Horror History 1900-1929• 1919- The Cabinet Of Dr Cagliari , struck a chord with German audiences of the time.• 1922 – Vampire films are released by Germans• Nosferatu commonly known as Dracula shocked audiences in 1922 this was directed by F.W. Murnau.• 1925- The Phantom of the Opera, the audience is lured into looking at a hideous creature.• 1929- many movies made to be put on hold because of the wall street crash.
Horror History Early 30s• In the 1930s universal studios created ‘gothic horror’ films.• Dracula was the first movie to include sound.• 1931- A film called ‘Frankenstein’ is made and is known to have the greatest make-up for monsters.• 1931- ‘Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’ used the Marnoulian irritation filter for the first time.• Gangster movies and Waxworks horror begin by Warner brothers.• King Kong (1933) was hugely successful and has remained a favourite with film makers and audiences ever since its release.
Horror History Late 30s• The start of sadistic films began filming• Frankensteins wife is produced by James Whale and he also directed ‘The old dark house’• The German film to contain real circus performers ‘Freaks’• The 3rd instalment of the Frankenstein series is made (Frankensteins son)
1940’s- 1950’s• The 1940s saw the releases of sequels to popular horror films that were made earlier.• The film ‘Cat People’ is made, this movie used a build up of tension to scare audiences.• The uses of creatures began to appear in horror films.• 1950s was the start of Alien invasion movies.
Mid 50’s• Horror came to Britain (hammer horror)• Bray film studios were used by many films• The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms (1953) encouraged the studios to invest in further monster pictures.• The Quatermass Experiment was made in 1954
Late 50s• The first film to contain violence and gore was ‘The Curse of Frankenstein’ (1957)• Supernatural and physiological film came also in 1957 with Night of the Demon• A re-boot of ‘Dracula’ was filmed in 1958, this was one of the first films to contain sexual elements and props. This version contained dramatic scenes.
60s• The British hammer films continued to be popular.• The start of Psychological horror began in Hollywood. These were made by Alfred Hitchcock and Michael Powell.• Great tension was produced by Alfred Hitchcocks ‘Psycho’ This lead Hitchcock to direct films like ‘The Birds’ in 1963.• Powell directed ‘Peeping Tom in 1960.• 1960 The Wasp Woman successfully manages to gratify the drive-in crowd.• The Haunting directed by Robert Wise delivered a soundtrack that contrasts silence and sound to make fear through suggestion. This gave it a good effect as this gives the audience a sound and picture.• In 1964 ‘The Tomb of Ligeia’ used real footage.
60s PartII• Horror films had to be made cheaply.• In 1968 ‘Rosemary’s Baby’ was considered one of the scariest movies. The plot is about a young couple you move into a New York flat, not knowing their neighbour are Satanists.• Occult horror began and continued into the 70’s.
70’s• Occult horror became very popular.• The Wicker man was set on a remote island in Scotland in 1973.• The Exorcist was voted the scariest movie of all time in 1999. The special effects seem dazzling even by todays standards.• Jaws in 1975 gave us a monster that was, uniquely, neither human nor supernatural nor the result of mutation. It gave the audience the fear that sharks are out there, that they are real and could be attacking swimmers at this very moment.• In 1976 The omen is written and were so popular that they were made into several sequels.• 1979, The Amityville Horror was made and this was about a haunted house that one family had to escape from, this was supposedly based on a true story- scaring audiences further.• Gore fests featured in the 70’s for example ‘The Texas Chainsaw Massacre.• Leather face became the most iconic monster. (Texas Chainsaw Massacre)• Halloween in 1978 was tension filled to have an impact on the audience.
70’s Part II• Zombie movies were created in the late 70’s.• Zombie movies were made into the early 80’s• The producer of the film ‘Lust for a Vampire’ gave advice on what a good horror should include e.g. A lot of murders, a lot of blood, a good villian, a good hero, curtain the amount of sex, lots of action and lots of pretty girls.
80’s – 90’s• Nightmare on elm street and Scream were produced in a modern self awareness horror.• In a typical modern horror ‘no-one gets mobile signal and the killer never dies’.• In 1999 a new genre of mockumentary started with ‘The Blair witch project’ this was made cheaply and made the sense of reality and fiction unclear.
90’s- 2000+• Japanese horror began (The Ring- 1998).• After this came re-boots of Japanese horrors.• 2000 + re-booting of classic horrors such as ‘Halloween’ were created.• Final Destination created a new sense of fear, there was no physical villian on these films just death. This grim premise is actually a very effective crowd pleaser when properly handled, and has effectively sustained five entries in the franchise.
2009-2012• Mockumentary has become quite popular now ranging from paranormal and demoniac films. E.g. Paranormal Activity 1-4 and The Last Exorcism – The Devil Inside.• Films based around gore and futuristic circumstances. ‘The Cabin in the Woods’ (2011) this gave audiences a more computer generated experience.• Films have now gone back to old roots and started demoniac films again. ‘Sinister’ (2012) and ‘Apartment 143’.• Sequels to earlier films have been made also. ‘Resident Evil’, ‘Paranormal Activity’.
Why Horror Changed the way it did…• The genre of Horror changed the way it did because, Horror is now fed on the audiences favouritism, how well the spectators enjoyed the film and how well they responded to it. For example ‘Paranormal Activity’ was very popular in 2009 because of its originality and realistic environment, therefore producers saw that it could be made into many sequels hence PA 2, 3 and 4 it was also a good money making project.• Since 2009 most film companies and producers have now started to use ‘Found footage’ in their horror films starting a sort of found footage trend.• Most films rely on Demons, Cults, ghosts or paranormal beings and things that cannot be seen, whereas before in the 1930s a physical being like Frankenstein was referred to as ‘scary’.