Metodologia De La Investigacion Tecnologica Dos


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Autor: Dr. Ing. César Jiménez Calderón

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Metodologia De La Investigacion Tecnologica Dos

  1. 1. TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Dr. Cesar Jimenez [email_address]
  2. 2. Concepts about Technology <ul><li>Technology.- It is the sum up of the knowledge that allows people to produce artifacts or processes by modifying the environment to create welfare and satisfaction of human needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is neither good nor bad. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethic judgment is not applicable to technology, but how it is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology differs from Science and Art: </li></ul><ul><li>science = to understand reality </li></ul><ul><li>art = to enjoy reality mentally </li></ul><ul><li>technology = to transform reality </li></ul>
  3. 3. Relationship: Technology and Economics Technological shift of product Large Development of Economics = 1 Technological shift of model/idea Small Development of Economics = 1
  5. 5. <ul><li>Problematic Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Research Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Research Object </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Research Field </li></ul><ul><li>Research Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The State of the Art </li></ul><ul><li>Theory-Conceptual Model </li></ul><ul><li>Factual Model </li></ul><ul><li>The Paper Title </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks, Timing and Budget </li></ul>The Technology Research Project Protocol
  6. 6. 1. Problematic Situation <ul><li>The necessary condition is the state of the research object (set of phenomena, fact and deficient or misunderstood process), depending on an adequate approximation and understanding about reality by the researcher. </li></ul><ul><li>Also depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>- Reflexive and analytical capacity of the researcher to assure better outcomes and quality. </li></ul><ul><li>- Referencing and scenarios. </li></ul>Perception of deficiencies, limitations, and needs of the reality under study
  7. 7. <ul><li>The problem is the abstraction, by using concepts, theories and scientific/tech laws of the field under study, about the deficiencies, facts or processes, evidences or probabilities, that limit or impede reaching a desirable and feasible state. </li></ul><ul><li>It is formulated as a proposition, because it is difficult to make inferences as a question. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the external performance of the object that makes the subject explain it. </li></ul><ul><li>The major accuracy in the problem, the major possibility to have success in solving the problem. </li></ul>2. Research Problem Abstraction from the problematic situation based on key words
  8. 8. 3. Research Object <ul><li>It is the part of reality that is abstracted through a systemic gathering of the relationships among the elements of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Its characterization is done by means of particular and specific concepts, and are deducted from the problem as it is being defined. </li></ul><ul><li>During the process: the input comprises the -exogenous elements–the output comprises endogenous elements-. </li></ul><ul><li>The interior of process –that is, the interacting mechanism among the intervening elements- couldn’t be observed. </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown facts must exist beyond the observed facts. Science tries to discover such subjacent elements. </li></ul>Process of abstraction from the Research Problem
  9. 9. 4. Specific Research Field <ul><li>The specific research field is a part of the object, where the researcher produces innovations or inventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, the researcher only abstracts the properties and attributes of the object to be systematized, changed, or explained. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the field under study, where the researcher presupposes to reach the desired objective. </li></ul>Sub process of Research Object
  10. 10. 5. Research Objective <ul><li>It is the purpose or shifted situation of problem once human intervention is concluded. </li></ul><ul><li>It is formulated in infinitive, according to Bloom’s Taxonomy, for example. </li></ul><ul><li>The objective leads the whole research work, and must be based on a theory, law, or principle to support the specific research field. </li></ul><ul><li>It must be clear, coherent, and achievable. </li></ul><ul><li>The research tasks, which are derived from the objective, come from Theory-Conceptual Model. </li></ul>Verb (infinitive) + complement … , based on … (law, principle, or standard)
  11. 11. <ul><li>The hypothesis is expressed as a conditional statement: </li></ul><ul><li>IF (sufficient condition), THEN (necessary condition) </li></ul><ul><li>This prediction is formulated to be accepted or discarded. </li></ul><ul><li>It must contain new aspects, new relations, or new variables, which lead to a theoretical contribution for technology. </li></ul>6. Hypothesis IF (objective), THEN (probable solution of problem)
  12. 12. 7. The State of the Art Referencing and data mining about the Research Object <ul><li>Analysis and systematization of current theories about the research object: concepts, categories, or laws that characterize the object. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, social and natural complex fields are described, where the researcher performs its critical and analytical practice, communicative and argumentative capacities. </li></ul><ul><li>Referencing is based on Chicago style, for example, to have scientific background. </li></ul><ul><li>The deepness of the State of the Art depends on the analysis of a large number of qualified sources. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 8. Theory-Conceptual Model <ul><li>Ideal representation where essential elements, information about them and their relationships are abstracted, and systematized. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking, logic reasoning, creative thinking, and communicative and research abilities, based on the referencing of the State of the Art, are used for solving the problem conceptually. </li></ul><ul><li>Connection between the objective and methods are established to solve the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>The Model not only constitutes a contribution and synthesis of the researcher, but also leads to the patent. </li></ul>Fusion of critical thinking, logic reasoning, creative thinking + State of the Art = ideal solution
  14. 14. 9. Factual Model <ul><li>Wisdom must be measurable . </li></ul><ul><li>Statistic contributes efficiently to turn a theory-conceptual situation into factual: variables appear. </li></ul><ul><li>Some statistical solved problem could coincide with the variables under study, thus facilitating the viability to verify the Factual Model. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only adequate experimental o semi-experimental tests, but also logic demonstrations are recommended to validate the Factual Model. </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop or laboratory trial and error essays are very useful for validating the Factual Model. </li></ul>Contribution Validity = Theory Conceptual Model + Factual Model Verify : (a) experimental o semi-experimental by means of statistics, (b) logic demonstration, (c) workshop/lab
  15. 15. 10. The Paper Title The Title appears from establishing relationships or dependency between the interacting variables of the Factual Model: If there is relationship: Monographic Research X X 1 : Relationship between X and X 1 or study of X X X 1 , X 2 : Improvement of X If there is dependency: Empirical Research X Y : Effect of X on Y X Y : Study of interaction between X; Y
  16. 16. 11. Research Tasks, Timing and Budget Tasks Time in hours Budget Problematic Situation, Research Problem, Research Object, Specific Research Field, Research Objective, Hypothesis State of the Art 6 Theory-Conceptual Model Factual Model The Paper Title 10 6 2 1
  17. 17. Assessment Rubrics for Technology Research Project Indicator Descriptor Deficient Regular Acceptable Outstanding Title Specific field Objective Hypothesis State of the Art Factual Model Theo & Concept Model Object Problem Problematic situation Name of Project including the variables under study Deficiencies/needs of observable reality Abstraction from problematic situation Abstraction from problem on technology field Subsystem of Object Shifted Object, based on a theory o law Relationship objective and solution of problem Referencing about Object Ideal solution of problem, based on State of the Art Verification of Theo & Concept Model Out of topic Vague idea Understanding idea Concrete idea with variables …
  18. 18. Methods of Technology Research <ul><li>A current method of technology for producing artifacts and processes is the use of tools and devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Media: energy and information. </li></ul><ul><li>Design is a compulsory requirement for the production of artifacts and processes as formal knowledge from diverse fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Trial and error method is frequent. </li></ul><ul><li>Other methods and instruments: interactions among levels and analysis units, interviews, sampling, surveys, data analysis tools, legal regulations. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Validity of Technology Research <ul><li>Construct: logic arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent: agreement of researcher, methodology advisor, and scientific advisor </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminant: according to one field of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Internal: causal relationship between treatment and outcome </li></ul><ul><li>External: transcendental study to be used for referencing </li></ul>
  20. 20. Critical Thinking Abilities Analysis: identify the relationship between BE and MUST BE conditions Self-regulation : self-conscious, self-assessment and self- correction of actions and activities. Explanation: argument and support of own reasoning. Evaluation: judge the trust on sources. Interpretation: understand and express the meaning or importance of the events. Inference: identify the sufficient and necessary conditions to hypothesize.
  21. 21. Standards and Rigor in Technology Research Chicago Style APA Style
  23. 23. The Technology Research Report Protocol <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Part 1: State of the Art </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2: Theory-Conceptual Model </li></ul><ul><li>Part 3: Analysis of Factual Model </li></ul><ul><li>Part 4: The Artifact or Process </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Future Works </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Annex </li></ul>
  24. 24. 1. The Summary <ul><li>It contains sequentially main ideas about each part of the report. </li></ul><ul><li>The averaged number of words is 120. </li></ul><ul><li>5 to 7 key words must be considered below the summary. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 2. The Introduction It includes some comments about the technology research current challenges, the problematic situation, the research problem, the research object, the specific research field, the research objective, the hypothesis, description of research tasks and the introductions of each part of the report.
  26. 26. 3. The State of the Art It includes an enlarged and deeper State of the Art of the Project.
  27. 27. 4. Theory Conceptual Model It includes an enlarged and deep Theory Conceptual Model of the Project.
  28. 28. 5. Analysis of Factual Model <ul><li>It includes an enlarged and deep Factual Model of the Project </li></ul><ul><li>The results of used Technology Research Methods are analyzed. </li></ul>
  29. 29. 6. The Artifact or Process It includes the concretion of the designed artifact or process to be patented.
  30. 30. 7. Conclusion <ul><li>It is a synthesis of the shifted object. </li></ul><ul><li>It compiles the conclusions of each part of the Project. </li></ul>
  31. 31. 8. Future Works It includes a list of the researcher’s proposal for related subsequent works.
  32. 32. 9. Referencing It comprises a logic arrangement of references, according to a style for publication, like Chicago, for example.
  33. 33. 10. Annex Additional optional information for the reader to verify data and information about the research work.
  34. 34. State of the Art Summary Introduction Artifact/Proc. Conclusions Future Works Referencing Annex Assessment Rubrics for Technology Research Report Sequentially main ideas about the report Definition of research and arranged topics Concrete description of patent Synthesis of shifted Object in each part of report Proposal for related subsequent works Norm and defined style for publication Additional Information Referencing about Object Indicator Descriptor Deficient Regular Acceptable Outstanding Factual Model Theo & Concept Model Ideal solution of problem, based on State of the Art Verification of Theo & Concept Model
  35. 35. Technology means wellness or badness: depends on human being’s prudence. Dr. Cesar Jimenez