SUMMARY – Organizer Handout (for Chapter 2, Section 1)Step 1: Read one time. * Take notes too if you want! Reading NotesStep 2:Write the Main Idea (1-2 sentences) –________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Step 3: Write the supporting ideas. Write in the small boxes first!Step 4: Write the supporting details. Write in the bigger boxes later!Supporting Idea 1 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 1 (1+ sentences)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 2 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 2 (1+ sentences) _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Cells (Summary Note for Chapter 2, Section 1)A cell is the smallest unit of a living thing that is able to perform life functions. All living thingseither have cells or are cells. Cells can vary from one living thing to another but all cells havethree things in common: a cell membrane (outer covering), cytoplasm (the main medium insidethe cell) and hereditary material (ex. DNA).Cells also vary in size. Some are long as a metre (ex. nerve cell in human leg). Other cells arevery tiny. With some bacterial cells you put 8000 of them in the letter “i” . They can also vary inshape and function.As well we can divide cells into two main types: 1. Prokaryote Cells – structures (things) inside these cells are not surrounded by their own membrane 2. Eukaryote Cells - structures (things) inside these cells are surrounded by their own membraneAs well there are a number of distinct features that many (but not all!) cells possess: A. Cell wall – some cells have a wall going around them (in addition to their cell membrane) such as plant, agae, fungi and many bacteria cells. Cell walls are tough outer coverings and they serve to protect the cell from stress. They also help to give cells a shape. Most cell walls have cellulose which creates a mesh throughout the cell wall to allow things to pass through. Also, there is sometimes pectin in cell walls which helps to make the cell wall rigid. B. Cytoplasm – this is a gelatinlike (jello like) substance that fills the who cell like a medium. The cytoplasm contains the framework for the cell called the cytoskeleton which helps the cell to move or maintain its shape. As well, many life processes occur in the cytoplasm including chemical reactions. You will find also the subunits of the eukaryote cell called organelles in the cytoplasm. C. Nucleus – the nucleus is a very important organelle of the eukaryote cell. It controls and regulates all cell activities. It also has its own membrane and it has DNA. DNA is a chemical that contains a code for the cell’s structure and activity. By reading this code, all cellular structures and activities occur. D. Chloroplasts – these are green organelles found in plant cells. They contain chlorophyll which can capture light energy to allow food to be made by a process called photosynthesis.
E. Mitochondria –these are special bean-shaped organelles where respiration occurs. Here food is broken down and energy is released in the process. Cells that require more energy will naturally have more mitochondria in them such as muscle cells. F. Ribosomes- these organelles are the place where proteins are made for cells. These organelles also are not surrounded by their own membrane. Either they float freely throughout the cytoplasm or they attach to another kind of organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum (or ER) G. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – this organelle is a series of some folded membranes. It takes up a lot of space inside the cell and can be rough or smooth. Rough ER have ribosomes attached but smooth ER do not. The function of ER is to allow materials to be processed and moved around the cell more easily. H. Golgi Bodies- Golgi Bodies further modify the proteins made by the ER. They are flat membrane-bound substance. They package proteins made by the ER. I. Vacuoles – some organisms (such as plant) also have some spaces in their cells surrounded by a membrane. This allows space for the cell’s food to be stonred J. Lysosomes – these organelles contain protected chemicals that assist the cell into breaking down various things including food, cell waste and parts that are too old and less efficient.Final Note-Cells often don’t work alone especially in complex living things. Usually, a group of cells share asimilar function or communicate with each to work together. In humans, we describe a group ofcells sharing the same or similar function as a tissue. Then, the group of cells or tissues othergroups of tissues to form organs. For example, the heart is another organ.
Viewing CellsPlease visit the following site to obtainthe required area of knowledge for thisnote: http://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/mjvl/bi ology/microscope/microscope.htm#m agnify
The Basic Makeup of a VirusA virus is a strand of hereditary material that issurrounded by a protein coat.It is not alive.It has no organelles or membranes.It can only reproduce with the help of livingthings. (It needs to use their cells)Hereditary Material (ex. DNA) Protein Coating
What a Virus Does (Itsimply does nothing or reproduces!))A virus can make copies of itself (multiply) byusing a living cell (called the host cell) of manyliving things (animals, plants, ….)Step 1 - AttackingA virus cannot move by itself but can be carried(ex. wind) to a cell- When near a cell, the virus attaches itself tothe cell- Then, the virus injects its hereditary materialinto the cell-After that, the virus may simply do nothing.Such a virus is called a latent virus.OR the virus may be active. It somehow usesthings in the cell to make copies of its injectedmaterial. Virus attaches Hereditary to cell. The cell is material enters forced to host cell. make many copies of viral parts
Flu VirusThis virus causes the common flu. (Influenza)
Step 2 - AssemblyNext, new viruses are assembled inside thehost cellStep 3 - ReleaseEventually, the new viruses are released to gooffThe cell itself is destroyed in the process. Cell is destroyed. New viruses are released.
Ebola VirusThis virus attacks humans and can make them sickby giving them chills, dizziness and even comassometimes.
Fighting VirusesViral infection is also called disease and thereare many kinds depending on the virus.Fortunately, we can use vaccines to preventdiseaseA vaccine consists of weakened viral particlesWhen a vaccine is injected into your body, thebody reacts by making defense materials (ex.interferons) that can stop future viruses frominfecting. Because the vaccine is weak, itcannot harm many cells before they build up adefense.There are also other ways to stop viruses suchas anti-viral drugs, quarantining patients,killing infected animals, etc.
HIV VirusThis virus attacks humans and can cause AIDS.
____________________________________________________ (Chapter 3, Section 2)So far, you have learned that all living things require certain raw materials such as food, waterand gases like oxygen. Also, you have learned that living things also get rid of certain materialsas waste such as carbon dioxide. But how do these things actually get in and out of the livingthings? How can they travel through living things from one cell in one area to another cell inanother area?Well.. there are a number of ways that such movement occurs. Three important ones arecovered in this note:_____________________________- Passive transport is kind of movement of matter in or outof cells that does ____________ require any _________________ And one way that suchmovement can occur without energy is by _____________________.____________________ is the random movement of matter (things) from an area that is_________________________ with them to another area that is___________________________.For example, consider a crowded subway filled with a hundred people! Suddenly the door opens.What happens? Some of the people get pushed out into the more open space outside of thesubway. Diffusion is the same idea but happens with cells. At some point, there is more matterfor something inside the cell than outside the cell like the subway. So the matter insideautomatically goes out without any energy required. The reverse can happen too. There can bea greater amount of matter outside of the cell than inside so this kind of matter will naturallytravel into the cell.A good example of such matter is ___________________. You breathe oxygen so that there isa big amount outside of your lung cells. By diffusion, the oxygen moves into your lungs. Thenthe lung cells now have more oxygen in them than the empty red blood cells nearby. So now theoxygen moves out of the lung cells and into the red blood cells. The red blood cells can thentransport the oxygen to other areas of the body and again some of the oxygen will diffuse intoother cells because they are less crowded with oxygen than the red blood cells that are carryingthe oxygen.Another good example is ______________. Water can also be passively transported from anarea containing more water to inside a cell containing less water. Or vice verse. The___________________ across a cell membrane is known as ________________. With certainplants, you can even see the results of osmosis by changes in their shape. Consider a carrotplaced in pure water. There is more water outside so the carrot’s water stays in and the carrot isvery rigid. But if the carrot is placed in salt water, there is less water matter (ie. molecules) in agiven area near the carrot than inside the carrot. So water moves out of the carrot. The carrotstarts to go limp as a result.It is also important to note that diffusion eventually _____________________. When enoughmatter moves from one place to another, it gets balanced between the two places until neither
place has more of the matter than the other. No more movement occurs. And we can say_________________ is reached._____________________! Sometimes there are other things that help matter to diffuse in or outof cells. Again, _____________________ is needed to do this. A good example is__________________. The molecules are too big to travel by diffusion . So other moleculeshelp them to diffuse. This kind of diffusion that involves assistance is called ________________.The other molecules that help matter to move are called __________________________.___________________________Sometimes, things need to get inside the cells even when there is less of them outside of thecell or they are too big to enter passively. Similarly, there are times when things need to get ourcells but there all already so many of them outside of the cell. So how can these things move inor out?Active transport is the answer. Like facilitated diffusion, there are special proteins that associatewith the matter to be transported. But this time, the proteins bind with the needed matter andcellular energy is also used up to allow the transport to occur from an area that is more crowdedto an area that is less crowded.. So this type of transport if more active because of the crucial____________________. For example, sometimes ________________________ is transportedin or out of a cell by active transport.________________________________________-These processes are used for extremely _____________________ or molecules of matter.They are so big that even transport proteins cannot help them to get in our out of the cell. So forthis case. The whole cell slowly changes its shape. A part of it bends in such a way that it______________________ the material to be transported either in or our of it. It then eventuallyfolds completely so that the particle is enclosed by a sphere called a______________________that is now separate from the cell. This vesicle is no separate from the main cell and can travelaway. A good comparison is a balloon. Stick your finger into the balloon filled with just a little air..What do you notice? Your finger gets completed surrounded (engulfed). If your finger and thatpiece of balloon could break off , your finger would end up inside the balloon!When the cell engulfs material outside of it which results in the creation of a vesicle______________the cell, ___________________ is said to occur. On the other hand, when thecell engulfs something just inside its membrane, a vesicle gets created __________________ ofthe cell. _________________ is said to occur.
Transport Across the Cell- Extra Practice Handout1. How is active transport different than simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. The prefix exo- means “out of” and the prefix endo- means “taking in”. How do thesemeanings relate to the meaning of exocytosis and endocytosis?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. A BWhat process is shown in Figure A? _____________________________What process is shown in Figure B? _____________________________4. Do you think that endocytosis and exocytosis can occur within the same cell? Explain yourreasoning.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5. Predict: If the transport proteins that carry important raw materials such as an amino acid intoa cell stopped working, how might the process affect the cell?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________ (Chapter 3, Section 3)As you have already learned, all living things use some process to get vital energy in order tosurvive. For example, you learned that plants use photosynthesis first to obtain energy. Also,both plants and animals use respiration to get energy as well. But what exactly is happening inthe living thing or more specifically in the cells of the living thing, that allow them to get energyand then use the energy to do various crucial things such as growing, breathing or reproducing?The answer is _____________________________. Whenever a energy-related process likephotosynthesis or respiration occurs, various compounds like water, sugar, oxygen and other incells of the living thing are interacting with each in such a way certain compounds are brokendown while other compounds are made. Whenever this happens, we can say a_____________________________ occurs. Normally, one reaction does not occur for aprocess but many reactions occur for each and every process. The total of all chemicalreactions in an organism is called _______________________. Further, these chemicalreactions are not random events In fact, they normally cannot occur in the cells on their own.Instead, there are special proteins called __________________________ that assist allreactions and make sure that they occur properly and efficiently. The enzymes are able to makesure that the proper molecules needed in a reaction bind properly. Usually, the enzymesthemselves _____________________________________ although the molecules in thereaction that they help often do. See Figure 12 in your textbook.Example 1- ______________________________________As you have learned, photosynthesis is one important process that is used for getting energy inplants. More specifically, plants contain chlorophyll and other pigments that can capture lightenergy. Then the captured light energy is used to power specific reactions that create food forthe plant. Again, enzymes are involved and they ensure that____________________________________________________ react with each other in aspecial way. Then when this reaction happens, _______________________ are produced atthe end. The plants then _______________________________ in a special form called_____________________ until they need energy that gets captured in the chemical bonds ofthe sugar when the sugar is made. When such a need arises (ex. for maintenance, growth,reproduction), they break down the food and get energy to use for such needs.Because plants are able to make their own food (And later get energy from it directlythemselves), they are called _________________________. Other organisms that cannot maketheir own food but have to get by eating other living things are called___________________________Example 2 – ____________________________________:Respiration is another important process in living things where energy can be obtained andutilized. More specifically, respiration involves breaking down molecules in food which thenreleases their stored energy for the cells and the living thing. Like photosynthesis, enzymes areinvolved but this time they ensure that ________________________________ bind together.Then, a reaction occurs where ______________________________________ are producedand energy is also released and collected by the cell to use for various other processes thatrequire it. So for respiration to occur, it is vital that the organism has food and oxygen. The more
active the organism, the more food and oxygen is required. This is why you breather harderwhen exercising and often feel more hungry after. You are trying to get more food and oxygen.For many living things (ex. plants, animals, fungi, other), respiration occurs______________________________ and then ________________________moves into the_______________________________. Also, the main food source of energy is_________________________________.Example 3 - ________________________________Fermentation is another process where energy can be obtained from______________________ molecules. In many living things such as animals, fermentationoccurs as a _____________________ for respiration. As stated, respiration requires oxygen.But sometimes the organism does not have enough oxygen at hand when it is needed. Insteadof the organism encountering great stress, it resorts to another different process that can alsorelease energy from food (glucose): ______________________. Again, glucoses molecules arebroken down in the _________________ somewhere to create energy. Further, differentmolecules are produced during fermentation including a muscle painful compound called_______________________. This is actually what causes ___________________.There are even some organisms that carry out fermentation but respiration. One good exampleis certain ______________________that are used to make __________________ When thesebacterial use fermentation to break down certain sugars in milk to get energy, lactic acid is againproduced. See figure 15. The lactic acid however reacts with the milk / yogurt and the mild/yogurt becomes more solid. Another good example is _____________________ They can beused to make _________________ First, they are put in bread dough. After doing so, theynaturally break down the sugar in the dough by fermentation. In the process, they producedcarbon dioxide (and also alcohol). If they are in food, this carbon dioxide will eventually makethe food ____________________. This is important for making bread.Final Note:It is also important to note the ___________________ between photosynthesis with respirationand fermentation. The _________________________ seems to happen. For instance,photosynthesis uses energy to make food. Respiration and fermentation use (break down) foodto get energy. As well, photosynthesis produces sugar and oxygen. Respiration needs sugarand oxygen to occur. And respiration produces oxygen and water which is what photosynthesisneeds to occur.