Scanning electron micrograph of
– Paroxysmal coughing
Require blood, or starch or
charcoal for growth
– Bordet-Gengou medium (BGM)
Optimal temp. > 35-36oC
3 Major Agglutinogens >1, 2 and 3
Detected by using adsorbed,
3 serotypes pathogenic to man
– Type 1,2
– Type 1,3
– Type 1,2,3
All 3 have a role in immunity
Pertussis toxin (PT): an exotoxin
which enters target cells and
activates their production of cAMP,
a molecule that acts as a second
messenger in cell protein synthesis
Tracheal cytotoxin: causes
ciliated epithelial cell destruction
Hemoagglutinin: a cell surface
protein which helps the bacterium
bind to the host cell surface
highly contagious bacterium
Man > only natural host
Incubation period >> 1-2 weeks
Enters respiratory tract via
inhalation > binds to and
destroys the ciliated epithelial
cells of the trachea and bronchi.
Symptoms last for many weeks
1. Bacterial Culture:
– Pernasal swab on flexible wire
– Specimens on several successive days>
higher isolation rates.
– Transport media should not be used
– Immediately on BGM
– Incubate for at least 1 week
2. Detection of Bacterial Antigens
Bordetella antigens in serum and
urine using specific antiserum
– Bacteria in nasopharyngeal
secretions labelled with fluoresceinconjugated antiserum > examined
with ultraviolet microscopy.
3. Detection of Bordetella
Sera and nasopharyngeal secretions
examined for Ab > Agglutination
–For 2 weeks
–May reduce the severity of
illness if given before
–No clinical effect when the
infection is established
–May be given to protect nonvaccinated infants
– Safe and >90% effective.
– Adsorbed vaccine (i.e. with adjuvant).
- Contains all 3 agglutinogens.
- Minimum 3 doses.
- Minor adverse reactions:
- Erythema and local swelling, slight
- Possible neurological sequelae
- Acellular pertussis vaccine
–a respiratory pathogen that can
cause mild pharyngitis.
–a cause of pneumonia, otitis
media, and other respiratory
infections in animals.