Desertec talk1


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The Desertec concept, with supplementary slides.

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  • It is feasible and economic to conduct CSP electricity – and wind power – from the Middle East and North Africa to the whole of Europe (more details in later slides).
    There is a nice fit between CSP and wind power in the Middle East and North Africa – which is greatest in the summer – and wind power and wave power in northern Europe – which is greatest in the winter.
  • The larger red square on the left (300 km × 300 km) shows an area of desert that, if covered with concentrating solar power plants, would provide electricity that would be equivalent to what the whole world uses now. The middle-sized square (126 km × 126km) shows a corresponding area for the European Union (as it was with 25 countries in 2004). The smallest square is the corresponding area for the Middle East and North Africa (55 km x 55 km).
    Every year, each square kilometre of desert receives solar energy equivalent to 1.5 million barrels of oil. Multiplying by the area of deserts worldwide, this is several hundred times the entire current energy consumption of the world.
  • 1 Solar heat raises steam that drives a turbine and generator to create electricity.
    2 Waste steam from the turbine can be used to heat sea water. This leads to evaporation of water vapour that can be condensed into fresh water. Waste brine may be discharged back into the sea.
    3 Solar heat can be stored in melted salt so that electricity generation may continue through the night. This is not directly relevant to desalination of sea water.
  • The area under solar collectors is relatively cool. It can be used for factories, food processing, car parks, or stables for animals. Solar collectors may be installed on top of any kind of building and it will help to keep it cool, thus reducing the need for air conditioning.
    Depending on the spacing of the solar collectors, there can be enough light for growing plants with the advantage that they are protected from the harshness of direct tropical sunlight. The small picture is a photo-montage of the actual area under solar power collectors, with pictures of plants added to illustrate how the shaded area could be used for horticulture.
    The waste heat from CSP can be used to desalinate sea water and the resulting fresh water can be used for irrigating the plants.
  • CSP will require initial investment in CSP plants and transmission lines. But after that, costs will come tumbling down compared with the cost of generating electricity from fossil fuels.
  • In 2004, the New Economics Foundation published a report containing the conservative estimate that worldwide subsidies for fossil fuels was about $235bn a year (see There does not seem to have been much change since then.
    Nuclear power benefits from several hidden subsidies. One of the biggest is the fact that it only has to pay a small fraction of the cost of insuring against a Chernobyl-style accident, or worse. There is more information on this page: .
    If these overt and hidden subsidies are removed, and if the environmental costs of CO2 emissions are properly internalised, this will make a big difference to the development of CSP (and other renewables).
    But because CSP is still at an early point of its cost-reduction curve, there may still be a need for short-to-medium-term support via Feed-In Tariffs. An international system of FITs is needed covering the whole of EUMENA.
  • For more information about endorsements, see .
    The governments of Spain, Morocco, Algeria and Egypt are endorsing the DESERTEC concept in the best way possible: by ensuring that CSP plants are actually built.
    The French government is showing a lot of interest in the DESERTEC proposals in connection with the proposed Union for the Mediterranean.
  • Another motivation: breaking deadlocks in climate change negotiations: the whole of the USA and the populated parts of Canada may be powered from the south western states of the USA. The whole of India may be powered from the Thar desert and the whole of China may be powered from sunny deserts in the north and west. Countries like Saudi Arabia may move directly from being oil rich to being solar rich.
    Benefits for global security include satisfying the anticipated “global grab for energy” and the development of win-win collaborations between different groups of people.
  • Each parabolic dish-shaped mirror focuses light on to a Stirling engine that drives a dynamo. The whole unit tracks the sun during the day.
    The Stirling engine was invented in the 19th century and simply requires a source of heat to make it run. This design is also used in the Whispergen system now available for generating electricity and heating in your own home (“micro-combined-heat-and-power”).
  • The TRANS-CSP study allows for the possibility that electricity demand will continue rising up to about 2040. After that, there should be some fall in demand because of energy-saving measures (eg eliminating ‘stand-by’ on TVs, low-energy LED lighting etc).
  • Notice that, in the TRANS-CSP scenario, nuclear power will be gradually phased out. At the same time, the contribution of CSP will steadily increase.
    As indicated in the slide, the range of sources of energy will increase, the reliance on imported sources of energy will decrease, and sources of energy that are running out will be replaced by sources that can maintain supplies for a very long time into the future. Hence, in the TRANS-CSP scenario, security of energy supplies in Europe will be greatly increased.
  • In the TRANS-CSP scenario, CO2 emissions from electricity generation in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa fall from 1400 units in the year 2000 to about 400 units by the year 2050. This is a fall of over 70%.
  • The green areas in this photo-montage are areas of desert that could become productive for agriculture because fresh water would be available from the desalination of sea water using the waste heat from CSP plants. These would be plants that can be grown without needing protection from direct tropical sunlight.
  • The following five slides show detailed projections for Germany, The Netherlands, the UK, Ireland and France.
    Skip to the UK slide for further notes.
  • The suggestion in the bottom-right graph that the UK would not receive CSP electricity until nearly 2030 is probably over-cautious. It is true that CSP plants and transmission lines must be built but, with the right political will and financial impetus, CSP could be imported to the UK much sooner than 2030. This is quite compatible with the provision of CSP electricity on short timescales to people in the Middle East and North Africa.
  • Desertec talk1

    1. 1. THE DESERTEC CONCEPT Dr Gerry Wolff Coordinator of Desertec-UK Clean power from deserts Probably the single most effective means of cutting worldwide emissions of CO2
    2. 2. THE DESERTEC CONCEPT: BACKGROUND ■ Developed by the 'TREC' international network of scientists and engineers, an initiative of the Club of Rome. ■ Now promoted by the Desertec Foundation and the Desertec Industrial Initiative. ■ Underpinned by detailed research at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the US DoE, and elsewhere. ■ Uses proven technologies that are available now. ■ The Desertec concept is taking shape now. Desertec-UK
    3. 3. THE DESERTEC CONCEPT IN BRIEF ■ Colossal amounts of clean electricity may be generated in deserts using 'concentrating solar power' (CSP)─and wind power and photovoltaics (PV). ■ Efficient 'transfers' and transmission of solar electricity over long distances via low-loss ‘HVDC’ transmission lines. ■ Spin-off benefits including desalination of sea water using waste heat from power generation. Desertec-UK
    4. 4. DESERTEC IS HAPPENING NOW ■ CSP plants are already feeding electricity into the European transmission grid. ■ The Desertec Industrial Initiative is a consortium of blue-chip companies (including ABB, Deutsche Bank, E.ON, Munich Re, RWE, and Siemens) aiming to build CSP plants and develop the HVDC supergrid. ■ New CSP plants are under construction in Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, and other parts of the world. ■ More are planned by the Union for the Mediterranean ('Mediterranean Solar Plan') and the World Bank. ■ Several HVDC transmission lines are already in place. Imera and others plan to build more. The EC is providing funds for the supergrid. ■ About 9 to 14 GW of CSP capacity is in the pipeline worldwide (World Bank and EER estimates). Desertec-UK
    5. 5. Desertec-UK PS10 and PS20 power towers in Spain
    6. 6. Desertec-UK Parabolic trough CSP plant, Kramer Junction, California
    7. 7. Desertec-UK Fresnel mirror systems
    8. 8. HOW CSP WORKS Desertec-UK
    9. 9. Desertec-UK Dish/engine systems in New Mexico
    10. 10. Desertec-UK CPV systems, Australia
    11. 11. Desertec-UK
    12. 12. GENERATING ELECTRICITY WITHOUT THE SUN ■ Solar heat may be stored in melted salts so that the generation of electricity may continue at night or on cloudy days. ■ Gas or biofuels may be used as a stop-gap source of heat when there is no sun. ■ With those two things, CSP plants can provide power ‘on demand’—very useful in matching supplies to constantly-varying demands. Desertec-UK
    13. 13. HEAT STORAGE TANKS Desertec-UK
    15. 15. A TRANSMISSION GRID IS LIKE A LAKE Desertec-UK ■ Water (electricity) may be 'transferred' over a long distance without actual transmission. ■ Solar power fed into southern Europe can be an immediate benefit for countries further north.
    16. 16. TRANSMISSION: SUBMARINE SUPERGRID ■ Low-loss submarine HVDC supergrids proposed by MRP (A) and Airtricity (B). ■ Endorsed by EU Energy Commissioner, Günther Oettinger and former Energy Commissioner, Andris Piebalgs. The EC is providing support for the supergrid. ■ Some submarine HVDC cables are already in place. ■ Investment company Imera has announced a €4.4 billion plan to develop "EuropaGrid North Sea" and "EuropaGrid Atlantic". Desertec-UK A B
    17. 17. TRANSMISSION: DESERTEC SCHEMATIC Desertec-UK ■ Low-loss HVDC transmission lines connect various sources of clean electricity. ■ HVDC lines integrate with existing HVAC grids.
    18. 18. BENEFITS OF AN HVDC SUPERGRID ■ Security of supply: a shortfall in any one area can normally be met from elsewhere. ■ Reduces wastage: surplus power in any one area may be moved to where it is needed. ■ Smoothes out variations: the wind is always blowing somewhere across a large area like EUMENA. ■ Access to offshore wind farms, waves farms, etc—and CSP! ■ Needed for a single market for electricity (promoting competition between suppliers). ■ Good for UK exports of renewable energy. Desertec-UK
    19. 19. WORDWIDE POTENTIAL OF THE DESERTEC CONCEPT ■ With CSP, less than 1% of the world's deserts could produce as much electricity as the world is using now. ■ Less than 5% of the world's deserts could produce electricity equivalent to the world's total energy consumption. ■ Using low-loss HVDC transmission lines, it is feasible and economic to transmit electricity for 3000 km or more. ■ 90% of the world’s people live within 2700 km of a desert. Desertec-UK
    20. 20. Desertec-UK 3000 km
    21. 21. HUGE QUANTITIES OF CLEAN ENERGY IN DESERTS Desertec-UK World: the area of desert needed to generate (with CSP) as much electricity as the world is using now. EU and MENA: corresponding areas for Europe and for the Middle East with North Africa.
    22. 22. ENERGY DENSITIES Desertec-UK
    23. 23. DESERTEC SPIN-OFFS ■Waste heat from the generation of solar electricity may be used for the desalination of sea water. ■The shaded areas under solar collectors are protected against the harshness of direct tropical sunlight. They have many potential uses including horticulture using desalinated sea water. Desertec-UK
    25. 25. CSP: PROTECTION FROM THE SUN Desertec-UK Shaded areas under solar mirrors have many potential uses including horticulture using desalinated sea water. Land that would otherwise be unproductive may be used for growing food.
    26. 26. CSP: COOLING BY SHADING Desertec-UK ■ Solar collectors provide shade ■ Waste heat may be used to drive air conditioners. ■ The system generates electricity
    27. 27. POWER FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES In principle, heat or electricity from CSP plants, or both, may be used to power industrial processes: ■ Synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO2 and H2O. ■ Synthesis of hydrogen by electrolysis of water or direct thermal cracking of water. ■ Production and processing of steel, aluminium, etc. (Hydrogen as a reducing agent?) ■ Glass making. ■ Etc. Desertec-UK
    28. 28. FURTHER INFORMATION Desertec-UK
    29. 29. CSP COSTS (1) Desertec-UK
    30. 30. CSP COSTS (2) ■ German Aerospace Centre (DLR): CSP is likely to become one of the cheapest sources of electricity in Europe, including the cost of transmission. ■ Vinod Khosla: "... we are poised for breakaway growth—for explosive growth—not because we are cleaner [than "clean" coal-fired electricity] but because we are cheaper. We happen to be cleaner incidentally." ■ CSP costs are falling while the cost of traditional sources of energy are rising. Desertec-UK
    31. 31. HOLDING DOWN COSTS Desertec-UK
    32. 32. SUPERGRID COSTS ■ The estimated cost of a EUMENA-wide Supergrid: ■ €45bn for 100 GW (20 x 5 GW). ■ €5bn for 10 GW (2 x 5 GW) between North Africa and the UK. ■ Divided amongst 30+ countries and spread over 10 years, average annual cost per country would be €150 million or less. ■ For comparison: ■ €132.5bn (£90bn) is Gordon Brown's estimate of the cost of cleaning up the UK's nuclear legacy. ■ €7.5bn (£5.1bn) is the estimated cost of adding a new lane to the M1 motorway. ■ €166bn (US$235bn) is the annual subsidy worldwide to fossil fuel industries (New Economics Foundation, 2004). Desertec-UK
    33. 33. WORLDWIDE POTENTIAL OF RENEWABLES ■ Renewable energy technologies can provide 100 percent of the world’s energy (not just electricity) and it is technically feasible to make the transition by 2030. See “A path to sustainable energy by 2030” by Mark Z. Jacobson and Mark A. Delucchi in the November 2009 issue of Scientific American. ■ Using renewables, total world demand for power in 2030 would be 11.5 terawatts compared with 16.9 terawatts with conventional sources of energy. ■ In the JD scenario, wind supplies 51 percent of the demand worldwide, provided by 3.8 million large wind turbines. For comparison, the world manufactures 73 million cars and light trucks every year. www.energyfair.o
    34. 34. WIND POWER 1 A network of land-based 2.5-megawatt (MW) turbines restricted to nonforested, ice-free, nonurban areas operating at as little as 20% of their rated capacity could supply more than 40 times current worldwide consumption of electricity and more than 5 times total global use of energy in all forms. There is additional potential in offshore wind farms. See “Global potential for wind- generated electricity”, Xi Lua, Michael B. McElroya, and Juha Kiviluomac, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, June 22, 2009. www.energyfair.o
    35. 35. WIND POWER 2 The "economically competitive potential" of wind power in Europe is 3 times projected demand for electricity in 2020 and 7 times projected demand in 2030. Offshore wind power alone could meet between 60% and 70% of projected demand for electricity in 2020 and about 80% of projected demand in 2030. See “Europe's onshore and offshore wind energy potential”, European Environment Agency, 2009. www.energyfair.o
    36. 36. MATCHING VARIABLE DEMANDS WITH VARIABLE SUPPLIES ■ The variability of sources such as wind power is much less of an issue than is sometimes suggested. See “Managing Variability” by independent consultant David Milborrow, July 2009. ■ Electricity transmission networks in the UK are already designed to cope with unscheduled outages of power stations and variations in consumer demand. ■ For a small additional cost, wind power could provide up to 40% of the UK's electricity—and more is possible. ■ There is a range of techniques for matching variable demands with variable supplies. www.energyfair.o
    37. 37. SECURITY OF ENERGY SUPPLIES ■ The TRANS-CSP scenario provides greater security of electricity supplies than current systems: ■ Less imported energy. CSP imports would be the exception (< 15% of European electricity supplies). ■ Greater diversity of sources of electricity. CSP adds to that diversity. ■ Plentiful supplies of clean electricity means greater energy security for everyone. ■ Supergrid allows shortfalls in any area to be met from elsewhere. ■ CSP plants are hard to disrupt and easy to repair. ■ The transmission grid can be designed (like the internet) to be resilient in the face of damage or attack. ■ There would be a buyers' market for solar electricity. It would be difficult to create a solar cartel and any such cartel would probably be self- defeating. Desertec-UK
    38. 38. ENDORSEMENTS (1) At the inaugural meeting of the Union for the Mediterranean in July 2008, Prime Minister Gordon Brown said: ... in the Mediterranean region, concentrated solar power offers the prospect of an abundant low carbon energy source. Indeed, just as Britain's North Sea could be the Gulf of the future for offshore wind, so those sunnier countries represented here could become a vital source of future global energy by harnessing the power of the sun. So I am delighted that the EU is committing at this summit to work with its neighbours—including Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and the League of Arab States—to explore the development of a new 'Mediterranean Solar Plan' for the development and deployment of this vital technology from the Sahara northwards. Desertec-UK
    39. 39. ENDORSEMENTS (2) ■ 173 MPs have signed Early Day Motion 123 in support of the DESERTEC concept (rank 39 out of 2109 EDMs). ■ The German government has formally endorsed the DESERTEC concept. ■ The Dutch House of Representatives has voted 134 to 16 in favour of the DESERTEC concept. ■ H.E Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, the President of the Republic of Tunisia, has endorsed the concept. ■ Prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan is a strong supporter of the concept. ■ In the EUMENA region, CSP plants are being built in Spain, Italy, Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, and Israel. ■ Other endorsements: Al Gore, Google Inc, Vinod Khosla, Hans-Gert Pöttering, The Climate Group, Forum for the Future, … Desertec-UK
    40. 40. WHAT GOVERNMENTS CAN DO ■ Remove overt and hidden subsidies for established sources of power. ■ Ensure that a proper price is paid for the environmental cost of CO2 emissions. ■ Create an appropriate international system of incentives. ■ Create a single market for electricity throughout Europe (good) or EUMENA (better). ■ Upgrade existing transmission grids and develop a EUMENA-wide HVDC supergrid. Desertec-UK
    41. 41. THE DLR REPORTS (2005-2007) ■ The ‘MED-CSP’, TRANS-CSP’ and ‘AQUA-CSP’ reports produced by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). ■ They are the foundation of the Desertec concept. ■ Show in detail, country by country, how Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (EUMENA) can: ■ meet all needs for electricity. ■ make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. ■ phase out nuclear power at the same time. ■ Concentrating solar power (CSP) as one of several renewable sources of energy throughout EUMENA. Desertec-UK
    42. 42. MINIMISING THE USE OF FRESH WATER ■ Steam generation: ■ Water is recycled. Avoid leaks. ■ Use dish/engine systems or CPV. ■ Cooling: ■ Use dry cooling (best with power towers). Small loss of efficiency. ■ Use dish/engine systems or CPV. ■ Use sea water for cooling. ■ Cleaning mirrors: ■ Brushes. ■ Damp cloths or sponges. ■ Self-cleaning glass. Desertec-UK
    43. 43. SOME MOTIVATIONS ■ UK businesses and householders will welcome the opportunity to buy inexpensive clean power from deserts. ■ DESERTEC is a bold plan that is likely to be popular with voters. ■ CSP costs are falling while the costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power are rising. ■ Global security: plentiful cheap power increases energy security for everyone. ■ The technologies are all proven and available now. ■ CSP plants are quick to build. ■ Many opportunities for “UK plc”. ■ DESERTEC can help meet targets for renewable energy and cuts in CO2 emissions. Desertec-UK
    44. 44. DESERTEC BENEFITS ■ Plentiful, inexhaustible, inexpensive and carbon-free power for EUMENA—and corresponding cuts in CO2 emissions (mitigation). ■ Alleviation of climate-change-induced shortages of water, food and usable land (adaptation). ■ Jobs and earnings in large new industries throughout EUMENA. Large commercial opportunities for “UK plc”. ■ Global security: ■ By alleviating shortages of energy, water, food and usable land, CSP can reduce the risk of conflict over those resources. (cf Margaret Beckett’s speeches). ■ A win-win solar collaboration amongst countries of EUMENA can help to improve relations amongst different groups of people. (cf Nicolas Sarkozy’s call for “a new trans-Mediterranean partnership”). Desertec-UK
    45. 45. BENEFITS FOR THE UK ■ With or without electricity imports into the UK: ■ Cutting worldwide emissions of CO2 (we are all at risk). ■ Plentiful supplies of clean energy means, and increased diversity of supplies, means increased energy security for everyone. ■ Holding down the price of electricity throughout EUMENA. ■ Raising living standards in developing countries and reducing tensions from poverty and immigration. ■ Business opportunities and jobs for "UK plc". ■ Imports of electricity into the UK ■ Physical and/or virtual imports of clean electricity. ■ Kyoto credits and/or EU renewable energy credits. Desertec-UK
    46. 46. SUGGESTED NEXT STEPS FOR THE UK GOVERNMENT ■ Recognise the importance of the DESERTEC concept in cutting worldwide emissions of CO2. ■ Incorporate the DESERTEC concept in the UK's strategy for renewable energy. ■ Establish a DESERTEC team within DECC to promote DESERTEC developments. ■ Work with the UK’s international partners to make the necessary reforms in laws and regulations. Desertec-UK
    47. 47. Desertec-UK Parabolic trough CSP plant, Kramer Junction, California
    48. 48. Desertec-UK A dish-engine system
    49. 49. Desertec-UKSolar Two power tower, Barstow, California
    50. 50. Desertec-UK Parabolic trough collector, Albuquerque
    51. 51. Desertec-UK Sunset over solar collectors
    52. 52. Desertec-UK
    53. 53. DESERTEC AND STEEL ■ Solar electricity may serve as a clean source of power for steel making. ■ Solar heat may, in principle, be used for steel making – R & D required. ■ CSP-generated hydrogen may be used as a reducing agent in steel making – R & D required ■ CSP plants and HVDC transmission lines will need lots of steel. ■ DESERTEC projects may qualify for CDM or other credits. Desertec-UK
    54. 54. REDUCING UK DEMANDS FROM ENERGY-INTENSIVE APPLICATIONS, eg computer data centres Desertec-UK
    55. 55. Desertec-UK
    56. 56. Desertec-UK
    57. 57. HVDC SUPERGRID FEATURES ■ HVDC grids are highly-efficient: losses are only about 3% per 1000 km. ■ Electricity may be transmitted between North Africa and London with less than 10% loss of power. ■ It is feasible and economic to transmit solar electricity for 3000 km or more. ■ 90% of the world’s population lives within 2700 km of a desert. ■ HVDC grids do not replace existing HVAC grids, they complement them. Desertec-UK
    58. 58. ASSESSING CSP COSTS AND BENEFITS ■ Potential benefits include desalination of sea water and ‘CSP horticulture’. ■ Fossil fuels are still heavily subsidised in many countries: this has to stop. ■ Fossil fuels are still not paying a proper price for CO2 emissions: this has to stop. ■ Costs widely quoted for nuclear power are far too low and do not take account of several hidden subsidies. ■ Feed-in tariffs or other kinds of support for renewable forms of energy are already available in many countries. ■ Most CSP plants are hybrids: the ‘fossil’ part is cheap to build but expensive to run; the solar part is more expensive to build but cheaper to run. Desertec-UK
    59. 59. TRANS-CSP SCENARIO Year 2020 2030 2040 2050 Transfer Capacity GW 2 x 5 8 x 5 14 x 5 20 x 5 Electricity Transfer TWh/y 60 230 470 700 Capacity Factor 0.60 0.67 0.75 0.80 Turnover Billion €/y 3.8 12.5 24 35 Land Area CSP km x km HVDC 15 x 15 3100 x 0.1 30 x 30 3600 x 0.4 40 x 40 3600 x 0.7 50 x 50 3600 x 1.0 Investment CSP Billion € HVDC 42 5 143 20 245 31 350 45 Elec. Cost CSP €/kWh HVDC 0.050 0.014 0.045 0.010 0.040 0.010 0.040 0.010 Desertec-UK
    60. 60. SARGENT & LUNDY 2003 Desertec-UK
    61. 61. SARGENT & LUNDY 2005 Desertec-UK
    62. 62. JOBS AND EARNINGS ■ Design and manufacture of CSP plants: ■ Boilers, steam turbines, generators etc (same as ordinary power station). ■ Solar collectors and heat stores. ■ Building CSP plants using manufactured components (in the sun belt). ■ Management and maintenance of CSP plants (in the sun belt). ■ Design and manufacture of HVDC transmission lines and associated equipment. ■ Installation and maintenance of HVDC transmission lines (throughout EUMENA). Desertec-UK
    63. 63. GLOBAL SECURITY ■ By alleviating shortages of energy, water, food and usable land, CSP can reduce the risk of conflict over those resources. ■ A win-win solar collaboration amongst countries of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa can help to improve relations amongst different groups of people. Desertec-UK
    64. 64. SECURITY OF TRANSMISSION ■ HVDC Supergrid: ■ Improves security: a shortfall in any one area can normally be met from one or more other areas. ■ Can be designed to accommodate damage (like the internet). ■ Airtricity propose laying HVDC cables under the sea. Desertec-UK
    65. 65. ~ 9% p.a. reduction Year 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Carbonemissions(MtC) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 S curve from 2012 Cumulative CO2 emissions EACH YEAR’S DELAY MEANS STEEPER CUTS IN CO2 EMISSIONS
    66. 66. Desertec-UK
    67. 67. Desertec-UK
    68. 68. Desertec-UK
    69. 69. DESERT POWER FOR THE UK? Desertec-UK
    70. 70. TOO FAR? ■ With low-loss HVDC transmission lines, it is feasible and economic to transmit electricity up to 3000 km or more. ■ There may be less than 10% loss of power over the 2000 km between North Africa and the UK. ■ Electricity may be "transferred" over long distances without actual transmission (see next). Desertec-UK
    71. 71. TOO LONG TO WAIT? ■ The UK can begin to benefit soon from CSP via long- distance "transfers" of electricity via the existing grid. We don't have to wait for the supergrid to be completed. ■ CSP plants are relatively quick to build. ■ As quantities increase, the grid may be upgraded by removing bottlenecks, by converting HVAC lines to HVDC, and by adding new HVDC lines and smart electronics. ■ A large market for CSP will give confidence to investors, helping rapid expansion of the industry. Desertec-UK
    72. 72. TOO INSECURE? ■ The TRANS-CSP scenario provides greater security of electricity supplies than current systems: ■ Less imported energy. CSP imports would be the exception (< 15% of European electricity supplies). ■ Greater diversity of sources of electricity. CSP adds to that diversity. ■ Supergrid allows shortfalls in any area to be met from elsewhere. ■ Many countries have sunny deserts. ■ CSP plants are hard to disrupt and easy to repair. ■ The transmission grid can be designed (like the internet) to be resilient in the face of damage or attack. ■ Plentiful supplies of clean electricity means greater security for everyone. Desertec-UK
    73. 73. TOO COSTLY? ■ Estimated cost of 100 GW supergrid is €45 billion (TRANS-CSP report). ■ Shared amongst 30+ countries and spread over 10 years, this would be, on average, €150 million (or less) for each country, each year. ■ CSP is likely to be one of the cheapest sources of electricity in Europe, including the cost of transmission (TRANS-CSP report). ■ Studies show that supergrids are good value for money. Desertec-UK
    74. 74. OPPORTUNITIES FOR "UK PLC" ■ There are now over 40 CSP companies worldwide, including several with a UK base: ■ Arxiel Ventures ■ HelioDynamics ■ Microsharp Corporation Limited ■ Naanovo Energy ■ Schott Solar Thermal ■ Silicon CPV ■ Whitfield Solar ■ Transmission companies ■ ABB UK ■ Nexans ■ Siemens UK ■ Other: Steel, electronics, project management, finance, etc etc. Desertec-UK
    75. 75. Study Project TRANS-CSP Trans-Mediterranean Interconnection for Concentrating Solar Power (Introduction & Summary) Project for the Research & Development Programme of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) IFEED NREA Desertec-UK
    76. 76. 50 Countries analysed within the MED-CSP and TRANS-CSP Studies Scandinavia Western Europe Eastern Europe South-Eastern Europe Western Asia North Africa Arabian Peninsula Desertec-UK
    77. 77. Gross Electricity Demand in the Analysed Countries 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Year GrossElectricityConsumptionTWh/y Switzerland Norway Iceland Bosnia-Herzegowina Serbia & Montenegro Romania Macedonia Bulgaria Turkey Sweden Croatia Finland Greece Hungary Slowenia Slowac Republic Czech Republic Poland Italy Ireland United Kingdom Denmark Germany Netherlands Luxembourg Belgium Austria France Portugal Spain Scenario TRANS-CSPHistorical Data Desertec-UK
    78. 78. TRANS-CSP: Electricity Generation in Europe Electricity Production and Import All Countries 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Year Electricity[TWh/y] Import Solar Import Other Photovoltaics Wind Geothermal Hydropower Biomass Wave / Tidal CSP Plants Oil Gas Coal Nuclear 5 resources, mostly imported and limited 10 resources, mostly domestic and unlimited  Desertec-UK
    79. 79. Security and Redundancy of Power Supply in a Future TRANS-Mediterranean HVDC Grid Desertec-UK
    80. 80. TRANS-CSP: CO2 Emissions in Europe RUE Rational Use of Energy RES Renewable Energy Systems CCS Carbon Capture & Sequestration Avoided CO2 is calculated with respect to a mix as in the year 2000 including nuclear power Desertec-UK
    81. 81. Land Lost or Gained ? Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plants combined with Sea Water Desalination in Coastal Desert Areas Energy + Water + Income = Sustainable economic development in arid regions (artist view created with Google Earth) HVDC Link AC Grid Desertec-UK
    82. 82. Desertec-UK
    83. 83. Desertec-UK
    84. 84. Desertec-UK
    85. 85. Desertec-UK
    86. 86. Desertec-UK
    87. 87. TRANS-CSP: Investment for Least Cost Electricity TRANS-CSP Mix: Energy Mix as described here incl. RUE, RES and CCS Mix 2000: Maintaining exactly the Power Mix like in the Year 2000 with CCS invest phase least cost phase Example Spain Desertec-UK