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Remote Sensing Applications in Agriculture in Pakistan


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"Remote sensing is the science of acquiring, processing, and Interpreting images and related data without physical contact with object that are obtained from ground based, air or space-borne instruments that record the interaction between target and electromagnetic radiation."

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Remote Sensing Applications in Agriculture in Pakistan

  1. 1. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE Malik Ghulam Asghar M. Phil. Agronomy Department of Agronomy Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan
  2. 2. Introduction “Remote” means “away” Remote sensing means sensing things from a distance. “Remote sensing is science of acquiring, processing, and Interpreting images and related data without physical contact with object that are obtained from ground based, air or space-borne instruments that record the interaction between target and electromagnetic radiation.” Campbell (1987)
  3. 3. Remote sensing platforms 3) Satellite based2) Air based1) Ground based
  4. 4. Satellite Based platform The path followed by a satellite is referred to as its orbit. As a satellite revolves around the Earth, the sensor "sees“ certain portion of the Earth's surface. The area imaged on the surface, is referred to as the swath.
  5. 5. Process of Remote Sensing (A) Energy source or illumination (B) Radiation and the atmosphere (C) Interaction with the target (D) Recording of energy by the sensor (E) Transmission, reception, and processing (F) Interpretation and analysis (G) Application
  6. 6. Types of Remote Sensing Passive remote sensing is a system which measures energy that is naturally available. For example : Sun This can only take place during the time when the sun is illuminating the Earth.
  7. 7. Types of Remote Sensing Active remote sensing provide their own energy source for illumination. The sensor emits radiation which is directed toward the target to be investigated. The radiation reflected from that target is detected and measured by the sensor.
  8. 8. Radiation – Target Interaction There are three (3) forms of interaction that can take place when energy strikes, or is incident (I) upon the surface. 1) Absorption (A) 2) Transmission (T) 3) Reflection (R) ➢Specular reflection ➢Diffuse reflection
  9. 9. 1) Specular reflection When a surface is smooth we get specular or mirror-like reflection where all of the energy is directed away from the surface in a single direction. 2) Diffused reflection Diffuse reflection occurs when the surface is rough and the energy is reflected almost uniformly in all directions. Most earth surface features lie somewhere between perfectly diffuse reflectors. Types of Reflection
  10. 10. Spectral signature for vegetation A signature is that which gives an information about an object to its identity. Identity is whatever makes an entity recognizable.
  11. 11. Spectral signature for vegetation 1) Chlorophyll A general characteristic of vegetation is its green colour caused by the pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll reflects green energy more than red and blue energy, which gives plants green colour. 2) Leaf Thickness The major difference in leaf reflectance between species, are dependent upon leaf thickness. Thick leaf Thin leaf
  12. 12. Spectral signature for vegetation 3) Leaf Shape Needle-leaf trees canopies reflect significantly less near infrared radiation compared to broad-leaf vegetation. 4) Crop Growth Stage Immature leaves contain less chlorophyll than older leaves, they reflect more visible light and less infrared radiation.
  13. 13. Spectral signature for vegetation 5) Leaf Maturity Reflectance percentage vary with respect to leaf maturity.
  14. 14. Spectral signature for vegetation 6) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) “It is the ratio of the difference of the near-infrared and red reflectance, over the sum of both.”. NDVI = (NIR - Red) / (NIR + Red) Where, NDVI = Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NIR = Near Infrared Radiations Red = Red Radiations
  16. 16. 1) Monitoring of Crop Status Identifying stressed plants
  17. 17. 1) Monitoring of Crop Status Identifying stressed plants
  18. 18. 1) Monitoring of Crop Status Identifying stressed plants
  19. 19. 1) Monitoring of Crop Status Estimating water content from remote sensing Source: Wikimedia Commons and US Agricultural Research Service
  20. 20. 1) Monitoring of Crop Status Combating disease and pests Mapping of Mississippi River delta, identifying the most probable areas where insects might attack. Source: Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 108 (3), March 2000
  21. 21. 1) Monitoring of Crop Status Combating disease and pests A moth larvae eating a leaf. The damage can be detected with remote sensing data, by estimating the loss of leaf area. Source: Mel Evans, Associated Press
  22. 22. 2) Crop Yield Estimation
  23. 23. 3) Crop Identification
  24. 24. 4) Precision Agriculture “Precision agriculture (PA) or site specific crop management (SSCM) is a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops.”
  25. 25. 4) Precision Agriculture Identifying fertilization and pesticide requirements The Variable Rate Treatment (VRT) is a system that regulates the rate of pesticides or fertilizers, releasing only the required amount over the areas or the field that are in need of the chemicals.
  26. 26. 4) Precision Agriculture Precision Crop Management (PCM) It is an agricultural management system that aims to provide to the crop what it needs, when it needs it and where it needs it. It requires the collection of data regarding the crop and the soil and the identification of the changes that occur in the field as time goes by.
  28. 28. Remote sensing in Pakistan In 2005 Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MINFA) opted to invest in advanced technologies for gathering spatial information on agriculture/ crops sector. For this purpose, MINFA invited SUPARCO, the National Space Agency of Pakistan, to develop: • crop area algorithms • crop yield models based on the application of satellite remote sensing, GIS technology, crop agronomy and agro-meteorology.
  29. 29. Remote sensing in Pakistan Satellite based Crop Monitoring System (Pak-SCMS) SUPARCO in collaboration with MINFA, started developing a satellite based crop Monitoring system during 2005. To provide fast track and accurate information on: ▪ Crop types ▪ Cover area Agricultural mask of Pakistan was developed based on high resolution data Data was acquired during peak growth seasons: • February for Rabi crops • September for Kharif crops.
  30. 30. Remote sensing in Pakistan
  31. 31. Conclusion ▪ Remote sensing technology can be used: ✓ To assess various abiotic and biotic stresses in different crop. ✓To identify various crops ✓This can also be used in yield forecasting ✓This technology can help in agricultural decision making
  32. 32. Thank you ! Any Question ..?