2) He directed 13-full length films in his career. His directorial style was based on a nonlinear (unclear/interrupted) narrative, creative use of lighting (chiaroscuro), unusual camera angles. He was praised as ‘the ultimate auteur’. (author)3) co-wrote, produced, directed the film Citizen Kane. He also starred as the character Charles Foster Kane. As well as being behind screen Welles liked to get involved in all aspects of his films, making appearances in various productions.
Herbert George- an English author of War of the Worlds novelOrson bought the book to life and made a fictional story become a fake reality. NAS
To make it seem real Welles adapted the novel to modern times. 2) Pre-WW2 fantasy radio dramas, the fall of the city was written as an extended dramatized poem. Welles also starred in this radio play. 3)Radio was very powerful and the War of the Worlds radio play isan example of why. – the influence it held over the audience was quite strong, people relied on radio to keep up to date and informed. Hence the worry when WOTW was announced.4) Welles received national and international fame as the director of the adaptation of War of the Worlds. NAS
- Music playing, interrupted by announcer informing audience that there is an explosion from mars 3:14-4:13Sound of clock to make it seem like it is a different place (even though this is and has been all done at the studio). Professional opinion to make it seem more believable. 6:00- 7:15. Grovers field New Jesery- Carter Phillips reporting what is happening, noises in the background. 0:50- 2:00. Describes the actual invasion, 6:20-7:58- screams of people and then it goes silent. 8:15- Reveal that the explosion on mars is just disturbance. 8:40- Announcing people dead (40 people dead)- 9:00. 0:18- scientist explanations – 1:37. BOTHhttp://prezi.com/owomwoati3vn/orson-welles-war-of-the-worlds/
2) Though there was a widespread of panic, it is suggested that some of it was exaggerated to make it seem more real. Regular programming breaks down as the studio struggles with casualty updates, firefighting developments and the likeMartian tripods from the cylinder destroy power stations and uproot bridges and railroads, reinforced by three others from a second cylinder as gas explosions continue.Orson suggested these events were occurring… the background noise only backed up what was being announced. ( police & toxic smoke poison) The audience could hear screams etc… then a long pause – death??GILLY
Some people sued. This is ridiculous!! GILLY LOL
Made it sound like a news broadcast to increase the dramatic effect, as well as make it seem more realistic. This is supported by the fact that the music was interrupted by a series of news bulletins on the event. Although there was an explanations throughout the radio play, they were very brief and not very noticeable enough for audience to know the truth. The way Orson has manipulated the use of the radio show shows a powerful effect radio has. It can be compared that even though Hitler had made an impact during that era and that he had his army and air force to support him. Welles frightened people literally through special effects, actors, detailed planning and creativity. The Newscaster reports that there something ‘wriggling out of the shadow like a grey snake’, as well stating that they look like tentacles with a large body like a bear. ‘The eyes are black and gleam like serpent’.many listeners didn't tune in long enough to hear them. Another news reporter at the top of the CBs Building describing the attack in New York city, ‘Five great machines’ with poison smoke drifting over the city. BOTH
Dorothy Thompson foresaw that the broadcast revealed the way politicians could use the power of mass communications to create theatrical illusions, to manipulate the public. The powerful use of radio, of special effects, acting, allowed Welles to create an illusions, that manipulated people into thinking what they heard was real. This is evidence of just how much people relied on the radio. BOTH
Orson welles - SOUND MODULE -uni work
‘Welles never‘Welles went off condescended toin so many other play bydirections: as Hollywoods rulesactor, as man of and his arduousthe theatre, as the four-decade careerspirit of radio, as was pocked witha magician, a self- moments oftaught know-it- brilliance, excessall’ and waste.’David Thomson,The Guardian, 22nd Reel Classic , theOctober 2009. classic movie site. Orson Welles The war of the worlds broadcast
About Orson Welles• Born on May 6th 1915, in Wisconsin.• An American actor, director, producer and worked mostly within theatre, film and radio.• Famous for the film ‘Citizen Kane’ (1941) which was ranked as one of all-time greatest films.• One of the founders of ‘The Mercury Theatre on the Air’, a radio show in the 1930’s that produced live radio dramas in New York.• First director to include ceiling shots within a film.• In 1975 the American Film Institute presented Welles’ with its 3rd lifetime achievement award, with only two been given before this.• 2002 Orson was voted the greatest film director of all time, in two separate British Film Institute polls (BFI).
War of the worlds• War of the Worlds is novel by H.G. Wells’s, based on a story of an alien invasion on earth.• The novel was adapted into a radio play drama for ‘The Mercury Theatre on the Air’.• It was a broadcast of a series of news bulletins, which convinced listeners that there was an alien invasion on earth.• It was a 55-60 minute broadcast and it aired on 30th October 1938, as part of Halloween special.
• Changed the time from Victoria England to present day New England.• Welles was influenced by other radio plays performed before, such as the ‘Archibald MacLeish’ dramas ‘The fall of the city’ and ‘Air Raid’.
Public Reaction• Some listeners only caught a few minutes of the broadcast, when hearing this they perceived it to be a real broadcast.• People in the US and Canada were fleeing their homes, hiding.• In Panic people were calling the radio station and (future ‘Tonight Show’ host) Jack Paar had to attempt to calm them by phone and on air. ‘The world is not coming to an end. Trust me. When have I ever lied to you?’• ‘evidence of the decadence and corrupt condition of democracy,’ written by Richard J. Hand, said by Adolf Hitler.• The Radio Project carried out a study which showed that some people who panicked presumed the Germans, not Martians, had invaded.• The threat of WW2 was hanging over peoples heads, which increased panic and meant people were constantly on edge.• Coincidental blackout in Concrete, Washington cutting phone lines, increasing more panic as people could not contact friends or family.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gfNsCcOHsNI Orson Welles.• For example, a 25 year old Henry Brylawski in 1938, believed that it was a ‘hoax’. But his girlfriends sister ‘quaking in her boots’ in their apartment.• Hours after the end of the show people came to realize that the invasion was not true.
How did Orson Welles do it?• Welles directed the radio play to sound like a news broadcast.• Music was played throughout the radio play, which was interrupted a number of times about the invasion.• Explanation at the beginning of the show explaining that it was fictional, as well as through out the show. But very briefly.• Actors played roles as news announcers in the studio, as well as reporters describing the invasion.• One reporter describes the ‘flaming object’ crashing in a farm near Grovers Mill, New Jersey and described the invasion (when really in the studio).• Scientific explanation.
Overall• Dorothy Thompson (New York Tribune)- said that Welles and the Mercury Theatre on air made a ‘fascinating and important demonstrations of all time’.• But she also said that ‘they have proved that a few effective voices, accompanied by sound effects, can convince masses of people of totally unreasonable, completely fantastic proposition as to create a nation-wide panic’. • ‘Created a delicious and tenacious media myth’ Professor W Joseph Campbell (BBC article)