Multimedia definitions

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Multimedia definitions
Gerhard Lock
Tallinn University Institute of Fine Arts Department of Music e-Course Multimedia in Music Education

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Multimedia definitions

  1. 1. Study guide for week 4:Topic 2 – sound editing IMultimedia definitionsKUM7088 Multimedia in Music EducationComposed byGerhard Lock
  2. 2. KUM7088 Multimedia in Music EducationComposed by Gerhard LockWhat MULTIMEDIA means?Lexical form:multimedia = plural of „multimedium“Widely used word in the plural form without taking into account that(especially in Estonian) it should be used in compositae rather with thesingular than the plural form.
  3. 3. What MULTIMEDIA means?Eesti õigekeelsussõnaraamat [Estonian Orthographic Dictionary] (ÕS),Eesti Keele Instituut [Estonian Language Institute] 2006http://portaal.eki.ee/dict/qs/multi+.meedium [multimedium] INFO simultaneous usage of several (text,graphics, sound, video) information presentation forms in a computer, telefonetc.Eesti keele seletav sõnaraamat [Estonian Describing Dictionary](EKSS), Eesti Keele Instituut [Estonian Language Institute] 2009http://www.eki.ee/dict/ekss/multi|meedium [multimedium] INFO in several forms (sound, text,graphics and video) combined and simultaneously presented information orwork.
  4. 4. What MULTIMEDIA means?Teaduse ja Tehnika Seletav Sõnaraamat / Dictionary of Science andtechnology II (1998)multimedia Comp [computer technology], ImageTech [pilditehnoloogia] Acombination of video, graphics, text and audio, using interactive programmessourced from rapid access disks eg CD, CD-ROM and accessed usually viaa computer – multimediummultimedia Telecomm [telecommunication] The simultaneous availability ona communications network, computer system or electronic recording mediumof audio, video (still and motion) and data transfer. Multimedia use of a localarea network, for example, could involve users communication by voice,showing each other documents and exchanging files, all within a commonscreen format – multimedium
  5. 5. What MULTIMEDIA means?Visual Thesaurus (2013)Multimedia, multimedia systemTransmission that combine media ofcommunication (text and graphics andsound etc.
  6. 6. What MULTIMEDIA means?Oxford Dictionary (2013)multimedia | məlti mēdēə, məltī-|ˈ ˈ ˈadjective(of art, education, etc.) using more than one medium of expression or communication: a multimedia artform.• (of computer applications) incorporating audio and video, esp. interactively.nounthe use of a variety of artistic or communicative media.• an extension of hypertext allowing the provision of audio and video material cross-referenced to a computer text.
  7. 7. What MULTIMEDIA means?Encyclopaedia Britannica ONLINE (2013)interactive multimediahttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289959/interactive-multimediaAny computer-delivered electronic system that allows the user to control, combine, andmanipulate different types of media, such as text, sound, video, computer graphics, andanimation. Interactive multimedia integrate computer, memory storage, digital (binary) data,telephone, television, and other information technologies. Their most common applicationsinclude training programs, video games, electronic encyclopaedias, and travel guides.Interactive multimedia shift the user’s role from observer to participant and are considered thenext generation of electronic information systems....continues...
  8. 8. What MULTIMEDIA means?Encyclopaedia Britannica ONLINE (2013)interactive multimediahttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289959/interactive-multimedia...continuing...A personal computer (PC) system with conventional magnetic-disk memory storagetechnically qualifies as a type of interactive multimedia. More advanced interactive systemshave been in use since the development of the computer in the mid-20th century—as flightsimulators in the aerospace industry, for example. The term was popularized in the early1990s, however, to describe PCs that incorporate high-capacity optical (laser) memorydevices and digital sound systems....continues...
  9. 9. What MULTIMEDIA means?Encyclopaedia Britannica ONLINE (2013)interactive multimediahttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289959/interactive-multimedia...continuing...The most common multimedia machine consists of a PC with a digital speaker unit and a CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) drive, which optically retrieves data and instructionsfrom a CD-ROM. Many systems also integrate a handheld tool (e.g., a control pad or joystick)that is used to communicate with the computer. Such systems permit users to read andrearrange sequences of text, animated images, and sound that are stored on high-capacity CD-ROMs. Systems with CD write-once read-many (WORM) units allow users to create andstore sounds and images as well. Some PC-based multimedia devices integrate television andradio as well....continues...
  10. 10. What MULTIMEDIA means?Encyclopaedia Britannica ONLINE [2013]Interactive multimediahttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289959/interactive-multimedia...continuing...Among the interactive multimedia systems under commercial development by the mid-1990swere cable television services with computer interfaces that enable viewers to interact withtelevision programs; high-speed interactive audiovisual communications systems that rely ondigital data from fibre-optic lines or digitized wireless transmissions; and virtual realitysystems that create small-scale artificial sensory environments.
  11. 11. What MULTIMEDIA means?New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians ONLINE [2013]*Computers and musicThe term ‘computer’ is normally reserved for a processing system that satisfies certainminimum functional requirements. Specifically, the central processing unit must be able toprocess alphanumeric information (text and numbers) in some standard form of digitalcoding, to communicate directly with a memory bank of sufficient capacity to hold both aprogram and also its immediate data, to support the ordered use of both arithmetic and logicinstructions, and to service links to the outside world for the input and output of informationas well as devices which may be directly attached to the computer in order to enhance theoperation of the system as a whole, for example a disc-based data storage unit....continues...* Manning, P. et al. [2012]. Computers and music. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/40583 [07.06.2013].
  12. 12. What MULTIMEDIA means?New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians ONLINE [2013]*Computers and music...continuing...Two important considerations have to be addressed in this context: what kind of musicalfunctions are amenable to the processes of digital computation, and how is it possible toconvert all the various forms of music data that may be encountered into a machine-readable form? Computers have been used for all manner of applications, from the synthesisof new sounds and the analysis of music in notated form to desktop music publishing andstudies in music psychology; from analysing the ways in which we respond to musicalstimuli to the processes of music performance itself. One constantly recurring issue is thenature of the relationships between a scientific tool that operates entirely within aframework of predetermined functions, and a range of human activities that in manyinstances reflect some of the most accomplished feats of human creativity....continues...* Manning, P. et al. [2012]. Computers and music. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/40583 [07.06.2013].
  13. 13. What MULTIMEDIA means?New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians ONLINE [2013]*Computers and music...continuing...There are indeed pitfalls for the unwary, but it is important to remember that the quality ofthe results obtained from computer systems is entirely dependent on the programmingand engineering skills of those who design and operate them. As the discipline matures,so does our understanding of what may be possible in the future. Although the pace oftechnological change since the previous edition of this dictionary appeared in 1980 has beenquite remarkable, there are good reasons to suppose that the next few decades are unlikely toprove so capricious. Whereas the main thrust of developments has hitherto been closely tiedto increasing the raw power and accessibility of computers, their capacity to perform complexmathematical and engineering operations is no longer a primary issue. The key to realprogress now lies almost exclusively in our capacity to apply such resources formusically useful ends....continues...* Manning, P. et al. [2012]. Computers and music. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/40583 [07.06.2013].
  14. 14. What MULTIMEDIA means?New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians ONLINE [2013]*Computers and music...continuing...Of all the creative arts music provides arguably the most significant challenges to thosewho seek to translate its characteristics into a machine-readable form. This has involvedthe design of a number of non-standard computer interfaces and the development of anextensive range of special coding techniques. The need for such tools has decreased largelybecause of the upsurge of general interest in multimedia applications. Whereas in the early1980s computers both large and small lacked facilities for audio input and output, and at bestoffered only rudimentary graphics tools, the modern personal computer providessophisticated colour graphics resources, and high-quality audio facilities have becomethe rule rather than the exception. Although advanced research applications are still for themost part best left to the specialist composer, performer or musicologist, a number of thetechniques described below are readily accessible to the home computer user with musicalinterests, amateur or professional.* Manning, P. et al. [2012]. Computers and music. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/40583 [07.06.2013].

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