% of electricity from the French utility
company EDF is free of CO2 emissions through
nuclear power and hydropower. EDF emits an
average of 8 times less CO2 than the European
fleet: 42.5 CO2/KWh (IEA source).

1.2 Power Quality:
another French asset

4

3

2

1

0

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Austria (HV, MV)

Italy (HV, MV, LV)

Denmark (HV, MV)

Lithuania (HV, MV, LV)

Estonia (HV, MV, LV)

Portugal (HV, MV, LV)

France (LV)

Spain (HV, MV, LV)

Iceland (HV, MV, LV)

UK (HV, MV, LV)

The voltage level (LV, MV, HV) is related to where the incidents occur.
The French values in the figure are lower than the reality



Datacenters are very sensitive to power
quality and cannot operate with interruptions
of current or voltage dips (short interruption,
long outage, etc.), which explains why
datacenters power supplies are redundant
– i.e. doubled for safety – and facilities are
secured by uninterruptible power supplies
(UPS) against short interruptions (less than
3 minutes) and generators in case of long
outages (over 3 minutes).
The quality of electricity supply is judged
by the continuity of supply (no short
interruptions or long outages) and the
characteristics of the supply voltage
(voltage fluctuations such as voltage dips
that can affect the proper operation of
equipment).
This quality depends on:
•	 the performance of public power
distribution network,
•	 how electricity is used by the client;
some equipment may impair the quality of
voltage, such as the start of large motors
that can lead to voltage dips or the presence
of electronic equipment which may impair
the quality of the voltage waveform.

Number of power interruptions (long cuts  3 minutes
per low voltage customer and duration in minutes)
in Europe and United States
SAIFI

SAIDI

(number of interruptions)

(minutes)

Including
Major Events

Excluding
Major Events

Including
Major Events

Excluding
Major Events

Finland

4.1

2.3

183

109

France

1.2

1.2

53

45

UK

0.8

NA

70

NA

Italy

In average, the total interruption duration
for a low voltage customer is one hour per
year. This duration has decreased by a factor
of 6 in 20 years. In this respect, France is in
the forefront in Europe (see figures on p.8).
For medium voltage customers in France
(from 20,000 V), the total downtime is even
less than this value. In the U.S., downtime
is higher with a value close to two hours per
year (see following table).

Country

3.8

3.4

203

160

Ireland

1.3

NA

236

81

Netherlands

0.5

0.6

29

33

Norway

2.7

NA

218

NA

Portugal

7.5

NA

531

413

Spain

3.3

2.9

179

139

United States

1.1

1.1

214

107

SAIFI: System Average Interruption Frequency Index
SAIDI: System Average Interruption Duration Index

Reference: EPRI Solutions (CIRED 2005 conference)
10
High quality, ubiquitous high bandwidth
telecoms and business opportunities

2.1 General context
A major characteristic of datacenters is
their need for communication, via networks,
with other datacenters and with the “rest
of the world”.
Therefore, such facilities are dependent
on highly efficient telecommunications
infrastructures. Datacenters requires multiple
access points and the existing networks
must be able to provide high bandwidth and
to guarantee the availability and quality
of service.

2.2 What future developments
can be expected?
Several structural evolutions in the future
will lead to increased geographical dispersion
of the physical components of the telecom
infrastructure. This is due to the:
•	 growth and diversification
of points of access to information,
•	 arrival of more powerful, more flexible
servers closer to the customers,
•	 growth of services within the network
(storage, virtualisation, calculation, etc.)
Finally, the new services related to grid
and cloud computing require strengthened
security, increased interoperability, and
physical locations as close as possible to the

end users to guarantee the interactivity of
these services.
What is the impact of openness toward
telecom infrastructure?
Electronic exchanges with customers (B2C),
suppliers and partners (B2B), and between
machines (M2M) impose new demands in
terms of connectivity, availability, security
and absorption of random loads. The
infrastructure must be flexible and adaptable
enough to guarantee maximum quality of
service at all times.
This requires that datacenters be connected
to a telecommunication infrastructure that
can meet these constraints both in terms of
quality and geographical coverage to ensure
several pathways for routing data in case of
access point failure or traffic overload.

2.3 What is the relative importance
of telecom in the development
strategy of datacenters?
The following figures are taken from the
CRIP White Paper on Datacenters (http://
www.crip-asso.fr/). With 25%, Telecom is
a decisive factor in the choice of location
of a Datacenter (see graph next page).

11
2.4 France advantages in terms of
telecommunication networks

Concerns of Datacenter owners

3%

2.4.1 Coverage of networks
France is a critical European hub for data
communication infrastructure networks. The
country is served by transatlantic long distance fibre connection links such as shown
in the COGENT international infrastructure
below (source COGENT), which, in this case,
connects directly into the Paris area high
bandwidth capabilities.

5%

25%

5%

10%
12%

25%
15%

France has a telecommunications infrastructure that is particularly efficient and
competitive. The coverage of the entire
territory provides the possibility of having
several data routing paths at most points
in the network, reducing the impact of a
local/regional network breakdown.

Telecoms

Energy

Access to Vendors,
Manufacturers,
and Publishers

Accessibility of site

Environment

Quality of life

Access to personnel

Absence of natural
risks and loss events

France’s incumbent long standing operator (France Telecom/Orange) stands out in

Source CRIP White Paper – Datacenters – May 2009

Cogent Communication’s fibre network

Seattle

Stockholm

Portland

Toronto
Milwaukee

Chicago

Cincinnati

Kansas City

Marina Del Ray
Los Angeles

Cleveland
Pittsburgh

Newark

Copenhagen

Stainford
Garden City
Pennsauken
Wilmington

Herndon
Washington

Dayton

Denver

New York

Toledo
Columbus

Boston

Albany

White Plains

Troy
Detroit

Schiller Park

Sacramento
San Francisco
Santa Clara

Buffalo

Baltimore

Lille
San Diego

Phoenix

Atlanta

Caen

Rennes

Rouen

Paris
Tours

Dallas
Nantes

Austin

Bordeaux

Orlando

Houston

Vigo

Miami

North America IP Capacity: 80 Gbps
Transatlantic IP Capacity: 4 x 10 Gbps Paths
European IP Capacity: 40 Gbps

12

Essen
Brussels Düsseldorf
Frankfurt
Reims

Zürich

Poitiers
Lyon

Lisbon

Avila
Madrid

Gerona
Barcelona
Tarragona
Castellón
Valencia

Geneva

Albacete
Alamansa

Marseille

Berlin

Dresden

Mannheim

Strasbourg
Dijon

Bilbao SanSebastian
Burgos
Toulouse Montpellier
Palencia
Valladolid
Porto
Pamplona

Tampa

Source Cogent

Hamburg
Bremen
Dortmund

Amsterdam
London

St. Louis

Grenoble
Nice
Sophia

Stuttgart

Nürnberg

Munich

Vienna
Europe for the quality of its network and
its level of coverage. It provides network
backbones as well as local access points and
offers connection potential able to meet
datacenters telecom requirements.
Since 1996, alternative service providers
have appeared. They also offer optical infrastructures covering the entire country.
They have joined with major infrastructure
networks (electrical, railway, waterway, motorway, etc.) to deploy more than 86,000 km
of optical networks, thus providing competitive quality services in Paris and most large
French cities.

2.4.3 Competition of networks
in large cities
The connection of a datacenter to several
operators secures the availability of service
in case one of the networks breaks down.
The number of operators who have their own
infrastructure in a given territory is therefore
a major factor of competitiveness.
In France, the incumbent operator is present
in all urban areas, and several alternative
operators are present in most big cities, as
illustrated by the table below.
2.4.4 Competitive TELECOM rates

Moreover, France has many public-initiative
networks which have been deployed since
1999 throughout various regions of the
country. These networks reinforce the competitive coverage in France, providing fibreoptic access to more than 2,600 business
parks where datacenters can be installed.

In addition to the technical aspects and
the quality of the service provided, the cost
aspect is a decisive for choosing a datacenter
location. The cost/quality ratio makes France
a world leader in particular due to a highly
competitive local market.

Coverage of incumbent operator’s fibre network
Dunkerque

Fibre-optic networks in France’s major urban areas
City

France Telecom
Network

Alternative
networks

Paris

1

13

Marseille

1

10

Lyon

1

8

Toulouse

1

10

Nice

1

9

Nantes

1

8

Strasbourg

1

9

Montpellier

1

7

Bordeaux

1

6

Lille

1

9

Rennes

1

8

Reims

1

6

Le Havre

Seclin

Boulogne

1

0

Saint-Etienne

1

3

Toulon

1

5

Lille
Amiens
Le Havre
Rouen
St-Lo

Caen

Brest
St-Brieuc

Lens
Arras
St-Quentin

Beauvais Compiègne

Evreux

Rennes

Auxerre

Vannes
Nantes

Dijon
Poitiers

Nevers

Chateauroux
Montluçon

La Roche s/Yon
Niort

Besançon

Chalons s/Saône

Bordeaux

Annecy

Lyon

Limoges
Angoulême
Périgueux

Lons le Saulnier

Bourg en Bresse

Mâcon

La Rochelle
Saintes

Mulhouse

Belfort

Chaumont

Bourges

Angers

St-Nazaire

Epinal

Orléans

Blois

Strasbourg

Nancy

Troyes

Laval
Lorient

Metz

Paris

Alençon
Chartres
Le Mans

Quimper

Charleville

Reims

Chambéry

Clermont-Ferrand St-Etienne

Grenoble

Le Puy
Rodez
Agen
Biarritz

Montauban

Auch

Albi

Valence
Avignon
Montpellier

Toulouse

Digne
Aix

Nîmes

Sophia

Bastia
Nice
Cannes

Pau

Tarbes
Foix

Béziers
Narbonne
Perpignan

Ajaccio
Marseille
P-Pass
Gen PE
10 Gb/s link

Source France Telecom

1 Gb/s WDM metro

Source: TACTIS, www.Data Centermap.com

300 Mb/s GE/IP

13
The graph below is taken from an internal
study made by a major corporation in France.
It compares telecommunication costs in
several European countries (with baseline
100 corresponding to the Paris region).

According to this data, the relative share of
telecoms in the total cost of a datacenter
in France is only 28%, which is lower by
comparison to all other countries (from 35
to 91%).

The next graph, from the same source, shows
telecoms costs compared to the annual cost
of a datacenter (amortization  operation).
For telecoms, the base used is a 2 x 4 Gbps
link between the Paris region and the country
in question. Again we see clearly that France
is highly competitive.

2.4.4 Opportunities related to the
internal telecommunications market
France’s high-performance telecommunications infrastructures create an opportunity
for locating datacenters. The high rate of
penetration of broadband in France (19 mil-

Comparison of telecommunications costs in several European countries
Ile-de-France

100

Belgium

125

United Kingdom

139

Germany

167

The Netherlands

222

Ireland

264

Slovenia

306

Denmark

347

Spain

361

Italy

389

Portugal

514

Sweden

542

Rumania

694
0

200

400

600

800

Telecoms costs compared to the annual cost of a datacenter (amortization  operation)
2008

2015

Datacenter

Telecoms

Total

Datacenter

Telecoms

Total

USA

108

-

-

129

-

-

Brazil

88

165

253

95

140

235

China

67

-

-

83

-

-

India

76

487

563

95

414

509

Japan

130

162

292

157

162

319

France

100

39

139

106

39

145

Spain

111

59

170

126

59

185

Romania

77

113

190

102

96

198

Morocco

91

979

1070

95

-

-

Source: French company affiliated with CRIP

14
France Telecom coverage and Local loop unbundling (LLU) - October 2009

Coverage ratio

Population

Firms

DSL

98,75%

98,94%

LLU

70,34%

70,85%

Source: Tactis www.tactis.fr

15
lion subscriptions, of which nine million are
for unbundled ADSL access), and more generally triple-play offerings (85% of all lines are
eligible for 3 Mbps), has created a dynamic
internal market for suppliers of content.
Today France is one of the major Video-OnDemand markets in the world (80 Million € in
2009), and this market will be worth 500 Million € per year in 2012. In Europe, this market currently amounts to 700 Million € and
will be worth 2.4 Billion € in 2012.
Consumption of streaming video is also more
developed in France than in the United
States, with 79% of French Internet users
using it.
The density of datacenter network throughout
France makes it possible to offer a high quality
of service to consumers, and in particular
to those requiring low latency times and
high data rates. Distribution of audiovisual
content (Video-On-Demand, YouTube, etc.)
and online applications (cloud computing),
for example, would greatly benefit from the
multiplication of datacenters.
The internal market will also be boosted by
the massive mid-term deployment of FTTH

Overall availability of the incumbent operator’s network
Unavailability (10-6)

8

‘IP’ ENU service 8am - 7pm

7

IP ENU (NBH) 10-5: objective

6

IP ENU (NBH) 10-5: realized

5

IP ENU (NBH) 10-5: 6-months moving average

4
3
2
1
0

12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

2007

Source: France Telecom

16

2008

2009
networks in France, in particular thanks to
public-initiative projects like the one in
the Paris area Hauts-de-Seine department
(800,000 connections), which will be
accelerated by the contribution of the French
government investment plan (2 Billion €
devoted to VHB infrastructures in addition
to 2 Billion € dedicated to digital content).
Locating a datacenter in France, with its
strategic position in the heart of Europe and
its telecom networks, will make it possible
to reach a significant percentage of a highpotential market for network-hosted services
and content. According to Cisco, each month
466 PB of data related to video streams pass
through the networks. Increasing the number
of datacenters would limit congestion in the

network core and increase the quality of
service to users.
2.4.5 Availability and quality
of the network
France is recognised as one of the countries
where the quality and availability of the
telecom network are among the best in the
world.
Furthermore, the diversity of the networks
existing in France and their direct
interconnection with the principal points
of exchange of world traffic result in the
availability of a large bandwidth capacity
and short latency periods.

17
18
Worldwide leaders on

3.1 The strengths of France
in terms of construction
3.1.1 	 High education level in
engineering and construction
France is historically well-structured to
provide the best capabilities related to
engineering and construction.
France provides a large number of highly
specialized schools in civil and structural
engineering, in electrical and mechanical
engineering, as well as in construction
management.
The construction sector directly employs
about 1,550,000 people and is a leading professional branch in France.
It is noteworthy that the biggest construction
companies worldwide are French and
that France also has many world leaders
(Source: Fortune Global 500) in the areas
of construction materials: concrete, glass,
electrical equipment, water treatment...
Large construction companies in France
guarantee investors high-quality construction
and timely execution.

3.1.2	 Construction standards
and regulations
The construction sector in France is one
of the most regulated and standardized in
the world.
The French Construction Code provides a
transparent framework for the construction
sector. Technical standards and mandatory
audits  surveys by certified third-parties
guarantees solidity and safety and a legally
binding 10-years guarantee on all new
constructions limits the risks for foreign
investors.

19
3.1.3	 Construction methods
for Datacenters
France promotes durable construction
methods, including concrete. This has
several advantages:
•	 Reinforced concrete is a material that
has very good fire stability and natural
protection capabilities.
•	 Precast concrete shorten construction
times.

The combination of specific construction
methods and skills, with high production
capacities allows high-quality constructions
to be completed in a short period of time
(typically 10 months construction).
3.1.4	 Construction costs for Datacenters
in France
Construction cost of datacenter depends on
several factors:
•	 Expected service level (Tiering grade by
Uptime Institute)
•	 Power ratio
•	 Associated areas and technical premises
(ie: offices, common services)
Various studies show that construction costs
in France are generally lower than in other
EU countries hosting datacenters (United
Kingdom, Netherlands ...) in terms of investment / development land / power / Tiering,
with an approximate 15% benefit compared
to UK and 10% benefit compared to the
Netherlands.

3.2 State of the art Dynamic and comprehensive
The French commercial real estate market is
very well structured and legally secure for local and foreign investors:
•	 Freehold property only, with involvement
of Notaries in all transactions means transparency.
•	 High protection of the landlord and his
property means security of investment.
•	 Secured cash flow through legalized lease
contracts and clear responsibilities of the
landlord and the tenant means security of
return on investment.

20
Investment vehicles for a Datacenter in
France:
•	 Direct ownership (possibly through a
Special Purpose Vehicle, a French Joint
Stock Company such as “SA” or “SAS”)
•	 Private real estate vehicles such as an OPCI
(similar to US REITs) or a SCPI (investment
company floated on a specific market)
Financing options available
on the French Market
Depending on the requirements of the private investor, various types of investment
vehicles are available with different characteristics regarding:

The French banking system has a large appetite for real estate projects. Moreover, all
international banks operate in France.

•	 Liquidity of the asset

In the special case of investment in a
datacenter project, all classic financing
options are available:

•	 Number of partners

•	 Corporate financing

•	 Tax optimization

•	 Project financing
•	 Leasing
•	 Mortgage

21
22
4.1 Design, project and
management conception
Specialized French designers and consultancy companies can help investors assess
their Datacenter projects in a worldwide
competitive market. French companies can
collaborate in a multidisciplinary and multinational team to offer adequate services
throughout the implementation of datacenter projects. French professionals apply
best international practices for reliability
and efficiency.
French Consulting and Contractors Companies collaborate to design and build cuttingedge datacenters, satisfying investor’s major
requirements:
•	 High availability of physical infrastructure
for critical IT operations
•	 Zero operation downtime
•	 High power efficiency by introducing
energy optimization at the earliest
phases of design and construction
•	 Cost-effective investments through
life-cycle-cost analysis
•	 Thorough commissioning for quality
assurance
Consulting Services
A Datacenter project starts with determining

investors’ objectives and availability requirements. Qualified and experienced French
companies offer a broad range of consulting
services to carry out the pre-design, budget
and general planning of datacenter projects:
•	 Feasibility studies
•	 Cost budgeting
•	 Infrastructure availability
•	 Technical systems analysis
•	 Risk assessment
•	 Continuity and recovery requirements
•	 Site selection
•	 Master plan
•	 Project Planning

23
Design  Engineering Services
(For traditional ‘‘design – specify – bid – build’’
solution)

•	 Security systems

Specialized French companies are currently
involved in the renovation and upgrading
of existing datacenters as well as the design
of new facilities. They offer comprehensive
architectural and technical services to
develop datacenter design in accordance with
the needs and programs of the investors.

•	 Etc.

They manage datacenter projects during the
design, engineering and execution phases:

•	 Green datacenter

•	 Survey of existing systems and facilities
•	 Architectural design
•	 Structural design
•	 Electrical design
•	 Mechanical design
•	 Fire protection

24

•	 Cabling systems
•	 IT systems

Design and Engineering services can cover all
aspects of design:
•	 Comprehensive design services for upgrading and renovating existing facilities
•	 Maximizing free cooling and facility
efficiency with dynamic simulation
•	 Improving datacenter power efficiency
(PUE)
•	 Schematic design
•	 Design development
•	 Equipment and facilities specifications
•	 Procurement and bid evaluation
Project Management and Construction
Management (PM/CM)
French specialized consulting firms and
contractors offer all capabilities and
experience for Project Management (PM) and
Construction Management (CM) in accordance
with international standards.
PM/CM services optimize the implementation
of complex datacenter projects, reduce
capital spending, delivering the project ontime and within the budget according to the
investor’s scope:
•	 Design management, involving
multidisciplinary project team
•	 Management and coordination
of contractors
•	 Coordination of equipment delivery
•	 Equipment installation
•	 Full scale testing and commissioning
Construction
No matter what solution investors choose
for the construction of their datacenter - the
traditional “design – specify – bid – build”
solution or the “design and build” solution,
various French contractors provide specialized
expertise and experience with separate trades
or packages or general contractor for complex
datacenters :
•	 Detail specification and shop drawings
•	 Procurement
•	 Equipment supply and rigging
•	 Equipment installation
•	 Datacenters commissioning

4.2 Operation and maintenance
French companies offer monitoring and control for operation and maintenance services
in order to ensure reliable operation of the
critical systems installed:
• Infrastructure Management  Control
• Performance Management
• Site monitoring and control
• Preventive maintenance services
• 24/7 emergency services
• Corrective maintenance services
These companies provide management
staff and field technicians for all types of
equipment and trades. They offer a wide range
of services including specific preventive,
24/7 emergency and corrective services for
supply of critical equipment:
•	 HVAC and mechanical
•	 Fire protection

•	 General contracting

•	 Electrical equipment, UPS  batteries,
generators, ATS

•	 Construction management

•	 Communication and cabling

•	 Turn key construction

•	 IT equipment
•	 Security and access control

25
26
Risk assessment
 Management
France is one of the EU leaders in data protection and fully complies with the most
stringent Health, Safety and Environment
(HSE) standards.
Datacenters, part of the “New Economy”,
protect and provide the technical elements
necessary to deliver computing and telecom
services and are critical assets for companies’
operations. Such facilities need to meet the
highest standards.
Therefore identifying and preventing risks are
of prime importance; risks can be sorted and
classified in 3 main categories:
•	 Natural risks such as climate disorders
(storms, droughts, blizzards, etc.),
geological
accidents
(earthquakes,
volcanoes, tsunamis...), or hydraulic
(flooding, avalanches...)
•	 Risks of human origin: sabotage,
terrorism, mistake, poor understanding
of operational instructions
•	 Technical risks : related to any threat
generated by equipment breakdown or
failure, obsolete equipment, etc
France has set up a specific organization
and corresponding procedures and regulations to cope with such risks, in particular
with regard to security and safety.

The French Agency DRIRE (Direction Régionale de l’Industrie, de la Recherche et
de l’Environnement) is a public organization delivering permit for safe operation of
industrial premises.
Datacenter installations and equipment
have to comply with regulations related to
stocking inflammable liquids, accumulator’s
battery, cooling refrigerant, etc… through
a “ICPE” permit file application (ICPE
Installations Classées pour la Protection de
l’Environnement).

27
As a result, France provides a set of regulations in compliance with European directives
and best international standards.
French manufacturers and contractors fully
comply with such requirements (such as
Product Environment Profiles (PEP), WEEE,
and RoHS, calculation of Life Cycle Assessments-LCA).
For Datacenters, the complete life cycle from
design to recycling has to be taken into consideration given the rising global concern
for the environment and the use of natural
resources, including emission of CO2 and
other greenhouse gases. In the wake of this
growing awareness and important measures
that will follow, the Carbon Footprint of a
datacenter throughout its entire life-cycle
must be considered such as main following
aspects:
This application includes different aspects:

•	 Materials

•	 Neighbourhood

•	 Design and construction

•	 Health

•	 Equipment manufacturing

•	 Safety

•	 Transportation / installation

•	 Protection of the nature
and the environment

•	 Operation and consumption

•	 Conservation of sites and monuments
Sustainable development is key in all
construction projects thanks to the French
government’s strong commitment and
involvement in terms of protection of the
environment. France is at the leading edge
of these works and has many experts working
in various technical committees related
to this matter. This includes works with
standardization bodies at the French level
with AFNOR or UTE, at the European level
such as CEN or CENELEC or at the international
level with the IEC, ISO or ITU.

EU WEEE standard: Waste of Electronic
and Electrical Equipment, which implies
the complete selective treatment and
recycling of products
EU RoHS standard: Restriction of
Hazardous Substances in electrical and
electronic equipment which concerns
lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), polybrominated biphenyls
(PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether
(PBDE), with maximum permitted concentrations of 0.1% by weight of homogeneous material.
EU REACH standard: Registration Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals.

28
•	 Maintenance

Life Cycle of products

•	 Disposal, with recycling
Transport
Installation

Use

ibr
a
Wo tion
rk

Design
Maintenance
Cal

Therefore, all manufacturers commit themselves to providing carbon assessments for
products embedded in datacenters and reduce carbon footprint in the manufacturing
process.
In datacenters, electrical energy is the base
of operations. In this context, relevant information is regularly released to implement
best operating behaviors and practices for
energy saving.

Material
Recycling

French stakeholders have been involved in
the drafting of the European Code of Conduct

29
on Energy Efficiency for Datacenters with
qualified representatives participating in the
working groups.
Such a “voluntary scheme” will provide a
platform for bringing together European
stakeholders to define and implement
voluntary actions toward energy efficiency.
They are invited to enforce appropriate
measures to control and monitor Health
 Safety procedures, as a vital part of
Datacenter Management.

30

Participants are invited to continuously
monitor energy consumption and adopt
energy saving management to improve
energy efficiency. The Code of Conduct
will use the metrics recommended by the
Green Grid, referring to two related metrics
recently introduced in the Industry: “Power
Usage Effectiveness” (PUE) and “Datacenter
Infrastructure Efficiency” (DCIE).

-oOo-
03/10 Photos credits : contributors, Getty images, Phovoir, Fotolia

France: Genuine attractiveness
A Datacenter is a complex systemand such complex facilities need to be located in an
adapted environment. Taking these criteria together, France’s attractiveness emerges
very positive:
•	 Highly reliable electric network
•	 Stable, competitive and low electrical energy rates
•	 Electrical energy produced with low carbon footprint
•	 Reliable telecom infrastructure and open to competition
•	 Broadly deployed fibre-optic infrastructure, connected directly to countries which are
major players in the digital economy
•	 Low per-m2 real-estate rates
•	 A geostrategic position at the crossroads of Europe
•	 Highly educated staff to design, build and operate datacenter
•	 Credibility in terms of sustainable development
The sum of all these advantages makes France a very competitive
location for Datacenters.

Welcome to your Datacenter in France
The “France for Datacenters” Club is hosted by:
Gimélec - French industry association for electrical equipment, automation and related services	
11-17 rue de l’Amiral Hamelin F-75783 Paris cedex 16
Contact: tel. ++ 33 1 45 05 70 77

www.francefordatacenters.fr
France for Datacenters

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France for Datacenters

  • 1. FRANCE FOR DATACENTERS France offers the best economic and environmental advantages to build and operate your Datacenter
  • 2. CONTENTS Executive summary p. 3 1. 1.1 1.2 Energy : the best quality for the lowest price in Europe Electrical energy: the key issue for datacenters Power Quality: another French asset p. 7 p. 5 p. 5 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Telecom Network: high quality, ubiquitous high bandwidth telecoms and business opportunities General context What future developments can be expected? What is the relative importance of telecom in the development strategy of datacenters? France’s advantages in terms of telecommunication networks 3. 3.1 3.2 Worldwide leaders on building, engineering and financing The strengths of France in terms of construction State of the art - Dynamic and comprehensive p. 19 p. 19 p. 20 4. 4.1 4.2 Skills and best practices Design, project and management conception Operating capabilities, operation and maintenance p. 23 p. 23 p. 25 5. Risk assessment & Management p. 27 “France for Datacenters” Workshop contributors Paul-François CATTIER Murielle COMBES Jacques PERROCHAT Gérard du BESSET Sébastien ORIFICI Julien PALENGAT Ahcène LATRECHE Nicolas ZERBIB Roger DURAND Michel GROSBOST Luc PHILIPPE Alain LE CALVÉ André ROUYER Pierre BISCARAT Didier GALINDO Eric STERN Dominique ROCHE Xavier MANCEAU Serge SINAPI Serge BRION APC by Schneider Electric APC by Schneider Electric APC by Schneider Electric APL FRANCE AREVA T&D BREZILLON BULL CORNING COTEBA CRIP EDF GIMELEC GIMELEC INEO NEXANS ORANGE ORANGE SDMO STULZ VINCI ENERGIES p. 11 p. 11 p. 11 p. 11 p. 12
  • 3. Deciding where to locate your future Datacenter is the first strategic decision for any company seeking to optimize the value of its investment and secure its asset on a long term basis. This is a strategic equation that needs a careful due diligence process to assess critical factors. Among them are political stability, security, competitive and growing market, international laws and compliance, and many other key benefits such as cost, engineering capabilities, availability and quality of power, fibre connectivity, tax incentives... FRANCE provides significant guarantees and advantages to ensure successful strategic investments. Five key competitive factors make France a strategic choice for Datacenter investors: 1/ Electricity prices are by far the lowest in Europe and are guaranteed on the long term thanks to France’s strategic energy policy. 100 France 100 124 Denmark 125 133 Portugal 135 United Kingdom 135 Sweden 135 167 389 200 Ita Po 542 229 Italy Sp 514 212 Ireland De 361 206 Germany Slo 347 Spain 150 Ire 306 165 100 Th 264 Slovenia 50 Ge 222 153 0 Un 167 141 Belgium Be 139 Rumania The Netherlands Ile 250 Sw 694 800 Ru 600 400 200 Example of electricity costs for datacenters: (paid by members of the CRIP*) … * CRIP: Club des Responsables d’Infrastructures et de Production (includes some thirty members, legal persons from the Datacenters world). 0
  • 4. 2/ Ubiquitous high bandwidth telecom services offered at the most competitive price, both for local and long-distance services. 3/ France is the place where your carbon footprint will be the lowest in Europe. The Electricity Emission factor, as defined by the International Energy Agency Data Services, 2006, listed France with only 87g per kWh, compared to an average for Europe of 460g (TBC), or to Ireland with 573g/kWh or 467g/kWh for the UK. 4/ State-of-the art engineering skills guarantees high-level services during design, construction phase and for operating even the most complex datacenters. 5/ French regulations promotes a “Digital Economy Policy” and grant barrier-free entry and legal protections to investors. This document highlights the key arguments for locating a datacenter in France.
  • 5. Skills best practices Ubiquitous high bandwidth Energy cost and reliability Low barrier regulation Worldwide leaders on Building, Engineering and Financing
  • 6. The best quality for the lowest price in Europe 1.1 Electrical energy: the key issue for datacenters The 225 and 400kV electricity transport networks AVELGEM SELLINDGE ACHENE Whether managing, reconfiguring, operating, or implementing a new datacenter, energy is the key issue. UCHTELFANGEN EICHSTETTEN The increase in electrical power required to operate computer equipment (servers, blade servers, and mainframes), energy-efficient cooling, and associated equipment has weighed more heavily in the energy costs in recent years. Energy is becoming an “operational cost” in some cases even exceeding equipment depreciation costs. Competitive electricity prices… The organization of the electricity sector, the structure of generating facilities in France and the technologies used (nuclear power plants) offer competitive prices to its European customers, including industrial and service companies. The comparison drawn by the Energy Observatory in January 2007 illustrates these facts by comparing the electricity price for industrial use including transportation and distribution (excluding VAT and all taxes). Among the countries of the EU 15, France, and Finland, are the countries whose electricity is ROMANEL VERBOIS RONDISSONE VENAUS HERNANI 0 100 400 kV grid 225 kV grid UK-France interlinking (270 kV DC) 200 Km VICH Source: RTE Electricity price €/MWh (without taxes) 120 Average price for UE 15: 80,3 Average price for UE 27: 78,6 111.5 104.6 98.3 100 92.7 80 75.4 70.9 69.8 73.5 73.3 63.1 54.1 60 56.0 54.8 54.0 93.2 90.1 85.8 83.4 75.2 73.8 70.0 58.7 48.4 44.0 40 35.9 20 0 nd nd Au st Be ria lg iu Bu m lg ar ia Cz ec Cyp h Re rus pu bl De ic nm a Es rk to n Fi ia nl an Fr d an Ge ce rm an Gr y ee Hu ce ng ar Irl y ea nd It al y La Li tvia t Lu hua xe nia m bo ur g Ma lt Po a la nd Po rtu Ru gal m an Sl ia ov a Sl kia ov en ia Sp ai Th n e Sw Ne ed Un th en ite erla d n Ki ds ng do m For a foreign investor, the choice of location of a datacenter is strategic. France is highly competitive in terms of energy (see map). LAUFENBURG ASPHARD BASSECOURT Source: Eurostat
  • 7. Evolution of power quality in Europe Unplanned interruption excluding exceptional events: minutes lost per year least expensive (54 €/MWh), well ahead of Germany (92.7 €/ MWh), Ireland, Italy and Belgium (83.4 €/ MWh). 500 …independent of the changes in the price of fossil resources and supplies… 400 The nature of electricity generation in France - 80% nuclear - makes electricity somewhat independent of price changes for fossil resources. This is a guarantee of price stability in France in an environment in which energy prices in Europe are very volatile and dependent on supply, safety and pressure from investors. 300 200 100 ... and electricity production emits less CO2 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Unplanned interruption excluding exceptional events: number of interruptions per year 6 5 95% of electricity from the French utility company EDF is free of CO2 emissions through nuclear power and hydropower. EDF emits an average of 8 times less CO2 than the European fleet: 42.5 CO2/KWh (IEA source). 1.2 Power Quality: another French asset 4 3 2 1 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Austria (HV, MV) Italy (HV, MV, LV) Denmark (HV, MV) Lithuania (HV, MV, LV) Estonia (HV, MV, LV) Portugal (HV, MV, LV) France (LV) Spain (HV, MV, LV) Iceland (HV, MV, LV) UK (HV, MV, LV) The voltage level (LV, MV, HV) is related to where the incidents occur. The French values in the figure are lower than the reality Datacenters are very sensitive to power quality and cannot operate with interruptions of current or voltage dips (short interruption, long outage, etc.), which explains why datacenters power supplies are redundant – i.e. doubled for safety – and facilities are secured by uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) against short interruptions (less than 3 minutes) and generators in case of long outages (over 3 minutes). The quality of electricity supply is judged by the continuity of supply (no short interruptions or long outages) and the characteristics of the supply voltage (voltage fluctuations such as voltage dips that can affect the proper operation of equipment).
  • 8. This quality depends on: • the performance of public power distribution network, • how electricity is used by the client; some equipment may impair the quality of voltage, such as the start of large motors that can lead to voltage dips or the presence of electronic equipment which may impair the quality of the voltage waveform. Number of power interruptions (long cuts 3 minutes per low voltage customer and duration in minutes) in Europe and United States SAIFI SAIDI (number of interruptions) (minutes) Including Major Events Excluding Major Events Including Major Events Excluding Major Events Finland 4.1 2.3 183 109 France 1.2 1.2 53 45 UK 0.8 NA 70 NA Italy In average, the total interruption duration for a low voltage customer is one hour per year. This duration has decreased by a factor of 6 in 20 years. In this respect, France is in the forefront in Europe (see figures on p.8). For medium voltage customers in France (from 20,000 V), the total downtime is even less than this value. In the U.S., downtime is higher with a value close to two hours per year (see following table). Country 3.8 3.4 203 160 Ireland 1.3 NA 236 81 Netherlands 0.5 0.6 29 33 Norway 2.7 NA 218 NA Portugal 7.5 NA 531 413 Spain 3.3 2.9 179 139 United States 1.1 1.1 214 107 SAIFI: System Average Interruption Frequency Index SAIDI: System Average Interruption Duration Index Reference: EPRI Solutions (CIRED 2005 conference)
  • 9. 10
  • 10. High quality, ubiquitous high bandwidth telecoms and business opportunities 2.1 General context A major characteristic of datacenters is their need for communication, via networks, with other datacenters and with the “rest of the world”. Therefore, such facilities are dependent on highly efficient telecommunications infrastructures. Datacenters requires multiple access points and the existing networks must be able to provide high bandwidth and to guarantee the availability and quality of service. 2.2 What future developments can be expected? Several structural evolutions in the future will lead to increased geographical dispersion of the physical components of the telecom infrastructure. This is due to the: • growth and diversification of points of access to information, • arrival of more powerful, more flexible servers closer to the customers, • growth of services within the network (storage, virtualisation, calculation, etc.) Finally, the new services related to grid and cloud computing require strengthened security, increased interoperability, and physical locations as close as possible to the end users to guarantee the interactivity of these services. What is the impact of openness toward telecom infrastructure? Electronic exchanges with customers (B2C), suppliers and partners (B2B), and between machines (M2M) impose new demands in terms of connectivity, availability, security and absorption of random loads. The infrastructure must be flexible and adaptable enough to guarantee maximum quality of service at all times. This requires that datacenters be connected to a telecommunication infrastructure that can meet these constraints both in terms of quality and geographical coverage to ensure several pathways for routing data in case of access point failure or traffic overload. 2.3 What is the relative importance of telecom in the development strategy of datacenters? The following figures are taken from the CRIP White Paper on Datacenters (http:// www.crip-asso.fr/). With 25%, Telecom is a decisive factor in the choice of location of a Datacenter (see graph next page). 11
  • 11. 2.4 France advantages in terms of telecommunication networks Concerns of Datacenter owners 3% 2.4.1 Coverage of networks France is a critical European hub for data communication infrastructure networks. The country is served by transatlantic long distance fibre connection links such as shown in the COGENT international infrastructure below (source COGENT), which, in this case, connects directly into the Paris area high bandwidth capabilities. 5% 25% 5% 10% 12% 25% 15% France has a telecommunications infrastructure that is particularly efficient and competitive. The coverage of the entire territory provides the possibility of having several data routing paths at most points in the network, reducing the impact of a local/regional network breakdown. Telecoms Energy Access to Vendors, Manufacturers, and Publishers Accessibility of site Environment Quality of life Access to personnel Absence of natural risks and loss events France’s incumbent long standing operator (France Telecom/Orange) stands out in Source CRIP White Paper – Datacenters – May 2009 Cogent Communication’s fibre network Seattle Stockholm Portland Toronto Milwaukee Chicago Cincinnati Kansas City Marina Del Ray Los Angeles Cleveland Pittsburgh Newark Copenhagen Stainford Garden City Pennsauken Wilmington Herndon Washington Dayton Denver New York Toledo Columbus Boston Albany White Plains Troy Detroit Schiller Park Sacramento San Francisco Santa Clara Buffalo Baltimore Lille San Diego Phoenix Atlanta Caen Rennes Rouen Paris Tours Dallas Nantes Austin Bordeaux Orlando Houston Vigo Miami North America IP Capacity: 80 Gbps Transatlantic IP Capacity: 4 x 10 Gbps Paths European IP Capacity: 40 Gbps 12 Essen Brussels Düsseldorf Frankfurt Reims Zürich Poitiers Lyon Lisbon Avila Madrid Gerona Barcelona Tarragona Castellón Valencia Geneva Albacete Alamansa Marseille Berlin Dresden Mannheim Strasbourg Dijon Bilbao SanSebastian Burgos Toulouse Montpellier Palencia Valladolid Porto Pamplona Tampa Source Cogent Hamburg Bremen Dortmund Amsterdam London St. Louis Grenoble Nice Sophia Stuttgart Nürnberg Munich Vienna
  • 12. Europe for the quality of its network and its level of coverage. It provides network backbones as well as local access points and offers connection potential able to meet datacenters telecom requirements. Since 1996, alternative service providers have appeared. They also offer optical infrastructures covering the entire country. They have joined with major infrastructure networks (electrical, railway, waterway, motorway, etc.) to deploy more than 86,000 km of optical networks, thus providing competitive quality services in Paris and most large French cities. 2.4.3 Competition of networks in large cities The connection of a datacenter to several operators secures the availability of service in case one of the networks breaks down. The number of operators who have their own infrastructure in a given territory is therefore a major factor of competitiveness. In France, the incumbent operator is present in all urban areas, and several alternative operators are present in most big cities, as illustrated by the table below. 2.4.4 Competitive TELECOM rates Moreover, France has many public-initiative networks which have been deployed since 1999 throughout various regions of the country. These networks reinforce the competitive coverage in France, providing fibreoptic access to more than 2,600 business parks where datacenters can be installed. In addition to the technical aspects and the quality of the service provided, the cost aspect is a decisive for choosing a datacenter location. The cost/quality ratio makes France a world leader in particular due to a highly competitive local market. Coverage of incumbent operator’s fibre network Dunkerque Fibre-optic networks in France’s major urban areas City France Telecom Network Alternative networks Paris 1 13 Marseille 1 10 Lyon 1 8 Toulouse 1 10 Nice 1 9 Nantes 1 8 Strasbourg 1 9 Montpellier 1 7 Bordeaux 1 6 Lille 1 9 Rennes 1 8 Reims 1 6 Le Havre Seclin Boulogne 1 0 Saint-Etienne 1 3 Toulon 1 5 Lille Amiens Le Havre Rouen St-Lo Caen Brest St-Brieuc Lens Arras St-Quentin Beauvais Compiègne Evreux Rennes Auxerre Vannes Nantes Dijon Poitiers Nevers Chateauroux Montluçon La Roche s/Yon Niort Besançon Chalons s/Saône Bordeaux Annecy Lyon Limoges Angoulême Périgueux Lons le Saulnier Bourg en Bresse Mâcon La Rochelle Saintes Mulhouse Belfort Chaumont Bourges Angers St-Nazaire Epinal Orléans Blois Strasbourg Nancy Troyes Laval Lorient Metz Paris Alençon Chartres Le Mans Quimper Charleville Reims Chambéry Clermont-Ferrand St-Etienne Grenoble Le Puy Rodez Agen Biarritz Montauban Auch Albi Valence Avignon Montpellier Toulouse Digne Aix Nîmes Sophia Bastia Nice Cannes Pau Tarbes Foix Béziers Narbonne Perpignan Ajaccio Marseille P-Pass Gen PE 10 Gb/s link Source France Telecom 1 Gb/s WDM metro Source: TACTIS, www.Data Centermap.com 300 Mb/s GE/IP 13
  • 13. The graph below is taken from an internal study made by a major corporation in France. It compares telecommunication costs in several European countries (with baseline 100 corresponding to the Paris region). According to this data, the relative share of telecoms in the total cost of a datacenter in France is only 28%, which is lower by comparison to all other countries (from 35 to 91%). The next graph, from the same source, shows telecoms costs compared to the annual cost of a datacenter (amortization operation). For telecoms, the base used is a 2 x 4 Gbps link between the Paris region and the country in question. Again we see clearly that France is highly competitive. 2.4.4 Opportunities related to the internal telecommunications market France’s high-performance telecommunications infrastructures create an opportunity for locating datacenters. The high rate of penetration of broadband in France (19 mil- Comparison of telecommunications costs in several European countries Ile-de-France 100 Belgium 125 United Kingdom 139 Germany 167 The Netherlands 222 Ireland 264 Slovenia 306 Denmark 347 Spain 361 Italy 389 Portugal 514 Sweden 542 Rumania 694 0 200 400 600 800 Telecoms costs compared to the annual cost of a datacenter (amortization operation) 2008 2015 Datacenter Telecoms Total Datacenter Telecoms Total USA 108 - - 129 - - Brazil 88 165 253 95 140 235 China 67 - - 83 - - India 76 487 563 95 414 509 Japan 130 162 292 157 162 319 France 100 39 139 106 39 145 Spain 111 59 170 126 59 185 Romania 77 113 190 102 96 198 Morocco 91 979 1070 95 - - Source: French company affiliated with CRIP 14
  • 14. France Telecom coverage and Local loop unbundling (LLU) - October 2009 Coverage ratio Population Firms DSL 98,75% 98,94% LLU 70,34% 70,85% Source: Tactis www.tactis.fr 15
  • 15. lion subscriptions, of which nine million are for unbundled ADSL access), and more generally triple-play offerings (85% of all lines are eligible for 3 Mbps), has created a dynamic internal market for suppliers of content. Today France is one of the major Video-OnDemand markets in the world (80 Million € in 2009), and this market will be worth 500 Million € per year in 2012. In Europe, this market currently amounts to 700 Million € and will be worth 2.4 Billion € in 2012. Consumption of streaming video is also more developed in France than in the United States, with 79% of French Internet users using it. The density of datacenter network throughout France makes it possible to offer a high quality of service to consumers, and in particular to those requiring low latency times and high data rates. Distribution of audiovisual content (Video-On-Demand, YouTube, etc.) and online applications (cloud computing), for example, would greatly benefit from the multiplication of datacenters. The internal market will also be boosted by the massive mid-term deployment of FTTH Overall availability of the incumbent operator’s network Unavailability (10-6) 8 ‘IP’ ENU service 8am - 7pm 7 IP ENU (NBH) 10-5: objective 6 IP ENU (NBH) 10-5: realized 5 IP ENU (NBH) 10-5: 6-months moving average 4 3 2 1 0 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 2007 Source: France Telecom 16 2008 2009
  • 16. networks in France, in particular thanks to public-initiative projects like the one in the Paris area Hauts-de-Seine department (800,000 connections), which will be accelerated by the contribution of the French government investment plan (2 Billion € devoted to VHB infrastructures in addition to 2 Billion € dedicated to digital content). Locating a datacenter in France, with its strategic position in the heart of Europe and its telecom networks, will make it possible to reach a significant percentage of a highpotential market for network-hosted services and content. According to Cisco, each month 466 PB of data related to video streams pass through the networks. Increasing the number of datacenters would limit congestion in the network core and increase the quality of service to users. 2.4.5 Availability and quality of the network France is recognised as one of the countries where the quality and availability of the telecom network are among the best in the world. Furthermore, the diversity of the networks existing in France and their direct interconnection with the principal points of exchange of world traffic result in the availability of a large bandwidth capacity and short latency periods. 17
  • 17. 18
  • 18. Worldwide leaders on 3.1 The strengths of France in terms of construction 3.1.1 High education level in engineering and construction France is historically well-structured to provide the best capabilities related to engineering and construction. France provides a large number of highly specialized schools in civil and structural engineering, in electrical and mechanical engineering, as well as in construction management. The construction sector directly employs about 1,550,000 people and is a leading professional branch in France. It is noteworthy that the biggest construction companies worldwide are French and that France also has many world leaders (Source: Fortune Global 500) in the areas of construction materials: concrete, glass, electrical equipment, water treatment... Large construction companies in France guarantee investors high-quality construction and timely execution. 3.1.2 Construction standards and regulations The construction sector in France is one of the most regulated and standardized in the world. The French Construction Code provides a transparent framework for the construction sector. Technical standards and mandatory audits surveys by certified third-parties guarantees solidity and safety and a legally binding 10-years guarantee on all new constructions limits the risks for foreign investors. 19
  • 19. 3.1.3 Construction methods for Datacenters France promotes durable construction methods, including concrete. This has several advantages: • Reinforced concrete is a material that has very good fire stability and natural protection capabilities. • Precast concrete shorten construction times. The combination of specific construction methods and skills, with high production capacities allows high-quality constructions to be completed in a short period of time (typically 10 months construction). 3.1.4 Construction costs for Datacenters in France Construction cost of datacenter depends on several factors: • Expected service level (Tiering grade by Uptime Institute) • Power ratio • Associated areas and technical premises (ie: offices, common services) Various studies show that construction costs in France are generally lower than in other EU countries hosting datacenters (United Kingdom, Netherlands ...) in terms of investment / development land / power / Tiering, with an approximate 15% benefit compared to UK and 10% benefit compared to the Netherlands. 3.2 State of the art Dynamic and comprehensive The French commercial real estate market is very well structured and legally secure for local and foreign investors: • Freehold property only, with involvement of Notaries in all transactions means transparency. • High protection of the landlord and his property means security of investment. • Secured cash flow through legalized lease contracts and clear responsibilities of the landlord and the tenant means security of return on investment. 20
  • 20. Investment vehicles for a Datacenter in France: • Direct ownership (possibly through a Special Purpose Vehicle, a French Joint Stock Company such as “SA” or “SAS”) • Private real estate vehicles such as an OPCI (similar to US REITs) or a SCPI (investment company floated on a specific market) Financing options available on the French Market Depending on the requirements of the private investor, various types of investment vehicles are available with different characteristics regarding: The French banking system has a large appetite for real estate projects. Moreover, all international banks operate in France. • Liquidity of the asset In the special case of investment in a datacenter project, all classic financing options are available: • Number of partners • Corporate financing • Tax optimization • Project financing • Leasing • Mortgage 21
  • 21. 22
  • 22. 4.1 Design, project and management conception Specialized French designers and consultancy companies can help investors assess their Datacenter projects in a worldwide competitive market. French companies can collaborate in a multidisciplinary and multinational team to offer adequate services throughout the implementation of datacenter projects. French professionals apply best international practices for reliability and efficiency. French Consulting and Contractors Companies collaborate to design and build cuttingedge datacenters, satisfying investor’s major requirements: • High availability of physical infrastructure for critical IT operations • Zero operation downtime • High power efficiency by introducing energy optimization at the earliest phases of design and construction • Cost-effective investments through life-cycle-cost analysis • Thorough commissioning for quality assurance Consulting Services A Datacenter project starts with determining investors’ objectives and availability requirements. Qualified and experienced French companies offer a broad range of consulting services to carry out the pre-design, budget and general planning of datacenter projects: • Feasibility studies • Cost budgeting • Infrastructure availability • Technical systems analysis • Risk assessment • Continuity and recovery requirements • Site selection • Master plan • Project Planning 23
  • 23. Design Engineering Services (For traditional ‘‘design – specify – bid – build’’ solution) • Security systems Specialized French companies are currently involved in the renovation and upgrading of existing datacenters as well as the design of new facilities. They offer comprehensive architectural and technical services to develop datacenter design in accordance with the needs and programs of the investors. • Etc. They manage datacenter projects during the design, engineering and execution phases: • Green datacenter • Survey of existing systems and facilities • Architectural design • Structural design • Electrical design • Mechanical design • Fire protection 24 • Cabling systems • IT systems Design and Engineering services can cover all aspects of design: • Comprehensive design services for upgrading and renovating existing facilities • Maximizing free cooling and facility efficiency with dynamic simulation • Improving datacenter power efficiency (PUE) • Schematic design • Design development • Equipment and facilities specifications • Procurement and bid evaluation
  • 24. Project Management and Construction Management (PM/CM) French specialized consulting firms and contractors offer all capabilities and experience for Project Management (PM) and Construction Management (CM) in accordance with international standards. PM/CM services optimize the implementation of complex datacenter projects, reduce capital spending, delivering the project ontime and within the budget according to the investor’s scope: • Design management, involving multidisciplinary project team • Management and coordination of contractors • Coordination of equipment delivery • Equipment installation • Full scale testing and commissioning Construction No matter what solution investors choose for the construction of their datacenter - the traditional “design – specify – bid – build” solution or the “design and build” solution, various French contractors provide specialized expertise and experience with separate trades or packages or general contractor for complex datacenters : • Detail specification and shop drawings • Procurement • Equipment supply and rigging • Equipment installation • Datacenters commissioning 4.2 Operation and maintenance French companies offer monitoring and control for operation and maintenance services in order to ensure reliable operation of the critical systems installed: • Infrastructure Management Control • Performance Management • Site monitoring and control • Preventive maintenance services • 24/7 emergency services • Corrective maintenance services These companies provide management staff and field technicians for all types of equipment and trades. They offer a wide range of services including specific preventive, 24/7 emergency and corrective services for supply of critical equipment: • HVAC and mechanical • Fire protection • General contracting • Electrical equipment, UPS batteries, generators, ATS • Construction management • Communication and cabling • Turn key construction • IT equipment • Security and access control 25
  • 25. 26
  • 26. Risk assessment Management France is one of the EU leaders in data protection and fully complies with the most stringent Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) standards. Datacenters, part of the “New Economy”, protect and provide the technical elements necessary to deliver computing and telecom services and are critical assets for companies’ operations. Such facilities need to meet the highest standards. Therefore identifying and preventing risks are of prime importance; risks can be sorted and classified in 3 main categories: • Natural risks such as climate disorders (storms, droughts, blizzards, etc.), geological accidents (earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis...), or hydraulic (flooding, avalanches...) • Risks of human origin: sabotage, terrorism, mistake, poor understanding of operational instructions • Technical risks : related to any threat generated by equipment breakdown or failure, obsolete equipment, etc France has set up a specific organization and corresponding procedures and regulations to cope with such risks, in particular with regard to security and safety. The French Agency DRIRE (Direction Régionale de l’Industrie, de la Recherche et de l’Environnement) is a public organization delivering permit for safe operation of industrial premises. Datacenter installations and equipment have to comply with regulations related to stocking inflammable liquids, accumulator’s battery, cooling refrigerant, etc… through a “ICPE” permit file application (ICPE Installations Classées pour la Protection de l’Environnement). 27
  • 27. As a result, France provides a set of regulations in compliance with European directives and best international standards. French manufacturers and contractors fully comply with such requirements (such as Product Environment Profiles (PEP), WEEE, and RoHS, calculation of Life Cycle Assessments-LCA). For Datacenters, the complete life cycle from design to recycling has to be taken into consideration given the rising global concern for the environment and the use of natural resources, including emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. In the wake of this growing awareness and important measures that will follow, the Carbon Footprint of a datacenter throughout its entire life-cycle must be considered such as main following aspects: This application includes different aspects: • Materials • Neighbourhood • Design and construction • Health • Equipment manufacturing • Safety • Transportation / installation • Protection of the nature and the environment • Operation and consumption • Conservation of sites and monuments Sustainable development is key in all construction projects thanks to the French government’s strong commitment and involvement in terms of protection of the environment. France is at the leading edge of these works and has many experts working in various technical committees related to this matter. This includes works with standardization bodies at the French level with AFNOR or UTE, at the European level such as CEN or CENELEC or at the international level with the IEC, ISO or ITU. EU WEEE standard: Waste of Electronic and Electrical Equipment, which implies the complete selective treatment and recycling of products EU RoHS standard: Restriction of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment which concerns lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), with maximum permitted concentrations of 0.1% by weight of homogeneous material. EU REACH standard: Registration Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals. 28
  • 28. • Maintenance Life Cycle of products • Disposal, with recycling Transport Installation Use ibr a Wo tion rk Design Maintenance Cal Therefore, all manufacturers commit themselves to providing carbon assessments for products embedded in datacenters and reduce carbon footprint in the manufacturing process. In datacenters, electrical energy is the base of operations. In this context, relevant information is regularly released to implement best operating behaviors and practices for energy saving. Material Recycling French stakeholders have been involved in the drafting of the European Code of Conduct 29
  • 29. on Energy Efficiency for Datacenters with qualified representatives participating in the working groups. Such a “voluntary scheme” will provide a platform for bringing together European stakeholders to define and implement voluntary actions toward energy efficiency. They are invited to enforce appropriate measures to control and monitor Health Safety procedures, as a vital part of Datacenter Management. 30 Participants are invited to continuously monitor energy consumption and adopt energy saving management to improve energy efficiency. The Code of Conduct will use the metrics recommended by the Green Grid, referring to two related metrics recently introduced in the Industry: “Power Usage Effectiveness” (PUE) and “Datacenter Infrastructure Efficiency” (DCIE). -oOo-
  • 30.
  • 31. 03/10 Photos credits : contributors, Getty images, Phovoir, Fotolia France: Genuine attractiveness A Datacenter is a complex systemand such complex facilities need to be located in an adapted environment. Taking these criteria together, France’s attractiveness emerges very positive: • Highly reliable electric network • Stable, competitive and low electrical energy rates • Electrical energy produced with low carbon footprint • Reliable telecom infrastructure and open to competition • Broadly deployed fibre-optic infrastructure, connected directly to countries which are major players in the digital economy • Low per-m2 real-estate rates • A geostrategic position at the crossroads of Europe • Highly educated staff to design, build and operate datacenter • Credibility in terms of sustainable development The sum of all these advantages makes France a very competitive location for Datacenters. Welcome to your Datacenter in France The “France for Datacenters” Club is hosted by: Gimélec - French industry association for electrical equipment, automation and related services 11-17 rue de l’Amiral Hamelin F-75783 Paris cedex 16 Contact: tel. ++ 33 1 45 05 70 77 www.francefordatacenters.fr