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Concept of Water Management for Crops in Pakistan

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"Water Management is the integrated process of intake, conveyance, regulation, measurement, distribution, application and use of irrigation water and drainage of excess water with proper amount and at right time for the purpose of increasing crop production and water economy in conjunction with improved agricultural practices."

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Concept of Water Management for Crops in Pakistan

  1. 1. CONCEPT OF WATER MANAGEMENT Presented to Sir Dr. Irfan DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY
  2. 2. Group Members 1) Malik Ghulam Asghar AG-A-13-71 2) M. Jahanzaib Shafi AG-B-13-32 3) Nabila Hussain AG-A-13-21 4) Hasnain Naseer AG-A-13-40 5) Rizwan Qurashi AG-A-13-48 6) Ifran Haider AG-A-13-14
  3. 3. Outline 1) Importance of water for plants 2) What is water Management 3) Components of Water Management 4) Why to manage irrigation water 5) Water Resources of Pakistan 6) Water Management Practices a) On Farm Water Management b) Soil Management c) Crop Management 7) Water Management in Rainfed areas
  4. 4. Why Plants Need Water Water forms over 90% of the plant body by green or fresh weight basis. Plants require water for: 1) Uptake of Nutrients 2) Maintain their structure through turgidity 3) For the process of Photosynthesis 4) Water is a constituent of protoplasm 5) Water is essential for the germination 6) For the conversion of starch to sugar 7) Water helps in the transpiration 8) Regulates the temperature of plants
  5. 5. Water Management “The integrated process of intake, conveyance, regulation, measurement, distribution, application and use of irrigation water and drainage of excess water with proper amount and at right time for the purpose of increasing crop production and water economy in conjunction with improved agricultural practices”
  6. 6. Major Components There are two major components of Water Management : Irrigation Drainage Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil essential for plants growth Drainage is the removal of excess water from the field
  7. 7. Why to Manage the Water Shortage of Water Excess of Water Drought Floods Non-Uniform Distribution of Water round the year
  8. 8. Why to Manage the Water Different water regime (Level) of Crops Uncertainty of Rainfall Intensive Cropping to meet the food requirements Cultivation of high yielding varieties require more water
  9. 9. Parameters Pakistan (Million Hectare) Punjab (Million Hectare) Geographical Area 79.61 20.63 Total Cultivated Area 22.51 12.53 Total Irrigated Area 17.37 11.75 Total Rainfed Area 5.14 0.771 Total Culturable Waste 8.20 1.60 Agricultural Area Status
  10. 10. Water Resources of Pakistan
  11. 11. Surface Water Glacier, Watersheds, Rivers, Canals Annual River Flow 142 MAF Divert Arabian Sea 38 MAF Diverted to Canals 104 MAF
  12. 12. Ground Water Natural springs, wells, tube wells Annual Ground Water 41 MAF Application Losses 12 MAF Available for Crops 29 MAF
  13. 13. Precipitation Rainfall, dew, mist/fog, hail, snow Annual Rainfall 13 MAF Application Losses 4 MAF Available for Crops 9 MAF
  14. 14. Year 2004 (Million Hectare) 2025 (Million Hectare) Availability 104 104 Requirement 115 135 Shortfall 11 31 Pakistan’s Water Scenario for 2025 How to minimize water losses to meet our actual requirement Source: Ten Year Perspective Development Plan 2001-11
  15. 15. Water Management Practices
  16. 16. Water Management Practices 1) On Farm Water Management 2) Soil Management 3) Crop Management
  17. 17. 1) On Farm Water Management  Watercourse Improvement  High Efficiency Irrigation System
  18. 18. 2) Soil Management  Laser Land Leveling  Mulching  Use of Organic Matter
  19. 19.  Sowing Method  Weed Control  Suitable plant Species 3) Crop Management
  20. 20. Water Management In Rainfed Areas
  21. 21. Water Harvesting for Agriculture Micro catchments Micro Catchments are a common technique used in agriculture to collect surface run-off, increase water infiltration and prevent soil erosion. Small Pits Small pits are made before rain, after rain they fill with water and water infiltrate in the soil which is later available for crops.
  22. 22. Contouring Terracing “Growing of Crops parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope” “Broad flat steps are made on steep soils at right angel so that flat surface is available to grow crops”
  23. 23. Water is Life Save it ! No Water No Life
  24. 24. Thank you ! Any Question ..?

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