Ottoman Empire ByGillian, Hubert, Roxanne and Simphiwe
Time• After the Ottomans defeat the Byzantine Empire they continued expanding into the Balkans. The Ottoman Turkish Empire will move its capital from Bursa to Istanbul (Constantinople).
• Growth of the Ottoman Empire:• . Expansion and apogee (1453–1566).• Bayezid II:• When Bayezid II was enthroned upon his fathers death in 1481, he first had to fight his younger brother Cem Sultan, who took Inegöl and Bursa and proclaimed himself Sultan of Anatolia. After a battle at Yenişehir, Cem was defeated and fled to Cairo. The very next year he returned, supported by the Mameluks, and took eastern Anatolia, Ankara and Konya but eventually he was beaten and forced to flee to Rhodes .Ottoman civil war(1509-1513) .• Selim I• During his reign, Selim 1 was able to expand the empires borders greatly to the south and east. He defeated the Mameluks and conquered most of modern Syria, Lebanon , Land of Israel, and Egypt, including the holy city of Jerusalem as well as Cairo, the residence of the Abbasid caliph. Thus, Selim was able to proclaim himself caliph of Islam.• Suleiman the Magnificent• Thereafter, attention reverted to the west, and Suleiman I, upon ascending the throne in 1518, led a series of campaigns into the Balkans. Under Suleiman, a brilliant strategist, the Ottomans advanced steadily northward, taking Belgrade, the capital of Serbia in 1521, defeated Hungryin 1526, and besieging Vienna in 1529.•
• Selim II• Sokollu Mehmed Paşa was one of the Grand Viziers of Suleiman but he gained absolute power after the death of Suleiman. During the reign of Selim II, he became the real ruler of the Ottoman Empire, a situation which lasted until Mehmed Pashas death in 1579.• Revolts and revival (1566–1683)• Ahmed I• In the earlier part of his reign Ahmed I showed decision and vigour, which were belied by his subsequent conduct. The wars which attended his accession both in Hungary and in Persia terminated unfavourably for the Empire, and her prestige received its first check in the Treaty of Sitvatorok, signed in 1606, whereby the annual tribute paid by Austria was abolished. Georgia and Azerbaijan were ceded to Persia.
• Osman II• Osman II after securing the Empires eastern border by signing a peace treaty with Safavid Iran, he personally led the Ottoman invasion of Poland during the Moldavian Magnate Wars. Forced to sign a peace treaty with the Polish after the Battle of Chotin (Chocim) (in fact siege of Chotin by the Polish hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz) in September–October, 1621, Osman II returned home to Constantinople in shame, blaming the cowardice of the Janissaries and the insufficiency of his statesmen for his humiliation.• Murad IV• Murad IV was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Murad IVs reign is most notable for a war against Persia in which Ottoman forces conquered Azerbaijan, occupied Tabriz, Hamadan, and, in the last great feat of Imperial Ottoman arms, captured Baghdad in 1638. Murad IV himself commanded the invasion of Mesopotamia and proved to be an outstanding field commander.
Economy• The city of Istanbul was the crossroads of trade between the East and West. Caravans and ships carried silk, tea, spices and porcelain. Ships from Venice and Genoa carried goods to Europe. From the Black Sea and southern Russian came ships with furs, grain and amber and from Europe mirrors and drugs. Ships from Venice and Genola carried goods to Europe.• Profit was limited to 10% and the government tried to insure trade was conducted fairly and moved securely over the trade routes .Foreign trade needed the permission of the government and exports were tightly controlled. The main exports were leather, skins and wool. Items needed for the military such as wood for shipbuilding, minerals and food were rarely allowed to be exported.• The largest sector of the economy was the agricultural sector. Engaging an estimated 80-90% of the working age population.
Coffee became associated with the Ottomans for Europeans. European merchants in Istanbul brought coffee to Europe and there were coffee houses in London by the1650sThe early Ottoman allies, the French werethe first Europeans to be granted traderights in 1534. The English were allowed in1567 and in 1581 Queen Elizabeth I grantedthe Turkey Company an exclusive charter to trade with the Ottoman Empire.
• Guilds Most trades had a guild with a specific dress. Most guilds were linked with a certain religious sect and one or two patron saints and there were religious ceremonies in the initiation ritual. The guilds attained a high degree of workmanship, but advances were slowed by all the regulations• Taxation and the Treasury Ottoman coin with tugra (monogram) of sultan Abdul Hamid II
• Taxation was not applied uniformly throughout the empire, usually between 10-20%. Taxation on Muslims was done with tithes, non-Moslems paid a poll tax. There were also numerous taxes in everyday life which Moslem and non-Moslems paid marriage tax. After Mehmed II, the job of tax collection was given to the highest bidder. There were two Treasuries, one for the government and another for the sultan. The sultan received a fifth of all booty, a 10 % death tax and all property of civil servants on their death in addition to the numerous luxurious gifts he received sultan owned all lands except for those of the mosques. Official registers were kept of all the animals, crops of the large timar and zimat military fiefs.
Society• Millet - Separate legal courts , Communities allowed to rule under own system.• Grouped by religious confessions• Empire was dynastic • Character determined by military and administrative power • Attempting to increase territory.• Every non- Muslim absorbed into empire -> protected subjects • Integrated into every level of society • Sense of unity & qualified individuals continued to do their parts • Wear distinctive clothing • Paid special taxes • Separate courts, schools & welfare • Treated well• Every sultan had a vizier • Seen as 2nd most powerful in empire • Usually a slave• JANISSARIES • Military draft for Christian children • Be part of elite military force • Fearless warriors • Best education • Paid well with higher standard of living (slaves)
Relationships• Toleration for other beliefs (unique) • Did not force religion• Muslims not allowed to convert• Preference was given to Muslims• Women given freedom – Better rights than woman through Europe – Lived womans quarters known as a Harem.• Ottoman traditions relied on slave concubinage & legal marriages for reproduction.• 16th century both male and female members of imperial family used title ‘Sultan’.
Culture• The Ottoman Empire had filled roughly the territories around the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea while adopting the traditions, art and institutions of cultures.• Making art with ceramics, tile decorations, paintings, singing, dance and act.• Women-Chokers and long necklaces were used by Ottoman ladies. Gold coins were strung on long gold or silver chains or on a string of pearls. Such necklaces were worn by rich women.
Architecture/Dwellings• 1st Islamic religious buildings consisted of simple buildings with extensive decorations.• Domed architecture style evolved from Bursa & Edrin, 14th&15th centuries.• Developed from earlier Seljuk architecture after conquest of Constantinople • Byzantine architecture such as church of Hagia Sophia (main source if inspiration)served as models for many mosques • Synthesized with architectural traditions of Middle East and Mediterranean.• Highest level of architecture in their land since • Perfect harmony between inner & outer spaces • Architectural light and shadows • Seemingly weightless , yet massive dome.• Classical period under influence of MIMAR SINAN saw new unifications and harmonizations of various architectural parts • Syncretic blends of influences and adoptions to Ottoman needs. • Domed structures used but proportions changes • Freed interior structure from colanders & other structural elements that broke up the inside(everything unnecessary eliminated, every part considered in relation to a whole) • Added more light , huge windows • Inner & outer court yards added• Soup kitchens, theological schools, hospitals, turkish baths and tombs added to mosques.• Tekkes – buildings constructed to house dervishes and holy men. • Often joined to mosque • Continues central domed structure.• Stone & brick used together.
Mimar Sinan• 1492 – 1588• Created 334 buildings• Master architect of this period• Simplicity of design often attributed to fact that Sinan & other Ottoman architects were 1st trained as military engineers • Everything in building were subordinated to imposing central dome • Domes and acending buttresses lead eye up & down buildings exterior • Open space of surrounding courtyards prevented buildings from being swallowed by surrounding city• Royal architecture masterpiece -> Palace complex of Topkupi Saray at Istanbul.
Hagia Sophia Topkupi Saray palace Decoration Earlier Buildings
Transport• The Ottoman cavalry depended on high speed and mobility rather than heavy armour, using bows and short swords on fast Turkoman and Arabian horses .
Communication• Ottoman Turkish was a Turkic language highly influenced by Persian and Arabic. The Ottomans had three influential languages: Turkish, spoken by the majority of the people in Anatolia and by the majority of Muslims of the Balkans except in Albania and Bosnia; Persian, only spoken by the educated; and Arabic, spoken mainly in Arabia, North Africa, Iraq, Kuwait and the Levant. Throughout the vast Ottoman bureaucracy Ottoman Turkish language was the official language, a version of Turkish, albeit with a vast mixture of both Arabic and Persian grammar and vocabulary. If the basic grammar was still largely Turkish, the inclusion of almost any word in Arabic or Persian in Ottoman made it a language that was essentially incomprehensible to any ethnic Turkish Ottoman subject who had not mastered Arabic, Persian or both.
Inventions• Paper bank notes, rather than coins.• The Ottoman Empire formalized postal delivery services• It also created formalized identity documents (originally only for men!)• They introduced steam powered commuter ferries
Clothing/ Hair• Historically, there was little difference in clothing worn by women and men. Both wore tunics and caftans over pants. The main difference was in the use of head coverings, or veils, and in the more observant Muslim circles, a face covering was also worn. Seasonal changes impacted the choice of materials, with lighter weight fabrics used in the warmer months and wools and furs for colder weather•• The headdresses, as with clothing and jewellery was more or less ornate in accordance with status and means.•• The rich wore clothing befitting their status, while the poor were concerned only with covering themselves for warmth and modesty.• The wealthy wore fur-lined caftans, richly embroidered with themes inherited from the Byzantine era. In the 19th century, the commonly worn turban was sometimes replaced with a fez.• Shoes were high heeled and had pointy toes.• In the 16th century, women wore a two-layered shawl on their heads.
• Womens clothing became more flamboyant in the detailing and embroidered design. in the larger cities of Istanbul and Izmir, the prevailing fashions were created, and trickled through to the outlying regions. This was the beginning of tailoring as we know it today, and also the start of hair being used as an accessory, put up in lavish buns, and embellished with jewels. Headpieces often had a central stone suspended on chain or ribbon, or braid, placed on the forehead.•• Men wore a high-crowned cap, made of sheepskin or felt.• Men and women wore Jelicks, or vests, which among the people of means were richly embroidered. They were worn over a long white chemise or shirt, and trousers and belted with a sash.• The men wore turbans, the same style as worn by Sikhs today.• Tithe yashmak or niqab is a face covering, still worn by women today to preserve modesty.one fine piece of cloth is worn over the head and another over the nose and mouth, with just the eyes showing.• Turkish men wore a jacket called a dolman, which was a jacket, similar to those worn by the Cossacks
Food• Little has changed. Coffee was highly ritualized then, as it is still, and so was the smoking of the negilah, or hookah. Raki, very similar to ouzo was commonly drunk, but one would assume not by followers of Islam.• Many of the foods enjoyed today have their origins in the days of the Ottoman Empire, and include swish kebab, doner, and baklava, a sweet pastry with honey, nuts and spices, enjoyed world wide still•• Food was diverse, with many of the foods commonly eaten during the time of the OE still being found worldwide today. Swish kebabs, baklava and flat breads being among the many foods eaten.• Often gravies dishes were served with flat breads, to sop up the sauces. Dips of various kinds were also eaten with flat breads. Ottoman cuisine has influenced many areas of cooking across the world.•• Many foods were made for easy transportation, and were eaten with the hands, so self contained parcels, wrapped in vine leaves, stuffed vegetables, perfect for containing rice, nuts and meat.• Sweet foods were wrapped in pastry, like baklava.• Minced meats were wrapped around sticks and cooked.•• Part of the reason for this was that armies are mobile, and eating is more easily done on the move when food is presented this way
Jewellery• The Ottoman Empire is well known for its adornments. Metals used were gold and silver, with the more valuable metal being used as gifts for weddings among the elite, and silver being more commonly used by the less wealthy, but for the same reason. The inherent values of the gifts were viewed as a means of investment.• Designs were elaborate and fine, and a lot of the pieces were intricate filigree work. In less affluent circles, designs were simpler.• Gold and precious stones were applied not only to wearable jewellery but also to articles of everyday objects such as book covers, utensils, weapons etc. using a variety of materials such as leather, ivory, glass, bone, mother-of- pearl, horn, wood and metals such as zinc.
• Silver most common material used as gold was reserved for the elite• In rural areas jewellery was simpler and often incorporated gold coins.(altin)• Most goldsmiths Christian American and Jewish.• Jewellery reached peak in 16th century – Not only wearable. They decorated everyday objects• Materials included – Leather - ivory – glass – bone – pearls – horn – wood – zinc.• Gems: – rubies – emeralds – carnelian – amethyst – jade.• Jewellery was ornate & extremely colourful • Differs from rest of europe• Instead of strict symmetry, the nature of stone & material given preference – Natural characteristics of stone are a feature in ottoman jewellery• As Ottoman empire expanded, so did jewellery production.
• Aigrettes -> worn by sultan & noble woman – symbol of power.• Hair pins -> important piece of jewellery in woman head ornaments – Mainly flower motifs• Earrings -> thought to emphasise beauty of hairstyle & dress of woman• Gold bangle-> given as gifts (often wedding gifts) as a sort of ‘savings’ . Sold when money was needed.• Chokers and long necklaces -> gold coins strung on long gold/silver chains or string of pearls• Jewelled gold, silver, pearl or ivory belts – Essential accessory of ottoman women – Buckle floral or geometric
References• http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/otto1/hd_ otto1.htm (October 2002)• Wikipedia• Some articles were from google search engeen• www.globaled.org• www.theottomans.org•