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Lecture 23 Bordetella


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Lecture 23 Bordetella

  1. 1. ‫بسم ا الرحمن الرحيم‬ GENUS: BORDETELLA Prof. Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh
  2. 2. Small, Gram-negative coccobacilli Strict aerobes. X and V factors not required for growth Three species: –B. pertussis, –B. parapertussis –B. bronchiseptica
  3. 3. Bordetella species
  4. 4. Bordetella bronchiseptica Leifson flagella stain
  5. 5. Scanning electron micrograph of Bordetella bronchiseptica
  6. 6. Bordetella pertussis Whooping Cough – Paroxysmal coughing Require blood, or starch or charcoal for growth – Bordet-Gengou medium (BGM) Strict aerobe Optimal temp. > 35-36oC
  7. 7. ANTIGENICITY 3 Major Agglutinogens >1, 2 and 3 Detected by using adsorbed, single-agglutinin sera 3 serotypes pathogenic to man – Type 1,2 – Type 1,3 – Type 1,2,3 All 3 have a role in immunity
  8. 8. Virulence Factors Pertussis toxin (PT): an exotoxin which enters target cells and activates their production of cAMP, a molecule that acts as a second messenger in cell protein synthesis regulation Tracheal cytotoxin: causes ciliated epithelial cell destruction Hemoagglutinin: a cell surface protein which helps the bacterium bind to the host cell surface
  9. 9. PATHOGENESIS highly contagious bacterium Non-invasive disease Man > only natural host Incubation period >> 1-2 weeks Enters respiratory tract via inhalation > binds to and destroys the ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea and bronchi. Symptoms last for many weeks
  10. 10. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS 1. Bacterial Culture: Specimen: – Pernasal swab on flexible wire – Specimens on several successive days> higher isolation rates. – Transport media should not be used Culture: – Immediately on BGM – Incubate for at least 1 week Identification: – Serological
  11. 11. 2. Detection of Bacterial Antigens Bordetella antigens in serum and urine using specific antiserum Immunofluorescence Technique: – Bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions labelled with fluoresceinconjugated antiserum > examined with ultraviolet microscopy. 3. Detection of Bordetella Antibody: Sera and nasopharyngeal secretions examined for Ab > Agglutination Tests, ELISA
  12. 12. Bordetella pertussis
  13. 13. TREATMENT Erythromycin –For 2 weeks –May reduce the severity of illness if given before paroxysmal stage. –No clinical effect when the infection is established –May be given to protect nonvaccinated infants
  14. 14. CONTROL Vaccination: – Safe and >90% effective. – Adsorbed vaccine (i.e. with adjuvant). - Contains all 3 agglutinogens. - Minimum 3 doses. - Minor adverse reactions: - Erythema and local swelling, slight feverishness - Possible neurological sequelae - Acellular pertussis vaccine
  15. 15. Bordetella parapertussis –a respiratory pathogen that can cause mild pharyngitis. Bordetella bronchiseptica –a cause of pneumonia, otitis media, and other respiratory infections in animals.