CONNIE SIM SIEW YUNG (PGP110021)  GHIVITHA d/o KALIMUTHU  (PGP 110004) PRASHENA NAIR d/o PREBAKARRAN (PGP110011)
 
WHAT ARE SURVEYS ? WRITING GOOD SURVEYS DESIGNING YOUR OWN DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
WHAT ARE SURVEYS ? <ul><li>Approach   used to gather & describe :  </li></ul><ul><li>  (i) characteristics </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Surveys typically take the form of : </li></ul><ul><li>(a)  interviews </li></ul><ul><li>(b)  questionnaires </li>...
  CHARACTERISTICS OF    INTERVIEWS
CHARACTERISTICS OF    INTERVIEWS  (cont)
  Personal interviews <ul><ul><li>(a)Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
QUESTIONNAIRES <ul><li>What is a questionnaire? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formalized schedule for collecting data from respond...
QUESTIONNAIRES
 
Mail questionnaires <ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low in cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
SURVEY QUESTION <ul><li>Developing a focused and effective questionnaire will help you to efficiently and accurately pinpo...
<ul><li>(b)The Multiple Choice Questions </li></ul><ul><li>*  consists of single or multiple answers </li></ul><ul><li>Ex:...
  (c) Likert Scale Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Likert_scale
<ul><li>  (d) Rank Order Scaling </li></ul><ul><li>* ranked based upon a specific characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Bas...
<ul><li>  (e) The Rating Scale </li></ul><ul><li>* used to measure the direction and intensity of attitudes.  </li></ul><u...
Adapted from: http://www.mineful.com/online_surveys/new_product_survey.html
EXAMPLES OF SURVEYS  ( Advertisement) Evaluation) Adapted from: http://www.mineful.com/online_surveys/advertisment_evaluat...
 
Graduate Student Survey Adapted from: http://www.mineful.com/online_surveys/graduate_student.html
Job Evaluation Survey  Adapted from: http://www.mineful.com/online_surveys/job_evaluation_questionnaire.html
Online Questionnaire Examples Adapted from: http://evensenwebs.com/prototypes.html
 
 
WRITING GOOD SURVEYS <ul><li>Clear written statement of a survey( basically ideas on what you want to survey) </li></ul><u...
NUM THINGS TO AVOID IN WRITING GOOD SURVEY ITEMS 01 Overly long items 02 Unclear or ambiguous items 03 Negative items 04 I...
16 Assuming that everyone has an answer to all items  17 Making respondents answer items that don’t apply 18 Irrelevant it...
  VIDEO PRESENTATION  Adapted from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsZySkZ8bRo&feature=related
LINKS   <ul><li>Steenstra, H.H. (2009). Interaction and the standardized survey interview.  Cambridge Online Journal. Retr...
 
<ul><li>most often used in education for research and various kinds of curriculum development projects. </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Language survey can be used to answer any research questions that requires exploration, description, or explanatio...
<ul><li>Will be focus on interpreting survey results which is presented in table.  </li></ul><ul><li>will focus on descrip...
<ul><li>Refer to Table 5.6 in page 148. </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately can tell that over two-thirds of the respondents wer...
<ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Students in the Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Klauda.S.L and Guthrie.J.T ...
<ul><li>From the table, Immediately can tell that female respondents more than male respondents. </li></ul><ul><li>Student...
<ul><li>Refer to table 5.7 on page 149. </li></ul><ul><li>Such data display allows you to readily compare the groups. </li...
<ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Reis, S.M, McCoach, D.B, Muller, L.M and Kaniskan,R.B. (2011). The effect of differentia...
<ul><li>From the table, Immediately can know that the highest percentages of students who took part in the survey from  Ru...
<ul><li>Refer to Table 5.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Table 5.8 shows several types of information – </li></ul><ul><li>Means </li><...
<ul><li>Table 5.8 reports the language-testing teacher’s responses to Likert scale questions (0-5 with 0 being “none”) </l...
<ul><li>2.4% do not cover “Item Writing” </li></ul><ul><li>14.3% - some coverage </li></ul><ul><li>26.2%- extensive covera...
 
<ul><li>“ Two kinds of knowledge that influence teachers’ understanding and practice of teaching. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Su...
Teacher Beliefs About Learning <ul><li>Learning can be alternatively conceptualized as: </li></ul><ul><li>a quantitative i...
Teacher Beliefs About Learners <ul><li>Learners may be alternatively thought of metaphorically as: </li></ul><ul><li>resis...
Teacher Beliefs About Teaching <ul><li>Good teachers are alternatively thought to have as key characteristics: </li></ul><...
Teacher Beliefs About Teaching <ul><li>commitment to teaching </li></ul><ul><li>good grades in college </li></ul><ul><li>A...
<ul><li>It appears that teaching is heavily influenced by the belief systems of its practitioners. </li></ul><ul><li>Belie...
<ul><ul><li>Belief systems often determine how language-learning tasks are chosen, modified, sequenced and contextualized ...
 
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Descriptive statistics research survey analysis (part 2)

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Descriptive statistics research survey analysis (part 2)

  1. 1. CONNIE SIM SIEW YUNG (PGP110021) GHIVITHA d/o KALIMUTHU (PGP 110004) PRASHENA NAIR d/o PREBAKARRAN (PGP110011)
  2. 3. WHAT ARE SURVEYS ? WRITING GOOD SURVEYS DESIGNING YOUR OWN DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
  3. 4. WHAT ARE SURVEYS ? <ul><li>Approach used to gather & describe : </li></ul><ul><li> (i) characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) views </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Survey is a process t hat deals with : </li></ul><ul><li> (i) students </li></ul><ul><li> (ii) teachers </li></ul><ul><li> (iii) administrators </li></ul><ul><li> (iv) people who are important to a study </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Surveys typically take the form of : </li></ul><ul><li>(a) interviews </li></ul><ul><li>(b) questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li> (c) both </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, interviews & questionnaires are design using the qualitative method which consists of close-ended and open-ended questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally, there are several differences between interviews and questionnaires. </li></ul>
  5. 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERVIEWS
  6. 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERVIEWS (cont)
  7. 8. Personal interviews <ul><ul><li>(a)Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use visual aids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b)Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. QUESTIONNAIRES <ul><li>What is a questionnaire? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formalized schedule for collecting data from respondents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outlines information to be gathered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key criteria of a good questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance to the problem at hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy in terms of its measures </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. QUESTIONNAIRES
  10. 12. Mail questionnaires <ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low in cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent convenience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No interviewer bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convenient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No interviewer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited reach </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. SURVEY QUESTION <ul><li>Developing a focused and effective questionnaire will help you to efficiently and accurately pinpoint the information that will help you make more informed decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>(A) “YES/ NO” QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Have you ever purchased a product or service </li></ul><ul><li>from our website? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li> No </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>(b)The Multiple Choice Questions </li></ul><ul><li>* consists of single or multiple answers </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: How did you first hear about our web site? </li></ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Word-of-mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Other: Please Specify _______________ </li></ul>
  13. 15. (c) Likert Scale Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Likert_scale
  14. 16. <ul><li> (d) Rank Order Scaling </li></ul><ul><li>* ranked based upon a specific characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Based upon what you have seen, heard, and experienced, please rank the following brands according to  their reliability. Place a &quot;1&quot; next to the brand that is most reliable, a &quot;2&quot; next to the brand that is next most reliable, and so on.  Remember, no two cars can have the same ranking .          Toyota        Mazda        Ford </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li> (e) The Rating Scale </li></ul><ul><li>* used to measure the direction and intensity of attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Which of the following categories best describes your </li></ul><ul><li>last experience purchasing a product or service on our </li></ul><ul><li>website? Would you say that your experience was: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 18. Adapted from: http://www.mineful.com/online_surveys/new_product_survey.html
  17. 19. EXAMPLES OF SURVEYS ( Advertisement) Evaluation) Adapted from: http://www.mineful.com/online_surveys/advertisment_evaluation_survey.html
  18. 21. Graduate Student Survey Adapted from: http://www.mineful.com/online_surveys/graduate_student.html
  19. 22. Job Evaluation Survey Adapted from: http://www.mineful.com/online_surveys/job_evaluation_questionnaire.html
  20. 23. Online Questionnaire Examples Adapted from: http://evensenwebs.com/prototypes.html
  21. 26. WRITING GOOD SURVEYS <ul><li>Clear written statement of a survey( basically ideas on what you want to survey) </li></ul><ul><li>It can be either in the form of an interview or questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback from colleagues on the quality of the items and to pilot the survey instrument with participants (similar to the ones you will eventually be surveying) </li></ul><ul><li>Approach an interview ( perceive ideas from your colleagues & participants to find out what was going on in their minds as they interacted with it). </li></ul>
  22. 27. NUM THINGS TO AVOID IN WRITING GOOD SURVEY ITEMS 01 Overly long items 02 Unclear or ambiguous items 03 Negative items 04 Incomplete items 05 Overlapping choices in items 06 Items across two pages 07 Double-barreled items 08 Loaded word items 09 Absolute word items 10 Leading items 11 Prestige items 12 Embarrassing items 13 Biased items 14 Items at the wrong level of language 15 Items that respondents are incompetent to answer
  23. 28. 16 Assuming that everyone has an answer to all items 17 Making respondents answer items that don’t apply 18 Irrelevant items 19 Writing superfluous information into items
  24. 29. VIDEO PRESENTATION Adapted from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsZySkZ8bRo&feature=related
  25. 30. LINKS <ul><li>Steenstra, H.H. (2009). Interaction and the standardized survey interview. Cambridge Online Journal. Retrieved 10 November 2011, from http://dx.doi.org/null </li></ul><ul><li>www.bus.iastate.edu </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ehow.com/info_8163642_descriptive-methods-research-design.html </li></ul>
  26. 32. <ul><li>most often used in education for research and various kinds of curriculum development projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be used for research not directly connected to curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain information </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate topics </li></ul><ul><li>To ask opinions. </li></ul>Survey
  27. 33. <ul><li>Language survey can be used to answer any research questions that requires exploration, description, or explanation of peoples’ characteristics, attitudes , view and opinions . </li></ul>
  28. 34. <ul><li>Will be focus on interpreting survey results which is presented in table. </li></ul><ul><li>will focus on descriptive statistics – interpreting the numerical tables of frequencies, percentages and descriptive statistics. </li></ul>In this section
  29. 35. <ul><li>Refer to Table 5.6 in page 148. </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately can tell that over two-thirds of the respondents were females. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans and native speakers of English. </li></ul><ul><li>Average age was 44.2 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>However, use table to present about categories of people and only one dimension may not have been very efficient. </li></ul>
  30. 36. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Students in the Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Klauda.S.L and Guthrie.J.T (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension . Journal of Educational Psychology , 100(2), 310-321. </li></ul>Characteristics Sample (%) Gender Male Female 49.6 50.4 Ethnicity African American Asian Caucasian Hispanic Other 20.5 2.9 65.2 8.8 2.6
  31. 37. <ul><li>From the table, Immediately can tell that female respondents more than male respondents. </li></ul><ul><li>Students from Caucasian ethnic are more than other ethnic. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, it can be more economic if presented in prose. </li></ul><ul><li>Table of numbers can be more useful when multiple categories of numerical information are presented along two or more dimensions. </li></ul>
  32. 38. <ul><li>Refer to table 5.7 on page 149. </li></ul><ul><li>Such data display allows you to readily compare the groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately can know that Higher Education has the highest percentages of females (82.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Teacher Education have the lowest (62.5% and 62.9%). </li></ul><ul><li>Can quickly spot the fact that the Higher Education has the highest proportion of US citizen (98.4%) who are native speakers of English (96.8%). </li></ul>
  33. 39. <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Reis, S.M, McCoach, D.B, Muller, L.M and Kaniskan,R.B. (2011). The effect of differentiated instructional and enrichnemt in five elementary school . American Educational Research Journa l. 48(2). 462-501 </li></ul>Category Suburban South % Urban Southeast % Urban Magnet % Rural South % Suburban Midwest % White 45 1 59 65 55 Black 37 93 15 28 14 Hispanic 10 5 6 3 9 Asian 2 1 20 1 16 American Indian 1 0 0 0 0 Multiracial 5 — — 3 7
  34. 40. <ul><li>From the table, Immediately can know that the highest percentages of students who took part in the survey from Rural South is white students. (65%) </li></ul><ul><li>Black students from Urban Southeast have highest percentages taking part in the survey, (93%) </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1% percentages of American and Asian students from Urban Southeast school took part in the survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Table have advantage if want to present multiple categories of numerical information along two or more dimensions. </li></ul>
  35. 41. <ul><li>Refer to Table 5.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Table 5.8 shows several types of information – </li></ul><ul><li>Means </li></ul><ul><li>Standard deviations </li></ul><ul><li>Frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Bailey and Brown surveyed language –testing teacher from around the world about amount of coverage they give some main topics that are typical of such course. </li></ul><ul><li>Report responses of language-testing teacher from around the world. </li></ul>
  36. 42. <ul><li>Table 5.8 reports the language-testing teacher’s responses to Likert scale questions (0-5 with 0 being “none”) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Item Writing” as a 3.24 which is higher compared to the other topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard deviation of 1.46 indicates that the responses to that item were a bit more varied than other topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequencies show exactly what percentage of the language testing teachers selected each possible options . </li></ul>
  37. 43. <ul><li>2.4% do not cover “Item Writing” </li></ul><ul><li>14.3% - some coverage </li></ul><ul><li>26.2%- extensive coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Table is good way to present Likert scale information as it provides a good estimate of mean and standard deviation. </li></ul><ul><li>Table also gives clear picture of actual percentages for each point along the Likert scale. </li></ul>
  38. 45. <ul><li>“ Two kinds of knowledge that influence teachers’ understanding and practice of teaching. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject matter and curricular issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers’ implicit theories of teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Richards, 1998: 51) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beliefs are the best indicators of the decisions that people make throughout their lives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Dewey, 1933) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 46. Teacher Beliefs About Learning <ul><li>Learning can be alternatively conceptualized as: </li></ul><ul><li>a quantitative increase in knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>material committed to memory </li></ul><ul><li>the acquisition of material which can be retained and used in practice </li></ul><ul><li>the abstraction of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>a process aimed at understanding of reality </li></ul><ul><li>some form of personal change </li></ul><ul><li>(Gow & Kember, 1993) </li></ul>
  40. 47. Teacher Beliefs About Learners <ul><li>Learners may be alternatively thought of metaphorically as: </li></ul><ul><li>resisters </li></ul><ul><li>receptacles </li></ul><ul><li>raw material </li></ul><ul><li>clients </li></ul><ul><li>partners </li></ul><ul><li>individual explorers </li></ul><ul><li>democratic explorers </li></ul><ul><li>(Meighan & Meighan, 1990) </li></ul>
  41. 48. Teacher Beliefs About Teaching <ul><li>Good teachers are alternatively thought to have as key characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>patience </li></ul><ul><li>high IQ </li></ul><ul><li>warmth </li></ul><ul><li>creativity </li></ul><ul><li>ability to be humourous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James D. Brown, & Theodore S. Rodgers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing Second Language Research </li></ul></ul>
  42. 49. Teacher Beliefs About Teaching <ul><li>commitment to teaching </li></ul><ul><li>good grades in college </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to relate to different kinds of people </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational skills </li></ul><ul><li>Outgoingness </li></ul><ul><li>(Weinstein, 1989) </li></ul>
  43. 50. <ul><li>It appears that teaching is heavily influenced by the belief systems of its practitioners. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief systems come into play in “dealing with ill-structured and entangled domains”. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is such a domain influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>personalities of individual classes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national, community and school demands on teaching time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James D. Brown, & Theodore S. Rodgers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing Second Language Research </li></ul></ul>
  44. 51. <ul><ul><li>Belief systems often determine how language-learning tasks are chosen, modified, sequenced and contextualized by teachers and researches alike. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James D. Brown, & Theodore S. Rodgers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing Second Language Research </li></ul></ul>

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