Spread of Antibiotic-Resistant
Potentially Pathogenic Bacteria in
Hospitals and the Community:
Role of the Housefly and
Ghenghesh KS, Elgaderi
R, Rahuma N, Berbash N,
Abeid S and Tawil KA.
Faculty of Medicine,
Faculty of Sciences,
Faculty of Arts and
Please be Kind to
• Flies and cockroaches have been implicated as
vectors or transporters of various human pathogens.
• The biology and ecology of these vectors makes them
particularly effective transmitters of such
• Studies from different countries have shown that
houseflies and German cockroaches collected from
hospitals and the community carry antimicrobialresistant bacteria that may potentially be pathogenic
Sit back and enjoy the show
The Common Species of Cockroaches
You’ve been warned!
Adult female with ootheca
I’ve told you!
Pathogenic Organisms Isolated either from
Houseflies or Cockroaches or from Both
– Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium leprae,
Diarrheagenic E. coli, Vibrio spp., MRSA, etc.
– Poliomyelitis, Coxsackievirus, Enteroviruses.
– Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia , Cryptosporidium,
– Up to 16 different species of fungi that include
– Asperigillus fumigatus and A. niger,
Too many, aren’t they?
Spread of potentially pathogenic
bacteria by houseflies and German
Here we go!
• More than 40% of enterobacteria isolated from
houseflies and cockroaches from different
hospitals were resistant to at least 4 different
• Also, resistance to at least 9 antimicrobial agents
was detected in more than 65% of Pseudomonas
species isolated from these pests in Libya.
I‘ve had enough!
• In Libya, these nuisance insects may play an
important role in the spread of antimicrobial-resistant
bacteria in both, within and between hospitals and
• This may have serious implications on the treatment
of infections caused by these organisms in hospitals
and the community.
• The local and health authorities in Libya and other
countries should take proper measures to quickly and
effectively control these pests.
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