Computer-IntegratedManufacturing• Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing• Numerically Controlled Machines• Industrial Robots• Automated Materials Handling• Flexible Manufacturing Systems
Definition of CIM by the Computer and Automation Systems Association of the Society of manufacturing Engineers (CASA/SME): “CIM is the integration of the total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communications coupled with new managerial philosophies that improve organizational and personnel efficiency.”
What is CIM? CIM is the integration of all enterpriseoperations and activities around a commoncorporate data repository. It is the use of integrated systems anddata communications coupled with newmanagerial philosophies.
What is CIM? CIM is not a product that can bepurchased and installed. It is a way of thinking and solvingproblems.
POTANTIAL BENEFITS OF CIM Improved customer service Improved quality Shorter time to market with new products Shorter flow time Shorter vendor lead time Reduced inventory levels Improved schedule performance Greater flexibility and responsiveness Improved competitiveness Lower total cost Shorter customer lead time Increase in manufacturing productivity Decrease in work-in process inventory
The Role of Computer in Manufacturing The computer has had a substantialimpact on almost all activities of a factory. Often, the introduction of the computerchanged the organizational structure of adepartment and made necessary adoptionof new management structures.
The Role of Computer in Manufacturing The operation of a CIM system gives the user substantial benefits:• Reduction of design costs by 15-30%;• Reduction of the in-shop time of a part by 30-60%;• Increase of productivity by 40-70%;• Better product quality, reduction of scrap 20-50%.
AGILE MANUFACTURING Globalization of markets has put tremendous pressure on manufacturing enterprises to be competitive. To cope with competitive pressures, a new paradigm in manufacturing known as AGILE MANUFACTURING is emerging.
AGILE MANUFACTURINGThe objective of agilemanufacturing is to enablemanufacturing enterprises to becompetitive by dynamicallyreconfiguring software, equipmentand organization structures.
AGILE MANUFACTURINGAgility is the ability to grow andsucceed in an environment ofconstant and unpredictable changes.In recent years, the manufacturingparadigm has been changing frommass production to agilemanufacturing.
AGILE MANUFACTURING The reasons of this trend change are:• The strength of global competition is increasing;• Mass markets are fragmenting to niche markets;• Customers expect low volume, high quality;• Short product life-cycles, development
CHARACTERISTICS OF AGILE MANUFACTURING: Greater product customization Rapid introduction of new or modified product Advanced interenterpise networking technology Upgradable products Increased emphasis on knowledgeable, highly trained workers Interactive customer relationship
CHARACTERISTICS OF AGILE MANUFACTURING: Dynamic reconfiguration of production processes Greater use of flexible production technologies Rapid prototyping An open systems information environment Innovative and flexible management structures Product pricing based on value to the customer Commitment to the bening operations and product designs
Communication Networks A communication network is the backbone ofan enterprise integration. Networks help to unifya company by linking together all thecomputerized devices irrespective of theirphysical location. Through networks the whole enterprise can beintegrated, including suppliers and customers.
Communication Networks For example, sales and marketing can sendcustomer requirements for new products todesign engineering. A CAD generated bill of materials can then betransferred to “material requirementsplanning(MRP)” systems. Product design information can be transmittedto manufacturing for use in process planning.
Types of Communication Networks There 2 main types of communication networks:1) Telecommunication Networks;2) Computer communication Networks.
Types of Communication NetworksTelecommunication network is mainly usedfor voice communication.Computer communication network is asystem of interconnected computers andother devices capable exchanginginformation.
Highlights in the History of Telecommunications1844 Morse sends the first public telegraph message1876 Telephone patent issued to Alexander Graham Bell1877 First telephone in private home1881 First long-distance line, from Boston, MA, to Providence,RI1890 Undersea telephone cable, England to France1915 First transcontinental telephones call in U.S.1929 Coaxial cable invented; Herbert Hoover becomes the first President with a phone on his desk.
1947 Transistor invented1951 Direct long-distance dialing1960 First test of electronic switch1963 Touch-tone service introduced1970 Laser invented1976 First digital electronic switch installed1980 Divestiture of AT&T (Ma Bell and the baby bells)1988 First transatlantic optical fiber cable1989 First fiber-optic cable to the home field trial, Cerritos, CA1990 Demonstration of 2000-km links using optical amplifiers without repeaters.
Types of Communication NetworksNetwork Architectures & ProtocolsA communication network consists of a numbercomponents such as hardware, software andmedia.A network architecture describes the components,the functions performed, and the interfacesbetween the components of a network.It encompasses hardware, software, standards,data link controls, topologies and protocols.
Types of Communication Networks Network Architectures & Protocols It defines the functions of, and interactions between, three types of components. Network hardware components Communication software modules Application programs that use the networks
Types of Communication NetworksNetwork Architectures & ProtocolsPROTOCOL:Protocols in network architecture define the set ofrules of information exchange between twodevices(peers).Protocols specify the message format and therules for interpreting and reacting to messages.
Types of Communication NetworksComputer Network Reference ModelThe OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)Reference Model is an architecture thatenables different vendors’ systems, suchas DECNET, SNA, TCP/IP and SINEC, tocommunicate by using a common set ofprotocols.
Types of Communication Networks The reference model is based on:• The communication functions are divided into layers;• The services to be provided by each layer are specified;• Layer N+1, above layer N, uses the services of the latter to implement its functions;• Communication between the layer N and the participating terminals is specified by the ISO protocols.
TYPES OF COMPUTER NETWORKSLocal Area Networks (LANs)Used to interconnect computerswithin the same building ororganisation.A LAN typically operates at speedsranging from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps,connecting several hundred devicesover a distance of up to 5 to 10 km
Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) - MANs are largeLANs that cover a large city or suburb. Used tointerconnect LANs within a metropolitan area. A typicalMAN operates at a speed of 1,5 to 150 Mbps
Wide Area Networks (WANs)Use common carrier facilities overlong distances and are used toconnect sites and facilities over thecountries.Usually the speed between the citiescan vary from 1.5 Mbps to 2.4 Gbps.In a WAN, the cost of transmission isvery high, and the network is usuallyowned and operated by a publicnetwork
Global Area Networks (GAN)these are networks connectionsbetween countries around the globe.A GAN’s speed ranges from1.5Mbps to 100Gbps and its reach isseveral thousands of kilometres.
COMMUNICATION HIERARCHY enterprise level Globally link various plants/sites and interconnect corporations through electronic data interchange plant level Connect departments inside plant cell level Connect cells inside departments equipment/device level connect individual devices such as computers, robots and NC machines
MANUFACTURING Parallel with increasing needs for faster communications the needs of large data storage capacity and fast computers is increasing also. Now typical manufacturing environment, called also as CAD/CAM/CAE environment is composed of fast computers, centralized data storage units, CNC controlled machine centers, robots etc., all connected on the same network. On this networks either TCP/IP or specially designed manufacturing protocols like, MAP or TOP, are used.
MANUFACTURINGMAPAn initiative by General Motors of TheUnited States has resulted in the selectionof a set of protocols, all based on ISOstandards, to achieve open systeminterconnection within an automatedmanufacturing plant.The resulting protocols are knows asmanufacturing automation protocols(MAPs).
MANUFACTURINGTOPIn a similar way, an initiative by theBoeing Corporation (USA) has resulted inthe selection of a set of ISO standards toachieve open system interconnection in atechnical and office environment.The selected protocols are known astechnical and office protocols (TOPs).
Flexible ManufacturingSystems Tool Tool Tool changer changer changer AS/RS CNC 3 Computer control Indexing tables AGV 1 CNC 1 CNC 2 Out In Out In Out InRaw material storage (floor space) AGV 2 L/U L/U Temporary storage areas Raw material storage (33 pallet spaces) (roller conveyor) Load/unload stations
Industrial Elbow extensionRobots Shoulder Yaw swivel Arm sweep Pitch Roll