Shortcut Methods of Distillation Design

2,160 views

Published on

Shortcut Methods of Distillation Design

0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE
1 SCOPE
2 ESTIMATIONOF PLATEAGE AND REFLUX
REQUIREMENTS
2.1 Generalized Procedure for Nmin and Rmin
2.2 Equation based Procedure for Nmin and Rmin
3 PREDICTION OF OVERALL PLATE EFFICIENCY
4 SIZING OF MAIN PLANT ITEMS
4.1 Column Diameter
4.2 Surface Area of Condensers and Reboilers

FIGURES

1 NON-IDEAL EQUILIBRIUM CURVE

2 AT A GLANCE CHART BASED ON FENSKE,
UNDERWOOD

3 PLATE EFFICIENCY CORRELATION OF O’CONNEL

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,160
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
342
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Shortcut Methods of Distillation Design

  1. 1. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Process Engineering Guide: GBHE-PEG-MAS-603 Shortcut Methods of Distillation Design Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  2. 2. Process Engineering Guide: Shortcut Methods of Distillation Design CONTENTS SECTION 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE 2 1 SCOPE 2 2 ESTIMATIONOF PLATEAGE AND REFLUX REQUIREMENTS 3 2.1 2.2 Generalized Procedure for Nmin and Rmin Equation based Procedure for Nmin and Rmin 4 6 3 PREDICTION OF OVERALL PLATE EFFICIENCY 7 4 SIZING OF MAIN PLANT ITEMS 7 4.1 4.2 Column Diameter Surface Area of Condensers and Reboilers 8 8 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  3. 3. FIGURES 1 NON-IDEAL EQUILIBRIUM CURVE 3 2 AT A GLANCE CHART BASED ON FENSKE, UNDERWOOD 5 PLATE EFFICIENCY CORRELATION OF O’CONNEL 7 3 DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS PROCESS ENGINEERING GUIDE 10 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  4. 4. 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE Short cut methods of distillation design (including means of sizing main plant items) have an important role to play because they: (a) Give a feel for the ease or difficulty of separation and the sensitivity to design data. (b) Assist in defining alternative process schemes for budget costing and process selection. (c) Assist in the planning and design of semi-technical distillation trials (e.g. Oldershaw column simulation). (d) Assist in the setting up of rigorous calculations using computer methods. (e) Provide a means of checking that results from rigorous computer methods are sensible. The last of these is MOST IMPORTANT. Conversely, there are situations where short cut methods should be avoided, or at most used only for an initial evaluation: (1) Where the system is highly non-ideal (risk of two liquid phases). (2) Where VLE data are not available (it is often found that such systems are highly nonideal). (3) For the simulation of existing columns for purposes of optimization, uprating or other process changes. In (3) short cut methods can be most unreliable, failing to give both single point solutions and trends with any predictable accuracy. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  5. 5. 1 SCOPE The areas in which the use of short cut methods of design are recommended require only a very simplified approach - a 'back of the envelope' calculation. This guide therefore presents procedures to define plateage and reflux requirements based on Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland. This is not necessarily the most accurate method, but is simple and quick to use. Similarly, a simple means of predicting plate efficiency is presented. For budget costs, the equation given in the FRI Design Handbook for trial tower diameter may be used for trayed and packed columns. Also, simple equations are presented for quick sizing of condensers and reboilers. 2 ESTIMATION OF PLATEAGE AND REFLUX REQUIREMENTS Two approaches are presented for the estimation of plateage and reflux requirements. Both are based on the Fenske-Underwood method: (a) a simple graphical approach, and (b) a method based on the equations written for a binary system. Note that the calculation of Nmin is usually more accurate than that of Rmin. This is because the latter depends on the intersection of the operating and equilibrium lines which is usually not accurately located when the equilibrium line is represented as a mean constant relative volatility. Figure 1 shows a non-ideal system where the equilibrium looks reasonably well represented by a mean constant relative volatility. However, for the example given Rmin is 40% greater than Underwood predicts while Nmin is only 10% greater than Fenske predicts. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  6. 6. FIGURE 1 NON-IDEAL EQUILIBRIUM CURVE Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  7. 7. 2.1 Generalized Procedure for Nmin and Rmin (a) Use the key component concept, i.e. reduce the separation of a multicomponent system to a binary problem. To do this, establish the two key components, i.e. the two components which it is desired to separate. These are designated the light key component (LK) and the heavy key component (HK). All material more volatile than LK is treated as this component and all material less volatile than HK is considered to be HK. Work on a molar basis. The relative volatility, assuming ideality, is given by: (b) A rough guide to the relationship between relative volatility and boiling point difference is as follows: B.Pt difference °C 2 5 10 20 30 50 (c) α 1.05 1.11 1.25 1.6 2.0 3.1 Short cut methods of design should only be used when α > 1.2. When α < 1.2, small changes in activity coefficient (non-ideality) can be very important. (d) Knowing a use Figure 2 as an aid to setting up or checking computations or simply for obtaining a feel for the difficulty of separation. The data in Figure 2 were calculated using Fenske-Underwood. To a first approximation the Gilliland correlation predicts optimum still performance at: Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  8. 8. Nmin x 2 = Noperating Rmin x 1.3 = Roperating The boil-up rate per 100 te/h feed rate plotted in Figure 2 was calculated at Rmin x 1.3 value. FIGURE 2 AT A GLANCE CHART BASED ON FENSKE, UNDERWOOD Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  9. 9. 2.2 Equation Based Procedure for Nmin and Rmin The recommended Fenske-Underwood equations to calculate Nmin and Rmin assume that relative volatility and molal overflows are constant (heats of mixing and heat losses are also assumed negligible). (a) Fenske Equation where: XD = mole fraction of more volatile component in distillate. XB = mole fraction of more volatile component in bottoms. (b) Underwood Equation When the feed is liquid at its boiling point: where: XF = mole fraction of more volatile component in feed. If the distillate is of high purity XD ® 1 and the equation simplifies to: Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  10. 10. (c) Gilliland Correlation Gilliland derived a correlation between the number of theoretical plates, a finite reflux ratio, Nmin and Rmin. For the accuracy required in this procedure, the economic optimum can be taken as: 2 x Nmin = Number of theoretical plates required 1.3 x Rmin = Operating reflux ratio 3 PREDICTION OF OVERALL PLATE EFFICIENCY For cost purposes the number of theoretical trays needs to be translated into the number of actual trays required for a particular separation. O'Connell's correlation is the suggested method for predicting plate efficiency (see Figure 3). This correlation gives a reasonable estimation of plate efficiency bearing in mind the scant input data required. Only a knowledge of the relative volatility of key components and the viscosity of the feed at average column conditions is required. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  11. 11. FIGURE 3 PLATE EFFICIENCY CORRELATION OF O'CONNEL (Trans.Amer.Inst.Chem.Engrs., Vol 42, p741, 1946) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  12. 12. 4.1 Column Diameter The equation given in the FRI Design Handbook to determine column diameters for sieve plate systems can be used generally to give an approximate sizing, viz.: Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  13. 13. 4.2 Surface Area of Condensers and Reboilers The rate of heat flow, q = UATm For a particular still, with liquid feed and no heat loss, q can be assumed to be the same for condenser and reboiler calculations. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  14. 14. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  15. 15. DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS PROCESS ENGINEERING GUIDE This Process Engineering Guide makes reference to the following document: Fractionation Research Inc. Design Handbook (referred to in Clause 1 & 4.1). Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com

×