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# Types of slope failures

Types of slope failures

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### Types of slope failures

1. 1. Types Of Slope Failures Soil Mechanics Prepared by: Ghanashyam prajapati
2. 2. TYPES OF SLOPE FAILURES  There are main four types of failures which are: 1. Plane failure 2. Wedge failure 3. Toppling failure 4. Rotational failure
3. 3. Plane Failure  A rock slope undergoes this mode of failure when combinations of discontinuities in the rock mass form blocks or wedges within the rock which are free to move.  The pattern of the discontinuities may be comprised of a single discontinuity or a pair of discontinuities that intersect each other, or a combination of multiple discontinuities that are linked together to form a failure mode.  A planar failure of rock slope occurs when a mass of rock in a slope slides down along a relatively planar failure surface. The failure surfaces are usually structural discontinuities such as bedding planes, faults, joints or the interface between bedrock and an overlying layer of weathered rock.
4. 4. Typical View Of Failure
5. 5. The favorable conditions of plane failure are as follows: The dip direction of the planar discontinuity must be within ( ±20o ) of the dip direction of the slope face. The dip of the planar discontinuity must be less than the dip of the slope face . The dip of the planar discontinuity must be greater than the angle of friction of the surface.
6. 6. Wedge Failure  Wedge failure can occur in rock mass with two or more sets of discontinuities whose lines of intersection are approximately perpendicular to the strike of the slope and dip towards the plane of the slope.  This mode of failure requires that the dip angle of at least one joint intersect is greater than the friction angle of the joint surfaces and that the line of joint intersection intersects the plane of the slope.
7. 7. Typical View of Failure
8. 8. The necessary structural conditions for this failure are summarized as follows: The trend of the line of intersection must approximate the dip direction of the slope face. The plunge of the line of intersection must be less than the dip of the slope face. The line of intersection under this condition is said to daylight on the slope. The plunge of the line of intersection must be greater than the angle of friction of the surface.
9. 9. Toppling Failure  Toppling failures occur when columns of rock, formed by steeply dipping discontinuities in the rock rotates about an essentially fixed point at or near the base of the slope followed by slippage between the layers.  The center of gravity of the column or slab must fall outside the dimension of its base in toppling failure.  Jointed rock mass closely spaced and steeply dipping discontinuity sets that dip away from the slope surface are necessary prerequisites for toppling failure.
10. 10.  The removal of overburden and the confining rock, as is the case in mining excavations, can result in a partial relief of the constraining stresses within the rock structure, resulting in a toppling failure.  This type of slope failure may be further categorized depend on the mode such as : 1. flexural toppling 2. block toppling and 3. block flexural toppling
11. 11. Typical View of Failure
12. 12. Image For Failure
13. 13. Rotational Failure  In rotational slips the shape of the failure surface in section may be a circular arc or a non-circular curve.  In general, circular slips are associated with homogeneous soil conditions and non-circular slips with non-homogeneous conditions.  Translational and compound slips occur where the form of the failure surface is influenced by the presence of an adjacent stratum of significantly different strength.
14. 14.  Translational slips tend to occur where the adjacent stratum is at a relatively shallow depth below the surface of the slope: the failure surface tends to be plane and roughly parallel to the slope.  Compound slips usually occurs where the adjacent stratum is at greater depth, the failure surface consisting of curved and plane sections.  The sliding of material along a curved surface called a rotational slide.
15. 15. Typical Layout of Failure
16. 16. The End

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Types of slope failures

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