Earth energy cycle

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Earth energy cycle

  1. 1. Energy cycle ‫إلى‬ ‫النهار‬ ‫خل ل‬ ‫الشمس‬ ‫مقابل‬ ‫مربع‬ ‫متر‬ ‫مساحة‬ ‫على‬ ‫للرض‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغل ف‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الواردة‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫مجموع‬ ‫يصل‬١٫٣٧٠‫أما‬ .‫الثانية‬ ‫في‬ ‫واط‬ ‫أن‬ ‫بالذكر‬ ‫والجدير‬ . ‫الرقم‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫ربع‬ ‫فيبلغ‬ ‫الرضية‬ ‫الكرة‬ ‫حو ل‬ ‫الثانية‬ ‫في‬ ‫الواحد‬ ‫المربع‬ ‫المتر‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الواردة‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫مجموع‬٣٠‫الشمس‬ ‫ضوء‬ ‫من‬ % ‫تعر ف‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغل ف‬ ‫في‬ ‫الجزئيات‬ ‫وإلى‬ ‫الغيوم‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫تقريب‬ ‫النعكاس‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫ثلثي‬ ‫مرد‬ ‫ويعود‬ .‫الفضاء‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫مجدد‬ ‫ينعكس‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغل ف‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الوارد‬ ‫في‬ ‫الخطر‬ ‫ير‬ّ‫ر‬‫التغ‬ ‫وينتج‬ .‫التحديد‬ ‫وجه‬ ‫على‬ ‫والصحارى‬ ‫والجليد‬ ‫الثلج‬ ‫وهي‬ ,‫اللون‬ ‫الفاتحة‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫بقع‬ ‫فتعكسه‬ ‫المتبقي‬ ‫الثلث‬ ‫أما‬ .«‫الجوي‬ ‫بـ»الهباء‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أسبوع‬ ‫خل ل‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫للغل ف‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الهباء‬ ‫المطر‬ ‫ظ ف‬ّ‫ر‬ ‫وين‬ .‫الجوي‬ ‫الغل ف‬ ‫في‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫جد‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫عالي‬ ‫البراكين‬ ‫تقذفها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫المواد‬ ‫جراء‬ ‫من‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الهباء‬ ‫إنعكاس‬ ‫الطبقة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫تسقط‬ ‫أن‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫إثنتين‬ ‫أو‬ ‫سنة‬ ‫زهاء‬ ‫المناخ‬ ‫على‬ ‫كبير‬ ‫بشكل‬ ‫تؤثر‬ ،‫السحب‬ ‫أعلى‬ ‫متخطية‬ ‫قوي‬ ‫بركان‬ ‫من‬ ‫المنبعثة‬ ‫المواد‬ ‫أن‬ ‫غير‬ ،‫أسبوعين‬ ‫العالمية‬ ‫السطحية‬ ‫الحرارة‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫نقص‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫البراكين‬ ‫تؤدي‬ ‫أن‬ ‫يمكن‬ ،‫وبالتالي‬ .‫التهطا ل‬ ‫مع‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫بعدها‬ ‫وتنتقل‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغطاء‬ ‫من‬ ‫السفلى‬ ‫المنشأ‬ ‫البشرية‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الهباء‬ ‫أنواع‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫أض ف‬ .‫سنوات‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أشهر‬ ‫عدة‬ ‫النقص‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫يدوم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫الممكن‬ ‫ومن‬ ,‫مئوية‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫نص ف‬ ‫بنسبة‬ ‫النسبية‬ .‫الشمسي‬ ‫الضوء‬ ‫تعكس‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫تقريب‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫مجموع‬ ‫ويبلغ‬ .‫الفضاء‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫مجدد‬ ‫تنعكس‬ ‫ل‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫والرض‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغل ف‬ ‫ويمتص‬٢٤٠‫وينبغي‬ .‫الواحد‬ ‫المربع‬ ‫للمتر‬ ‫واط‬ ‫إرسا ل‬ ‫خل ل‬ ‫من‬ ‫العملية‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫وتنفذ‬ .‫إليها‬ ‫الواردة‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫توازن‬ ‫إقامة‬ ‫بغية‬ ‫الفضاء‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫تصلها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫عينها‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫كمية‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫تعكس‬ ‫أن‬ ‫من‬ ‫بإنبعاثها‬ ‫الفرد‬ ‫يشعر‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الحارة‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫هي‬ ‫وهذه‬ ,‫الموج‬ ‫طويل‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫إشعاع‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫على‬ ‫شيء‬ ‫كل‬ ‫يبعث‬ ،‫الواقع‬ ‫وفي‬ .‫الموج‬ ‫طويل‬ ‫إشعاع‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫تبلغ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ويجب‬ .‫المنبعثة‬ ‫الحارة‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫إزدادت‬ ،‫الشيء‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫إزدادت‬ ‫وكلما‬ ,‫ما‬ ‫حريق‬١٩‫إصدار‬ ‫من‬ ‫تتمكن‬ ‫كي‬ ‫مئوية‬ ‫درجة‬٢٤٠ ‫السطحية‬ ‫الحرارة‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫تبلغ‬ ‫)حيث‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫على‬ ‫فرة‬ّ‫ر‬‫المتو‬ ‫الشروط‬ ‫من‬ ‫أبرد‬ ‫الدرجة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫إن‬ ،‫المر‬ ‫حقيقة‬ ‫وفي‬ .‫الواحد‬ ‫المربع‬ ‫للمتر‬ ‫واط‬ ‫العالمية‬١٤‫عن‬ ‫تقل‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الضرورية‬ ‫الحرارة‬ ‫أن‬ ‫غير‬ .(‫مئوية‬ ‫درجة‬١٩.‫البحر‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫عن‬ ‫كيلومتر‬ ‫خمسة‬ ‫إرتفاع‬ ‫على‬ ‫تتواجد‬ ‫مئوية‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫من‬ ‫المنبعث‬ ‫الموج‬ ‫الطويل‬ ‫الشعاع‬ ‫يحجب‬ ‫جزئي‬ ‫كغطاء‬ ‫تعمل‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الدفيئة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الناتجة‬ ‫الغازات‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫في‬ ‫الرتفاع‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫سبب‬ ‫ويعود‬ ‫النيتروجين‬ ‫يملك‬ ‫ل‬ ،‫الوقع‬ ‫وفي‬ .‫الكربون‬ ‫أكسيد‬ ‫وثاني‬ ‫الماء‬ ‫بخار‬ ‫هو‬ ‫الدفيئة‬ ‫غازات‬ ‫وأهم‬ .‫للدفيئة‬ ‫الطبيعية‬ ‫الثار‬ ‫بإسم‬ ‫الغطاء‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫ويعر ف‬ .‫الرض‬ ,‫الدفيئة‬ ‫من‬ ‫المنبعثة‬ ‫الغازات‬ ‫مفعو ل‬ ‫يشبه‬ ‫مفعو ل‬ ‫السحب‬ ‫عن‬ ‫ينتج‬ ،‫المقابل‬ ‫وفي‬ .‫المفعو ل‬ ‫هذا‬ ،‫الجوي‬ ‫للغل ف‬ ‫الرئيسيان‬ ‫المكونان‬ ‫وهما‬ ،‫والكسيجين‬ ‫بالسحب‬ ‫المليئة‬ ‫الليالي‬ ‫تكون‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫بالحرارة‬ ‫المرء‬ ‫يشعر‬ ‫وجودها‬ ‫أن‬ ‫العلم‬ ‫)مع‬ ‫المناخ‬ ‫السحب‬ ‫تبرد‬ ‫ما‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫غالب‬ ‫إذ‬ ‫المفعو ل‬ ‫لهذا‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫د‬‫ح‬ ‫يضع‬ ‫إنعكاسه‬ ‫أن‬ ‫غير‬ ‫بسبب‬ ‫الحاجب‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫المفعو ل‬ ‫النسانية‬ ‫النشاطات‬ ‫وتعزز‬ .(‫الرض‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫مجدد‬ ‫الموج‬ ‫الطويلة‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫تعكس‬ ‫السحب‬ ‫لن‬ ‫الصافية‬ ‫الليالي‬ ‫من‬ ‫أحر‬ ‫بنسبة‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغل ف‬ ‫في‬ ‫الكربون‬ ‫أكسيدد‬ ‫ثاني‬ ‫حجم‬ ‫ازداد‬ ‫وقد‬ .‫الدفيئة‬ ‫من‬ ‫الغازات‬ ‫إبتعاث‬٣٥،‫البشرية‬ ‫النشاطات‬ ‫بسبب‬ ‫الصناعية‬ ‫الحقبة‬ ‫في‬ ٪ ‫وبتأثير‬ ‫العام‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫للغل ف‬ ‫الكيميائية‬ ‫التركيبة‬ ‫بتغيير‬ ‫النسان‬ ‫تسبب‬ ،‫وبالتالي‬ .‫الغابات‬ ‫وإزالة‬ ‫الحفوري‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫إحتراق‬ ،‫التحديد‬ ‫وجه‬ ‫على‬ ،‫ومنها‬ .‫المناخ‬ ‫على‬ ‫كبير‬ ‫خطوط‬ ‫على‬ ‫الواقعة‬ ‫الماكن‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫تصل‬ ‫مما‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫الستواء‬ ‫خطوط‬ ‫على‬ ‫الواقعة‬ ‫الماكن‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الشمسية‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫تصل‬ ,‫الدائري‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫شكل‬ ‫وبسبب‬ ‫خطوط‬ ‫على‬ ‫الواقعة‬ ‫الماكن‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الستوائية‬ ‫الماكن‬ ‫من‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫وتنتقل‬ .‫ا‬ً ‫إنخفاض‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫زاوية‬ ‫في‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغل ف‬ ‫الشمس‬ ‫ضوء‬ ‫يضرب‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫العرض‬ ‫وتنبعث‬ ,‫الرض‬ ‫طبقة‬ ‫ومن‬ ‫البحر‬ ‫من‬ ‫الماء‬ ‫لتبخر‬ ‫ضرورية‬ ‫والطاقة‬ .‫العصار‬ ‫أنظمة‬ ‫فيها‬ ‫بما‬ ‫والمحيطات‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغل ف‬ ‫دوران‬ ‫خل ل‬ ‫من‬ ‫العرض‬ .‫النائمة‬ ‫الحرارة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫ابتعاث‬ ‫بسبب‬ ‫أساسي‬ ‫بشكل‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغل ف‬ ‫دوران‬ ‫ينتج‬ ‫السحب‬ ‫في‬ ‫المياه‬ ‫بخار‬ ‫يتركز‬ ‫عندما‬ ‫النائمة‬ ‫الحرارة‬ ‫المسماة‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫ونسبة‬ ‫المحيط‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫في‬ ‫ير‬ّ‫ر‬‫التغ‬ ‫وبسبب‬ ‫المحيط‬ ‫مياه‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫على‬ ‫السحب‬ ‫حركة‬ ‫بسبب‬ ‫المحيط‬ ‫بدوران‬ ‫الجوي‬ ‫الغل ف‬ ‫دوران‬ ‫يتسبب‬ ،‫وبدوره‬ .‫والتبخر‬ ‫التهطا ل‬ ‫جراء‬ ‫من‬ ‫ملوحته‬ The total energy contained to the surface of the Earth's atmosphere over an area of square meters compared to the sun during the day to 1.370 watts per second. The total energy received per square meter per second around the globe amounts to a quarter of this figure. It is worth mentioning that 30% of the incoming sunlight into the atmosphere is reflected back into space. The back two-thirds of this is due to the reflection almost to the clouds and particles in the atmosphere known as the «aerosol». The remaining third is reflected light colored patches of land, the snow and ice, deserts specifically. The resulting change in the reflection of the most dangerous aerosol as a result of volcanic material that propelled so high in the atmosphere. And cleans rain aerosol atmosphere within a week or two weeks, but that the material emitted from the volcano strong surpassing the highest clouds, greatly affect the climate around a year or two before it fell to the bottom layer of air cover and then transmitted to the ground with precipitation. Thus, it can lead to a lack of large volcanoes global surface temperature relative rate of half a degree Celsius, it is possible that this shortage will last for several months or years. Add to that some types of anthropogenic aerosols reflect solar light.
  2. 2. Absorbed by the atmosphere and the earth energy that are not reflected back to space. The total of these almost 240 watts of energy per square meter. Should reflect the same amount of energy the earth with access to space in order to strike a balance with the energy received. And implement land this process by sending a long-wave radiation. In fact, sends everything on the Earth's surface long-wave radiation, and this is the energy which the individual feels warm emitted from the fire, and the greater the heat thing, increased energy emitted warm. And must inform the Earth's temperature 19 ° C in order to enable the issuance of 240 watts per square meter. In fact, if such a degree colder than the terms available on the Earth's surface (where the global surface temperature 14 ° C). However, the necessary temperature of less than 19 ° C are located at an altitude of five kilometers from the sea. The reason for this rise in the Earth's temperature to greenhouse gases resulting from operating as a cover partially obscures the radiation emitted from the long rough ground. This is known as the cover name of the natural effects of the greenhouse. The most important greenhouse gas is water vapor and carbon dioxide. In the impact, does not have nitrogen and oxygen, and the main ingredients of the atmosphere, this effect. On the other hand, produces drag effect is similar to the effect of the gases emitted from the greenhouse, but a reversal put an end to this effect as often cool clouds climate (with the knowledge that their presence one feels heat where the nights filled with drag-warmest nights net because clouds reflect the energy of long waves back to the Earth's surface). And promote human activities effect this eyebrow because of greenhouse gases scholarship. The increased size of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by 35% in the industrial era due to human activities, including, specifically, the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Thus, the cause of human change the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the impact of large public on the climate. Because of the circular shape of the Earth, solar energy to reach places along the lines of the equator more than up to the places located at latitudes where sunlight hits the atmosphere at an angle more decreased. The energy transmitted from tropical places to places along the lines of supply through atmospheric circulation and ocean systems including hurricane. And energy necessary for the evaporation of water from the sea and from the ground layer, and emits this energy is called the heat is concentrated dormant when water vapor in the clouds produces atmospheric circulation mainly due to the emission of heat sleeper. And, in turn, causes the rotation of the atmosphere surrounding the rotation because of the movement of clouds on the surface of the ocean and because of the change in ocean surface temperature and salinity ratio as a result of precipitation and evaporation.

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