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CBOs Organisational Management Handbook


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Community Rights Advocacy And Project Management Manual-A Toolkit for Use by Community Based Organisations (CBOs)

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CBOs Organisational Management Handbook

  1. 1. COMMUNITY RIGHTS ADVOCACY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT MANUAL A TOOLKIT FOR USE BY COMMUNITY BASED ORGANISATIONS (CBOs) Shamiso Mtisi, Gilbert Makore, Plaxedes John and Tendai Bobo Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association (ZELA)
  2. 2. Published by: Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association (ZELA)Sponsored by: European UnionAuthors: Shamiso Mtisi, Gilbert Makore, Plaxedes John-Zahwe and Tendai BoboCopyright: 2010. Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association (ZELA) This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit uses, without special permission from the copyright holder, provided full acknowledgement of the source is made. No use of this publication may be made for resale or other commercial purposes without the prior written permission of ZELA.Year of Publication: 2010Available from: Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association (ZELA), No. 6 London Derry Road, Eastlea, Harare, Zimbabwe: Tel: 253381; 252093, Email:, Website: www.zela.orgZimbabwe Environmental Law Association European Union 2
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………………..4Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………………………………5Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………..6Community Rights………………………………………………………………………………....8Environmental, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights………………………………………..8Strategies to Secure Community Rights……………………………………………………………..9Advocacy and Policy Change Toolkit………………………………………………………..11Project Planning and Implementation………………………………………………………15Project Evaluation………………………………………………………………………………………….17Tools for Project Implementation Management………………………………………………..19Promoting Participation and Ownership by the Community……………………………...19HIV/AIDS and Gender Mainstreaming in Projects…………………………………………..20Project Proposal Writing Structure…………………………………………………………………..21Governance Issues…………………………………………………………………………………23Common Institutional and Administrative Arrangements…………………………………24Board Meetings……………………………………………………………………………………………..25Financial Management…………………………………………………………………………..30Golden Rules of Financial Management………………………………………………………..…31Key Books of Accounts to be Kept…………………………………………………………………..31Expenditure Cycle………………………………………………………………………………………….32Reporting………………………………………………………………………………………………………32 3
  4. 4. Bookkeeping and Record Keeping……………………………………………………………………33Glossary……………………………………………………………………………………………….34ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe initial recognition of the need to develop this manual on community rights and project managementarose out of a project being implemented by ZELA to support the organizational development ofCommunity Trusts in Zimbabwe. The project is aimed at building the capacity of community basedorganizations to demand and claim the environmental, economic, social and cultural rights of miningcommunities.To a larger extent this report is a result of the sterling efforts of different individuals and organizations. Inparticular, the authors would like to thank the European Union for providing the financial support thatenabled the organization to publish this work and to implement the project on building the capacity ofcommunity based organizations as a vehicle for spearheading the environmental, economic, social andcultural rights of communities in mining areas. The authors would also like to thanks all the ZELA staffmembers for lending their support during the writing of this important book.We hope this guide will assist the local communities to appreciate their role in environmentalmanagement and community development and that it will enable them to better perform that role. 4
  5. 5. ABBREVIATIONSCBO Community Based OrganisationEESCR Environmental, Economic, Social and Cultural RightsEIA Environmental Impact AssessmentNGO Non-Governmental OrganisationJCT Justice for Children TrustLRF Legal Resources FoundationRDC Rural District CouncilTAI The Access InitiativeZELA Zimbabwe Environmental Law AssociationZLHR Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human RightsZWLA Zimbabwe Women Lawyers Association 5
  6. 6. INTRODUCTIONThis manual is meant to help Community Based Organizations (CBOs) to better understand the oftencomplicated and theoretical aspects of community rights and project management. It is intended tocapacitate CBOs with knowledge so that they can effectively implement projects and advocate for policy,administrative and legal changes that advance their environmental, economic, social and cultural from adevelopment perspective. This manual will therefore guide them in taking steps towards reaching theirdevelopmental goals. In particular the following aspects are explained in this manual and can serve as aguide to CBOs to effectively implement their projects and demand and claim the rights of communities; • Knowledge of community rights and the strategies to use to demand and claim them is very important. For rural communities there is need to demand and claim ownership over natural resources, public participation in decision making processes around natural resources management and access to information. In that matrix, the rights to derive economic, social and cultural rights cannot be overemphasized. In urban areas CBOs should be able to focus on issues such as the right to access safe and clean water, to live in a clean and healthy environment that does not cause harm to health among others. • It is vital that CBOs also devise their own strategies in advocating for policy, legal and administrative or practical changes that will enhance community development especially anchored around natural resources management. In that regard the manual contains a toolkit derived from an Advocacy Handbook developed by The Access Initiative (TAI) which outlines the key tools and steps that can be used to achieve change at both the practical and policy level. Some of the steps include; the need to clearly identify the problem to be addressed, defining the policy and practical solution being advocated for by the group, identifying the individuals and institutions that can assist the CBO to achieve change, identifying existing and ongoing opportunities that can be used to leverage change, assessing both the financial, human and technical resources available to the CBO or its partners, developing a workplan and evaluating and monitoring the impact of their advocacy activities. • When community based organisations are implementing projects, it is vital that they systematically organize their intervention or project activities according to some widely accepted guidelines, although these should be customized. In this manual there is information on how a project is designed, planned, implemented, monitored and evaluated. Further, it contains information on cross-cutting issues that are central to project implementation such as gender mainstreaming and HIV/AIDS. Another important aspect is the ability to write a good project proposal. The manual contains a section on project proposal writing. • More importantly, CBOs should be aware of the basic tenets of financial management. Financial management is key to the sustainability of CBOs. There is need for CBOs to know how to manage, account and report on financial resources received from donors or derived from income generating activities. The CBOs should know the books of accounts to keep, the purchasing procedures, financial reporting and how to fundraise. • CBOs should also be able to put in place governance structures that ensure transparency and accountability in the management of the affairs of the CBO. In that regard the manual advocates 6
  7. 7. for religious compliance with the provisions of the legal document setting up the CBO or other national laws and policies that impact on operations of CBOs in Zimbabwe.Who Can use this Manual?This manual can be used by community based organizations and individuals in rural and urban settings.The issues raised in this manual apply to the operations of grassroots organizations that have beenrecently formed and those that are facing problems in managing their affairs. It can also be used byorganizations that are facing problems in trying to engage policy makers and those facing problems inenforcing community rights. Quick Reference Environmental, economic, social and cultural rights Advocacy strategies Project management Proposal writing Financial management Governance of CBOs 7
  8. 8. COMMUNITY RIGHTSEnvironmental, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (EESCR)Community Based Organizations should be aware of the rights and principles that may enhancecommunity development. These rights and principles are provided for in national, regional andinternational legal instruments. The two major international and regional instruments that provideeconomic, social and cultural rights and principles are the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rightsand the International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The EnvironmentalManagement Act (Chapter 20:27) also contains environmental rights that are important for CBO activiststo know and claim. It is vital for government, local authorities and other actors to take measures to fulfillthese rights. In summary the following rights and principles should be claimed at the grassroots level;• Right of every person to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing. In that regard governments are encouraged to take measures to improve methods of production, conservation and distribution of food, disseminate knowledge of the principles of nutrition and develop or reform agrarian systems to achieve efficient development and utilization of natural resources;• Right of every person to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. The State is required to take the necessary measures to protect the health of people and to ensure that they receive medical attention when they are sick.• Right of everyone to take part in cultural life. The State has a duty to promote and protect morals and traditional values and customs recognized by the community.• Right to work and enjoyment of just and favourable conditions at work such as safe and healthy working conditions. Safe and healthy working conditions may include working in an environment that does not cause injury, death or disease• Right to education• All peoples shall freely dispose of their wealth and natural resources. The state is encouraged to ensure that this right is exercised in the exclusive interest of the people.• Every person shall have the right to a clean environment that is not harmful to health• Every person shall have access to information concerning the environment and an opportunity to participate in decision-making processes• Every person shall have effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy when their rights are violated.• Every person has a duty to protect the environment for the benefit of present and future generations, and• Environmental management must place people and their needs at the forefront of its concern. This means people should be allowed to use natural resources for development. 8
  9. 9. SNAPSHOT OF RIGHTS Environmental, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Food Education Shelter Clothing Safe and healthy environment Medical care Protection of traditional values Access to environmental information Use natural resourcesStrategies to Secure Community RightsIn this section it is important to outline the different strategies that can be used by CBOs in both rural andurban communities to claim, demand and assert environmental, economic, social and cultural rights. Thefollowing strategies can be used; • Identify and report cases of environmental, economic, social and cultural rights violations in your area to public interest law groups. Public interest law groups that offer free legal assistance include; Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association (ZELA) (Tel: 04 253381; Email:, Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights (ZLHR) (Tel: 04251468), Legal Resources Foundation (LRF) (04 251170-4); Justice for Children Trust (JCT) (Tel: 04 797723) and Zimbabwe Women Lawyers Association (ZWLA) (Tel: 04887187) among others. • Establish/form Community Based Groups (CBOs) or grassroots organisations composed of local residents. The CBOs should be legally registered and the objective will be to advance and spearhead community interests and rights. Formation of CBOs will eliminate fear and build confidence since residents will act as a group than as individuals in trying to enforce and claim their rights. • Engage and lobby without fear, local representatives such as the Councilors, village heads, Chiefs, Rural and Urban District Councils, Members of Parliament to be more representative and accountable to the people. This will compel them to find ways of having the concerns and problems facing the community addressed by the government, private companies, local authorities or other responsible persons. 9
  10. 10. • Write letters to newspapers and other media outlets to draw attention to violations of environmental, economic, social and cultural rights. This can include letters about the need to have more clinics, schools, water supply points, transport and improved road network.• Approach public interest civil society organisations for legal advice so that legal action/litigation can be taken in situations where community rights are violated• Use conflict resolution mechanisms to resolve disputes that can easily be resolved through negotiations without going to court• Approach public interest groups for continuous legal education and rights training workshops and seminars.• During community meetings with decision makers and in situations where there is not enough time for all people to speak, identify community champions or individuals who can effectively speak on behalf of the whole community to talk about the problems facing the community• Write petitions or letters to Parliament or responsible government agencies about your environmental, social, economic and cultural problems.• Adopt an advocacy strategy that shapes how the CBO engages decision makers (see section on policy advocacy) SNAPSHOT OF STRATEGIES TO CLAIM RIGHTS Petitions Court action Conflict resolution Letters to newspapers Formation of community trusts Seek legal advice from public interest law groups 10
  11. 11. POLICY AND PRACTICE ADVOCACY TOOLKIT1This section is a summary of a set of tools or activities that were developed by The Access Initiative(TAI) coalition to help partners to achieve reform and policy practice around the world through advocacyon access to environmental information, public participation in decision making processes and access tojustice. The activities and strategies are contained in what is called the Advocacy and Policy ChangeWorkbook. However, in this section we have decided to extract and summarise some of the key strategiesand tools that Community Based Organisations may find useful in trying to achieve change and reformsof policies and practice at the local level. What this entails is that since most CBOs are agents of changeat the grassroots level and are expected to assert community rights, they should also adopt strategies toengage and influence decisions by local authorities, government departments, local politicians, traditionalleaders and the local elites. More importantly, it is vital that the CBOs demand embark on advocacyactivities on various livelihood issues such as agricultural and farming policies, natural resourcesmanagement, clean water supply, food provision, transport and road network, schools and hospitalsamong other services.Before embarking on locally based advocacy campaigns, CBOs should be able to plan their activities andstrategies. A critical step in this process will be to hold a workshop in which the members of the CBOscome together with like-minded organizations and individuals to develop a shared advocacy strategy forachieving their goals or how they can influence change. This will be an advocacy planning workshop atwhich the CBO members and partners can discuss the problems they would want to be addressed by theauthorities, the proposed solution, the available resources and identify stakeholders or allies who canassist. The following issues are critical in shaping the advocacy planProblem IdentificationThe CBOs should be able to identify the problems they would want the authorities to address beforetaking any definitive action. The problems can be ranked depending on which ones are more urgent and apriority. Problems can be identified from the concerns raised by community members. Some of theproblems that may be identified that are related to environmental, economic, social and cultural rights ofthe community may include; lack of access to clean water as boreholes may have broken down, shortageof school books, shortage of drugs at the local clinic, food insecurity due to drought or floods, waterpollution from mining activities, poor waste collection services in urban areas or electricity shortages,poor road network and limited economic benefits accruing to the community from natural resourcesextraction (e.g. in forestry, wildlife or mining areas). The above problems may also have been identifiedthrough research undertaken by the CBO or by other Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) working with1 Adapted from The Access Initiative (TAI), Advocacy and Policy Change Workbook 11
  12. 12. the CBO at the local level. The CBO members and partners can then come to a consensus on reforms thatcan be pursued to have the problems addressed by the government, local authority, politicians ortraditional leadership.Elaborating a Policy or Administrative SolutionThe CBOs should also develop a set of policy or practical solutions they think can address the problemidentified. This means the CBO can come up with suggestions of how existing policies or even laws thataffect their livelihoods can be changed or improved. Examples of a policy or legal solution can be tolobby the local authority to pass by-laws that gives the community a certain percentage of earnings fromnatural resources levies collected from mining companies or from safari hunters. A practical solution theCBO may lobby for is a community request for the Zimbabwe National Water Authority to drill moreboreholes in the area. In advocating for legal and policy reforms it is important for the CBOs to workclosely with public interest groups. In adopting a solution it is also important to ensure that all communitymembers actively participate in reaching the decision. In coming up with a policy or administrativesolution there is need to ask a number of questions that can help. The following questions are key; what isthe problem, what is causing the problem, have the solutions proposed been used elsewhere and how theyfared. Using these previous policies and the lessons learned from other cases as a starting point, rank howeach would fare if implemented in the society. Then, tailor the chosen policy and administrativealternative to the situation at hand.Analyzing the Opportunities to Influence ChangeIt is important for CBOs to identify where and when they have a chance to influence policy, legalprocesses or administrative changes. This will change depending on whether the problem is high on thepolitical agenda, whether there are already proposals for solving the problem. If there are ongoingprocesses to make policy and legal changes the CBOs should take advantage of them and advocate forchange. An example is a situation where the country is in the process of Constitutional Reforms thatincludes community consultations, outreach programmes and public hearings by Parliamentarians. TheCBOs should actively participate in these processes. The same applies to a situation where legal reformson mining are taking place for example. In processes CBOs should advocate for the recognition of theright of communities to derive economic and social benefits from mineral resources or generally naturalresources. Other opportunities or spaces that can be used to advocate for change may includeadministrative processes such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) undertaken by proponents ofprojects that have impacts on community livelihoods. If environmental impact assessments are beingcarried out, CBOs should energise the people to participate in the process so that their views and interestsare considered in the planning processes. It is also vital for the CBO to choose the most appropriate spaceor opportunity or specific activities which offer opportunities for actual change.Stakeholder and Relationship AnalysisThe goal of relationship analysis is to identify the people or organizations or institutions the CBO knowsor that it should know to in order for it to achieve change in the community. In order to carry outrelationship analysis, there are a number of steps that can be followed. For example there is need to 12
  13. 13. identify the targets group of stakeholders possibly as sectors or individuals that should be targeted. Therelationship analysis also includes a stakeholder analysis and there is need to identify lobbying strategiesthat suit each stakeholder or that can make the CBO reach a specific stakeholder. Sometimes it may beimportant to target specific individuals rather than “an NGO” or “the government,” because organizationsmany have different people doing different things and it may take more resources to target an entireorganization. In cases where some people within the organization the CBO is targeting or governmentdepartment agree with the CBOs position while others are opposed, it is vital to spend more time andenergy to persuade those who are opposed so that they support the CBOs position.It is also vital to identify those who are in a position of authority and target them. There is need to knowtheir contact details and other relevant information that will enable the CBO to contact them. Some of thestakeholders that are important to target include the councilors, traditional leaders, local politicians suchas the local Member of Parliament, local government officials, and civil society organisations working inthe area, the media and generally all community members. In sum stakeholder analysis should be drivenby a number of questions that are critical and these are; Who are the relevant stakeholders? What interestdoes each stakeholder have in the policy or administrative reform being sought? What resources areavailable to each stakeholder? Can the stakeholder mobilize those resources? And does the stakeholdersupport or oppose the policy and administrative reform?Self-analysisBesides analysing the stakeholders, CBOs should also do an analysis of themselves as an entity. Theobjective of this self-analysis is to take stock of the resources available to the CBO such as humanresources or financial resources. Human resources may include the relevant staff members, experts ormore importantly community champions to carry out the advocacy work. A list of available resources canbe drafted. The CBO should also look at the funds available to support the advocacy activities such asworkshops, presentation of petitions, litigation and even protects where necessary. The CBO can alsothink about how these resources if they are not readily available can be mobilized. It will also be vital topool together resources with allies or other organisations that may have resources available.Tactics or Strategies that Can be Used to Influence ChangeThere are many tactics or activities that can be used by a CBO to influence change This section will helpCBOs to narrow their possible tactics. There is need to assess how effective and feasible each strategy is.This means there is need to assess if each strategy or activity can easily achieve desired results andwhether resources are enough to embark on that activity. Some of the activities that can be implementedby CBOs to influence change at the grassroots level may include; grassroots based research on theproblem, analyzing the budgets allocated to environmental issues by the local authority in the area,organizing outreach meetings for parliamentarians, networking with other civil society organisations,petition writing to decision makers, protests and marches, press releases in the media, boycotts, directcorrespondence (e.g. phone calls, letters, etc.) and class action lawsuits/litigation (also see section onstrategies to claim community rights). It is important for the CBO to identify which of the tactics abovecan best be used to achieve change in practice and policy for the benefit of the community. 13
  14. 14. Work PlanIn order to effectively carry out the advocacy work, CBOs should also come up with work plans. Thework plan helps identify who will carry out which tasks and when. For example it would make sense todivide the work and give each other duties and deadlines. The following guide can be useful. First;identify the different components of the strategy (e.g. “schedule this meeting,” “give this speech,” “speakto this politician,” etc.). Second; identify the order of components; what should get done when; Third;delegate who will do what. SNAPSHOT OF ADVOCACY STEPS Problem identification Framing a policy or practical solution Identifying opportunities to influence change Stakeholder analysis Self-Analysis Tactics and strategies to influence change Workplan 14
  15. 15. ROJECT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATIONWhat is a project?A project is an intervention which seeks to solve a specific problem(s) being faced by a defined targetgroup in a specific area(s). A project has a timeframe within which the interventions or activities tosupport the people should be accomplished. Projects are mostly implemented to improve the livingconditions of the people. A project has a few characteristics i.e. timeframe (has a beginning and an end), abudget, definition of roles and responsibilities for everyone involved and set of results or a goal to beachieved. Examples of projects include; water supply project for a community, food relief project, healtheducation project and environmental rights training. CBOs can come up with projects to implement thatwill be aimed at uplifting the livelihoods of people in that particular community. However, it is importantfor the CBOs to know that most projects have a life cycle which should be followed in developing andimplementing them.Project Life CycleThe project management cycle consists of four major elements namely; project initiation, project designand planning, project implementation and ending the project. Project Initiation Project Design Project Closure Project ImplementationProject Initiation 15
  16. 16. Since we have said each project has a beginning, the first phase in the Project Life Cycle is called theProject Initiation phase. This is when one develops some ideas about what needs to be addressed, whatwould you like to change and possibly how you going to do it. This stage includes defining the purposeof the project and the areas that will be covered, the reasons why it will be implemented and the activitiesto be undertaken to achieve the goal of the project. You may share those original ideas with a potentialdonor to see who will be interested in providing support.Design and PlanningAfter receiving an initial reaction, you may embark on developing the proposal to the donor thatexplain your idea in more details. At that time you need to establish the parameters of theproject – rationale, purpose, objectives, strategies that help you achieve objectives, managementstructure and processes. This involves putting together documents that can help guide the teamthroughout the project implementation phase. The project planning involves the creation of thefollowing: Project Plan (outlining the activities, tasks, beneficiaries and timeframes), ResourcePlan (listing the labour, equipment and materials required) and Financial Plan (identifying thelabour, equipment and materials costs). At this time you would receive the approval of theproject by the donor (secure funding).Project ImplementationAfter receiving a final approval and the funds, the project may commence its implementation. This is thephase of implementing the project. It includes accomplishing some activities and tasks aimed at achievingthe intended impact on the community. While implementation is ongoing other processes should beactivated to monitor and control the deliverables. These processes include managing time, cost, impact,effectiveness, change, risks and communication. Once all the deliverables have been produced and thebeneficiaries have accepted the intervention, the project is ready for closure or termination.Ending a projectProject Closure involves releasing the final deliverables to the target group, handing over projectdocumentation, terminating contracts releasing project resources and communicating the closure of theproject to all stakeholders.Project Implementation 16
  17. 17. The purpose of the implementation stage is to: deliver the results, achieve the purpose(s) and contributeeffectively to the overall objective of the project. The implementation stage of the project cycle is inmany ways the most critical; as it is during this stage that planned benefits are delivered. All other stagesin the cycle are therefore essentially supportive of this implementation stage. During the implementationof the project, project managers are responsible for undertaking three main sets of tasks: (a) Monitoring and regular review: Project management must keep track of how the project is progressing in terms of expenditure, resource use, and implementation of activities, delivery of results and the management of risks. Monitoring is an internal management responsibility, although it may be complemented by ‘external’ monitoring inputs from other organisations. Regular reviews provide an opportunity to reflect on progress, agree on the content of progress reports and follow-up action required. (b) Planning and re-planning: Plans are best estimates of what will happen in the future, but must be modified on an ongoing basis to take account of what actually happens during implementation. The activities and budgets must therefore be periodically reviewed, refined, and updated based on experience. (c) Reporting: CBOs must produce reports on physical and financial progress to stakeholders, particularly those providing financial resources to support implementation. The aim of these reports should be to: inform stakeholders like donors of project progress (against what was planned), constraints encountered and any significant remedial or supportive action required like trainings; provide a formal documented record of what has been achieved during the reporting period, and thus facilitate future reviews or evaluations; document any changes in plans, including budgetary requirements; and therefore promote transparency and accountability.Project EvaluationThe purpose of project evaluation is to make an assessment of an ongoing or completed project todetermine the relevance and fulfillment of objectives, impact and sustainability and provide informationthat is credible and useful.Principles of EvaluationThere are principles that underpins evaluation and these are; impartiality and independence of theevaluation process from the programming and implementation functions, credibility of the evaluation,through use of appropriately skilled and independent experts, transparency of the evaluation process,including wide dissemination of results, participation of stakeholders in the evaluation process, to ensuredifferent perspectives and views are taken into account; and usefulness of the evaluation findings andrecommendations, through timely presentation of relevant, clear and concise information to decisionmakers.Criteria of Evaluation 17
  18. 18. a) RelevanceThe appropriateness of project objectives to the problems that it was supposed to address, and to thephysical and policy environment within which it operated.b) EfficiencyThe fact that the project results have been achieved at reasonable cost, i.e. how well inputs/means havebeen converted into activities, in terms of quality, quantity and time, and the quality of the resultsachieved. This generally requires comparing alternative approaches to achieving the same results, to seewhether the most efficient process has been adopted.c) EffectivenessThis is an assessment of the contribution made by results to the achievement of the project purpose, andhow assumptions have affected project achievements. This should include specific assessment of thebenefits accruing to target groups, including women and men and identified vulnerable groups such aschildren, the elderly and disabled.d) ImpactThis is the effect of the project on its wider environment, and its contribution to the wider policy or sectorobjectives (as summarised in the project’s overall objective).e) SustainabilityAn assessment of the likelihood of benefits produced by the project to continue to flow after externalfunding has ended. This is with particular reference to factors of ownership by beneficiaries, policysupport, economic and financial factors, socio-cultural aspects, gender equality, appropriate technology,environmental aspects, and institutional and management capacity.Decision options after evaluationDepending on the outcome, timing and objectives of the evaluation, there are some main decision optionsthat are to be made: • continue project implementation as planned, • re-orient/restructure the project, • in the worst case, to stop the project (mid-term evaluation); • modify the design of future projects or programmes in light of lessons learned (ex-post evaluation); or • modify policies, co-operation strategies, and subsequent programming or identification exercises in the case of sector, thematic or cross-sector evaluationsTools for Project Implementation and Management 18
  19. 19. The Logical Framework ApproachThe Logical Framework Approach is an extremely useful tool to support the design and establishment ofeffective monitoring, review and reporting systems. It provides a framework of objectives, indicators (andtargets) and sources of information which should be used to further develop and implement themonitoring, review and reporting system. It provides a list of key assumptions which must be monitoredas part of the project’s risk management arrangements.Administrative and management recordsWithin the CBOs there will be a requirement to keep some basic administrative records of what is beingdone on a day to day, weekly or monthly basis. These records will then often be summarised periodicallyin a management report. Information that may be recorded as part of such administrative records mightinclude: • Financial information – income and expenditure. • Staffing – numbers, location, designation, training received and performance • Procurement and asset records • Service delivery/provision records (e.g. number of households receiving game meat or other inputs, no. of miners receiving training, number of children vaccinated, no. of children attending school, number of households connected to the electricity grid, etc).Regular Review Meeting MinutesRegular reviews may be undertaken more or less regularly, and be more or less formal, dependingprimarily on their purpose and who is expected to participate.Progress reports and updated plansPlans must be regularly reviewed and updated if they are to remain relevant. The preparation of an annualplan provides this opportunity for multi-year projects. The specific sub-headings and the quantity ofinformation provided should be adapted to suit the scope and scale of the project, and to existingmonitoring and reporting systems. Annual plans are required for every multi-year project.Promoting Participation and Ownership by the CommunityLocal ownership of development programmes and projects is a key theme of community development.Participation and ownership are fundamental to ensuring relevance, effectiveness and sustainability.Empowerment is often a key objective of participation i.e. bringing about a more equitable sharing ofpower, increasing the political awareness of disadvantaged groups, and supporting them in taking actionsthat will allow them to take more control of their own futures. Further, people learn best by doing thingsfor themselves. If people are assisted to plan and manage their own affairs the outcomes are morelikely to meet their real needs. Building capacity within local communities and groups is thus an 19
  20. 20. important objective of participatory approaches. Capacity building is also important because it isa precondition for the sustainability of development initiatives.Key principles of participation are:- • Involving people as subjects not objects • Respect for local knowledge and skills • Ensuring influence over development decisions, not simply involvement • A learning process as much as an outcome • An approach and attitude rather than a specific set of technical skillsHIV/AIDS and Gender Mainstreaming in ProjectsDue to the HIV/ AIDS pandemic, CBOs should recognizes the need to mainstream HIV and AIDS in allits interventions so as to create a healthy and safe working environment at the workplace and in thecommunities they work in. All CBOs should consider mainstreaming Gender, HIV and AIDS in theirprogrammes and activities in order to minimize the negative impacts of the pandemic in the long term.Gender mainstreaming is a process of ensuring that in all our work and the way we do it should contributeto gender equality by transforming the balance of power between men and women.PROJECT PROPOSAL WRITING STRUCTURE 20
  21. 21. The following are some of the key elements of a proposal. This section is aimed at helping CBOs to writeproposals for project funding.ContextIn this part of a proposal, the CBO should be able to describe the social, economic, political and culturalbackground from which the project is being initiated. The CBO can collect data from other researchmaterial.Problem statementIn the problem statement section the CBO should provide a description of the specific problem(s) theproject is trying to solve, in order to “make a case” for the project. Furthermore, the project proposalshould point out why a certain issue is a problem for the community or society as a whole, i.e. whatnegative implications affect the target group. There should also be an explanation of the needs of thetarget group that appear as a direct consequence of the described problem. Examples of problems mayinclude limited access to clean water as a result of broken down boreholes or limited access to marketsbecause of poor road network.ActivitiesIn this part of the proposal there is need to outline the activities that will be undertaken to achieve theproject goal and objectives. The activities should be used as strategies for solving the problem. There isalso need to state how these strategies will lead to improvement.RProject goal (or overall objective)The project goal is the ultimate state of affairs that the CBO would desire to see in the community. Thiswill be the long term benefit to the target group or to the community. Some examples of a project goalmight be: raising environmental awareness or improving the quality of life in the community.Project objectivesThe objectives should address the core problem in terms of the benefits to be received by the projectbeneficiaries or target group as a direct result of the project. The objectives may be defined as: improvingthe water supply in the village and reducing by X the rate of infections. Project objectives provide a moredetailed breakdown of the project goal. A project will likely have multiple objectives.Project resultsResults describe the services or products to be delivered to the intended beneficiaries. The results aremore detailed than the objectives and the goal, and should be possible to measure through the use ofobjective indicators. The results should address the main causes of the problem that the target groupfaces. To ensure relevant results, project management should have correctly identified the group’s needs.Examples of results are as follows: increased number of households connected to the water supplysystem; increased number of water taps in the village. The results of the project can be tied back to theproject’s objectives.Target group 21
  22. 22. There is need to define the target group and show how it will benefit from the project. The project shouldprovide a detailed description of the size and characteristics of the target groups, and especially of directproject beneficiaries. The criteria for target group analysis may be ethnic composition, gender, age, etc.WorkplanThe workplan should include specific information and explanations of each of the planned projectactivities. The duration of the project should be clearly stated, with considerable detail on the beginningand the end of the project.The implementing organisationThis section should describe the capabilities of the organisation by referring to its capacity and previousproject record. Describe why exactly your organisation is the most appropriate to run the project, itsconnection to the local community, the constituency behind the organisation and what kind of expertisethe organisation can provide. If other partners are involved in implementation provide some informationon their capacity as well.BudgetA budget is an itemised summary of an organisation’s expected income and expenses over a specifiedperiod of time. It is nevertheless essential that financial officers comply clearly and punctually with afunding organisation’s budgeting and reporting requirements.Monitoring and evaluationThe project proposal should also indicate: how and when the project management team will conductactivities to monitor the project’s progress; which methods will be used to monitor and evaluate; and whowill do the evaluation. STRUCTURE OF PROJECT PROPOSAL Context/Background Problem Statement Objectives Activities Results Target Group Workplan Implementing organisation Budget Monitoring and Evaluation 22
  23. 23. GOVERNANCE ISSUESObjectivesThe objectives of this section are as follows; • Ensure that Community Based Organisations (CBOs) comply with their constitutions or Deeds of Trust • Improve transparency and accountability • Enhance image of the organisation • Improve community buy-in into CBOs’ projects • Ensure resolution and or prevention of potential internal conflicts • Ensure continued commitment to the mission and vision of the CBOsWhat is Governance?In this handbook governance refers to the legal and administrative arrangements used to manage a CBO.Governance relates to the management, administration and leadership structures within a CBO. Besidesstructure, governance also establishes the process of managing or exercising authority within a CBO. Interms of process, governance relates to the manner in which a Board of Trustees for example directs aCBO.Why is Governance Important?Good governance ensures that the CBO successfully meets its objectives and goals. It is good governancethat appraises the performance of the management arm of the CBO and ensures that policies that enhancegrowth are put in place. Without good governance, a CBO is likely to collapse due to internal fighting,lack of a credible vision, absence of robust policies and lack of transparency and accountability. Theimportance of governance can be better appreciated by considering its responsibilities. Governance isexpected to establish over-riding principles and objectives, develop policy and regulatory frameworks,maintain the capacity to learn and change, manage stakeholder interaction, enforce decisions and defineconditions for the allocation of authority and resources. 23
  24. 24. Common Institutional and Administrative ArrangementsMost CBOs are composed on different organizational structures. The majority have advisors or patrons,Board of Trustees and a secretariat. Others have some key documents that guide the management of theCBO. Below is a detailed explanation of these structures, their functions and how they should dischargetheir duties.Board of TrusteesMost CBOs that are registered as common law trusts, commonly referred to in Zimbabwe as communitytrusts. They have a Board of Trustees established in terms of the Deed of Trust. The Board of Trustees ismade up of Trustees. The Board is in charge and directly accountable for the overall direction andpolicies of the organisation. It is the Board that has the authority to develop, implement and ensureadherence to policies. Ideally, the Board should be representative of the community although it isimportant to take into account other critical skills set in-order to ensure continued growth of theorganisation. In addition to being in charge to overall policy and direction, the Board also has the duty ofmanaging stakeholder relationships. This means that it is the duty of the Board to manage the relationshipof the Community Based Organisation (CBO) with development partners, funding agencies, government,local authorities and the community. The Board, while being the main governance arm of theorganisation, is ultimately responsible to the community which the CBO serves. The community is thebeneficiary of the CBO projects.Powers of the BoardThe Board of Trustees has the following powers; to purchase, lease or sell any property, to borrow andraise money for the Trust, to open and operate banking and savings accounts, to accept any donation tothe trust, to employ and remunerate such officers as the Board may deem necessary to fulfill the objectsof the Trust, to appoint the head of the secretariat of the trust who may be called the Executive Director,to revoke, amend or modify any of the rules for administration of the Trust, to enter into all such contractsas shall serve to further the purposes and objects of the Trust, to cause a proper set of books and accountsto be kept relevant to the affairs of the Trust which books and accounts will be audited annually by anAuditor to be appointed by the Board of Trustees.In summary the responsibilities of the Board of Trustees in most cases include: • Determining the organisation’s mission and purpose • Selecting the Executive Director • Providing proper financial oversight • Ensuring adequate resources (this includes taking an active role in fundraising) • Ensuring legal and ethical integrity (ensuring transparency and accountability) • Ensuring effective and results driven organisational planning 24
  25. 25. • Enhancing the organisation’s public standing • Determining, monitoring and strengthening the organisation’s programs and services • Supporting the Executive Director and assessing the Executive Director’s performance.Another key point to note is that trustees of smaller organisations may, by necessity, find themselvesmore involved in the day to day operations of the organisation as the organisation will be growing andfacing capacity constraints to recruit other people to serve as the secretariat.Board MeetingsThe above responsibilities are largely carried out through the holding of meetings of the Board asrequired by the Deed. It is during these meetings that discussions and adoption of resolutions take place.The Board of Trustees acts as a body and individual Board members generally have no authority to bindthe organisation or take action on its behalf unless authority has been given by the Board. It is however,important to note that some of the work of the Board may be accomplished outside of Board meetings asBoard members are expected to serve as advocates for the organisation in various fora. In-order to beeffective, Board members may need to meet with donors, the community and employees outside thenormal Board meetings.General Meetings: The Board of Trustees shall meet to consider and administer the affairs of the Trust atsuch times as they may determine from time to time. Some Deeds prescribe that the Board must meet notless than four times in each year. In most cases the notice of every meeting is given in writing or sent bye-mail or ordinary post to each Trustee not less than seven (7) days before the date of the meeting to givetrustees time to prepare. The notice will state the date, place and hour of the meeting and the nature of thebusiness to be transacted. The Board is required to cause proper minutes of the proceedings andresolutions adopted during meeting to be kept and entered in a book provided for the purpose. In mostcases the minutes are taken by the Secretary of the Board.Special Meetings: These could be meeting that may be convened by the Board to deal with urgent issuesaffecting the operations of the CBO or community trust.Annual General Meeting: The Trustees may call for an Annual General Meeting of the members of theTrust once in every year. An annual general meeting may be called 30 days or such other time the trusteesfeel is adequate before the meeting. The notice will specify the business of the meeting. The meetingmay be attended by community members who are the beneficiaries of the Trust.Voting and Decisions of Board of Trustees: In most cases the quorum at an Annual General Meeting orGeneral Meeting or special meeting to proceed may be not be less than two thirds of the members.However, in many cases trustees reach decisions by consensus. In some cases it can be the majority of thetotal number of trustees available. If there is no consensus on an issue they may resort to a vote. If thedecision is left to a vote each Trustee shall have only one vote either by show of hands or even secretballot. Further, in the event of tie of votes on any issues some trusts may give the Chairperson a castingvote which shall decide the issue and will be final. 25
  26. 26. Sample AgendaThe agenda for the Board meeting must be circulated in advance and can take the format below 1. Opening of meeting and introductions (Chair) 2. Approval of minutes of previous meeting (secretary) 3. Reports and discussions ( the chair calls for reports from the treasurer, executive director , committees etc) 4. Old business to be brought up (chair) A. Unfinished business from previous meetings B. Motions that were tabled from previous meetings 5. New business-motions to be made for voting by the Board (Chair) 6. AdjournmentBuilding and Maintaining an Effective BoardAn effective Board of Trustees understands the mission of the organisation, helps move the organisation’smission forward and understands and operates in accordance with legal responsibilities.Dysfunctional or ineffective boards are typically characterised by one or more of the following: • The Board does not have or does not abide by a regular meeting schedule • Nothing much happens at Board meetings and many Board members do not attend • Trustees do not understand the mission of the organisation and are not passionate about it • The Trustees do not understand the financial underpinning of the organisation • Trustees attempt to micro-manage staff • There is a lack of trust and confidence between the Board and the Management • Trustees speak disrespectfully of each other and of management • A few Trustees dominate Board meetings • The organisation is floundering or dying 26
  27. 27. Below are some key questions that may assist the Board Members in ensuring good governance ofthe CBO.Checklist for the Board of Trustees; 1. Are you committed to helping advance the organisation’s mission and are you aware of the time and resource commitments involved? 2. Do you have a copy of the organisation’s Deed of Trust and the mission statement and have you read these? Does the Board periodically review these documents to make sure they are complying with them? 3. Is there a Code of Conduct and have you gone through the document? 4. Are the financial performance and budget documents accessible, understandable and regularly monitored by the Board? 5. Is the Board functioning effectively, with regular well attended and well run meetings addressing important issues? 6. Does the Board review its own effectiveness? 7. Is there a Board orientation program or manual? 8. Are key staff members formally evaluated by the Chief Executive and those evaluations shared with the Board?Secretariat/Staff MembersExecutive DirectorThe Board of Trustees appoints the Executive Director who is ultimately responsible for carrying out thewishes of the Board and overseeing the implementation of projects. The Executive Director isaccountable for the work of staff and supports the work of the Board.StaffThe staff is responsible for implementing projects and programmes that meet the needs of the community.The staff does the work to ensure the realisation of the organisation’s objectives and goals and isaccountable to the Executive Director. 27
  28. 28. SAMPLE ORGANOGRAM Advisor/Patrons Board of Trustees Executive DirectorProject Officers Accountant Project assistant Messenger/Security guard/General hand worker 28
  29. 29. Key Governance DocumentsDeed of TrustThe Deed of Trust is the main governance document within CBOs that are registered as common lawtrusts or community trusts. The deed establishes the official status of the CBO as a non-profitorganisation. It is the deed that sets out the ‘constitution’ of the organisation. The Deed outlines the basicoperating rules for the organisation and spells out how the CBO is structured and governed. As anexample, the Deed sets out the minimum and maximum number of persons making up the Board ofTrustees, the number of times the Board has to meet, the setting up of Board Committees and the decisionmaking processes within the Board (e.g. voting). It is important for all the members of the Board ofTrustees to have full knowledge of the Deed and to strictly adhere to what is set out within the Deed interms of election of Board members and holding of Board meetings among other requirements.Code of Conduct or Internal RegulationsThe Code of Conduct helps to define what the organisation expects of Board Members and the Board as awhole and what the Board expects of the management. The Code of Conduct may help the Board ofTrustees to deal with real and perceived conflicts and conflicts of interest within the organisation. It mayalso help provide guidelines for dealing with sensitive information with other constituencies,organisations and the press. It may also establish disciplinary procedures. 29
  30. 30. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENTThis section is intended to lay the basis for sound financial controls for community based organisations sothat the funds are maintained prudently and conservatively. It aims at simplifying the financial and recordkeeping practices. The section sets out some of the basic financial procedures, financial controls andmonitoring procedures designed to protect funds from misuse and loss and for safeguarding the assets ofthe organizationDrafting a Project BudgetA project budget is normally drafted during the project development phase as an estimate of the potentialcosts of implementing project activities. What this means is that all project activities should be budgetedin order to achieve project objectives. Financial resources are a key input for all projects. In most casesthe following costs are budgeted for e.g. money for holding a consultation workshop to pay for the venueand food for participants, salaries which will be used for paying staff members implementing the projectand administration costs which include funds for paying other expenses to be incurred by the organizationsuch as rentals.Project ContractMost donors draft a contract or agreement that will set out the terms and conditions on which the fundsawarded to an organization should be used. In most cases these terms and conditions restate theexpectations of the donor based on what the recipient organization would have stated it would accomplishwith the funds. The contract normally state when and how the grant recipient should report to the donor.Reports that are normally required are financial reports and the donor will outline the reporting formatand the dates or frequency of reporting. Donor conditions and requirements vary and are not uniform so itis important for the recipient or grantee to closely and thoroughly read the contract to enhance compliancewith the requirements.Bank AccountsCommunity Based Organisations should open bank accounts. If the organisation has more than one donoror projects, it is advisable to open separate bank accounts for each project or donor. The purpose ofsetting up separate bank accounts is to facilitate tracking and monitoring of expenditures incurred inconnection with grants. The bank accounts shall not be overdrawn. An account shall be deemedoverdrawn when the cashbook shows a credit balance. If the organization is to have a bank account, thereshould be a panel of more than 3 signatories, of which at least 3 can sign. Signatories should be at leastthe Chairperson, Treasurer and Secretary. 30
  31. 31. GOLDEN RULES OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 1. Always receipt all monies received 2. Always obtain receipts for payments made out 3. All financial dealings should be supported by a written record 4. Avoid situation where you are seen to be the beneficiary of all decisions or transactions facilitated by yourself 5. Avoid leaving organization funds in insecure locations. 6. Avoid mixing organization funds with personal funds 7. Never borrow organization funds for personal use without authority 8. Avoid keeping organizational funds at home 9. Ensure that every transaction or decision you facilitate is transparent and does not raise questions about your integrity 10. Keep incoming and outgoing money separatelyKEY BOOKS OF ACCOUNTS TO BE KEPTReceipt BookThis is a book in which all income received are receipted before use. All amounts not spent, (Change)should be receipted for accountability. The information should appear on the receipt: the name of theperson or organisation from which the money will be coming from, amount, date and purpose.CashbookA cashbook should be maintained. This is to account for all the receipts received and all the expenditureincurred. Payments in the cash book should be subdivided e.g. travel expenses, project expenses,stationery etc. In the cash book there are two sections, that is, the receipts side and the payments side. Thein information to be contained on the payment side should be the date on which the payment has beenmade, the name of the organisation to which the payment will be made, description of the goods orservice being paid for and the amount. On the receipt side the re should be the date on the money hasbeen received, the name of the organisation from which the money will be coming from, purpose for themoney received and the amount received.Petty CashMoney should be set aside for Petty Cash, i.e. if the organization has a bank account. This is to cater forexpenses of small amounts. The imprest system should be used whereby the total amount of actual cashavailable in the cashbox and the total of petty cash vouchers and receipts amount to the petty cash floatset by the organization. The custodian of the petty cash box is the treasurer and it should be locked in asafe. Limits of expenses that qualify to be of petty cash should be set by the organization. Surprise pettycash counts should be done by the Chairperson as often as possible and he should sign for it to showisolation of responsibility. A petty cash register should be maintained where all the payments made usingthe petty cash and all the reimbursements made will be recorded. This will also be used to reconcile thepetty cash where reimbursements are to be made. 31
  32. 32. Asset RegisterThe Asset Register is a record of all the property, plant and equipment owned by the organization. Theassets must be separately identified in the assets register as those acquired under each of the projects.Asset register shall contain the following details: date when asset was purchased or donated, full details ofasset including description and serial/registration number, cost of asset and place where asset is kept.Invoice bookThe invoice book is used to charge a customer who would have bought goods or services from theorganisation. The invoice will include the date, type, quantity and amount of the goods or servicespurchased.Requisition BookThis is used internally by staff members to make their requests for goods of services to be made availablefor a project. The requisition form will be completed stating the description and quantity of goods orservices needed. This should also be approved before quotations are sourced.Order BookThis is a book in which a request to the supplier is written for the supply of goods or services. An order iswritten and approved after the quotations have been approved. On the order form, the quantity ,description and price of the goods or service are written. This will then be given to the supplier so that hecan supply the goods or services.EXPENDITURE CYCLE• In cases where there is no involvement of invoices or receipts, an acknowledgement of receipt should be prepared and it should be attached to the requisition. It should be signed by the person receiving the money, and he should include his identity number and the date of receiving the money.• For major purchases there should be 3 quotations for which the most favorable quotation is selected. For a purchase to be considered major there has to be a limit for the organisation to distinguish petty cash purchases from major purchases, eg if the set limit for petty cash purchases is US $100.00, then all purchases of above US $100.0 will need to have 3 quotations.• Petty cash voucher should be used for amounts tat are classified by the organization as petty cash.• Change received for individuals’ should be receipted first before use.• Salaries: A schedule of salaries should be prepared by the Treasurer and signed for authorization by the Chairperson before processing. Salaries schedule should be in line with statutory requirements such as payment of income tax, national social security scheme payments, AIDS Levy or voluntary medical aid schemes. Tax deductions should be deducted if the gross salaries are within the tax bracket. There is also need to note that all allowances are taxable. 32
  33. 33. REPORTINGIn order to ensure that the community based organization fulfills donor requirements and account to itsbeneficiaries. Financial reports furnish the funding partner or donor with the progress being made by thegrantee in line with the project proposal and indicate the use of funds and compliance with grantagreement. The following reports are to be compiled by the financial officer or treasurer;• Financial Reports: The financial report shows the amount of funds that were received for certain project activities, amounts spent and the balances left for those budgeted activities. Financial reports can be prepared monthly, quarterly or annual. E.g. may be required by donors and should be drafted in accordance with donor requirements. The format is usually shown in the grant agreement. However, in the majority of cases financial reports should show the following details:Activity Budgeted Expenses for this Cumulative Balance Amount period ExpensesConsultation $3,000.00 $1,500.00 $2,100.00 $900.00meetingFinancial AuditThe Community Based Organisation shall annually contract with an independent auditing firm, to auditthe annual financial records. The purpose of an audit is to get a reasonable assurance that the financialstatements are free of material misstatements. An audit is also done to assess the accounting principlesused and the significant estimates made by management as well as evaluating the overall financialstatement presentation. At the end of each financial year the organization is expected to engage anexternal auditor to carry out an independent financial audit.BOOKKEEPING AND RECORDKEEPING • Cashbooks and ledgers should be properly maintained • Requisitions should be filed in a sequential order • Grant agreements and quarterly reports should be filed in their own file • Minutes should also be filed in their own file according to dates • Security and Custody: Security items include safe keys, vehicle registration books, spare keys, order books, cashbooks, letterheads, asset registers, rubber stamps, receipt books, cheque books. It is the responsibility of the Finance Officer or Treasurer to ensure that these security items are secured and kept safely. • Employee Files: This is a file which contains the information relating to the employee and the information contained in this file is very confidential therefore it should be kept in a very secure place. The following should be contained in each employee file, employment contract, Curriculum Vitae, Educational certificates and national identity card. 33
  34. 34. GLOSSARYAdvocacy: Advocacy can include many activities that a person or organization undertakes to influence change of policy or practice as well as allocation of resources within political, economic, and social systems and institutions. It may include media campaigns, public speaking, and publishing research or litigation2.Budget: A budget is a forecast of expenses drawn up by an organisation based on the project proposal. It outlines the project costs and administration costs that the organization expects to spend. Most organizational budgets include costs such as hiring the venue for meetings, transport hire, communication, rentals and salaries.Cultural Rights: Cultural rights are normally claimed by groups of people. Cultural rights focus on groups such as religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies. Cultural rights include a group’s ability to preserve its way of life, such as child rearing, continuation of language, and security of its economic base in the nation, in which it is located. The cultural rights movement has been popularized because much traditional cultural knowledge has commercial value, like ethno-medicine, cosmetics, cultivated plants, foods, folklore, arts, crafts, songs, dances, costumes, and rituals3.Environmental Rights: The content of environmental rights includes many elements that the state is required to fulfill. The rights include the right for people to a clean environment that is not harmful to health or well-being. This means government must take necessary protective steps and measures that prevent pollution and damage to the environment, promote conservation, and balance economic, social and environmental development. In particular, it is important that people access clean water, breathe fresh air, access and derive benefit from natural resources. Environmental rights also include access to information on environmental decision making processes, public participation in environmental decision making processes and access to justice when their environmental rights are violated.Economic, Social and2 Wikipedia; www.wikipedia.com3 Ibid 34
  35. 35. Cultural Rights: These rights in their nature require the state to provide services to the people. They are also human rights. Examples include, the the right to work, the right to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work, the right to join and form trade unions and to strike, the right to social security, the right to protection of the family, the right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food, clothing, and housing and the continuous improvement of living conditions, the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of mental and physical health, the right to education and the right to have culture protected.Financial Management: Financial management is planning, directing, monitoring, organizing and controlling the monetary resources of an organizationGrant Agreement: Is an agreement or contract that entered into by a donor and an organisation that will be implementing a project. The agreement set out the terms and conditions within which the project will be implemented. In most cases the agreement states the duration of the project, the amount of funds provided, the financial and narrative reporting requirements and the expected results as indicated in the proposal submitted by the implementing organisation.Indicators: Indicators are the benchmarks, pointers, measures, numbers, facts, opinions and perceptions used as yardstick to measure progress towards achieving the project objectives. Indicators are used to determine the degree to which results are being achieved in a project. They provide evidence that a result has been achieved or a signal that progress is being made towards achieving the result. They are also used to monitor or check the success of the project.Petty Cash: This is a sum of money that is kept at the office to cater for expenses of small amounts that may arise. An organisation should set aside a specific amount of money as petty cash. An organisation can set a limit on the petty cash that can be kept at the office to cater for eventualities.Project Cycle: Entails the various stages of a project which encompass the project design, implementation, monitoring and closure.Project Goal: A project goal is the vision of society that the project will contribute to through implementing the project. 35
  36. 36. Project Monitoring: It means to continuously check progress of project activities and finances over a period of time. This will help project staff to know how things are going, as well as giving early warning of possible problems and difficulties in project implementation. 36