Selection and Design of Condensers

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Selection and Design of Condensers
0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE
1 SCOPE
2 FIELD OF APPLICATION
3 DEFINITIONS
4 CHOICE OF COOLANT

5 LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS
5.1 Distillation Column Condensers
5.2 Other Process Condensers

6 CONTROL
6.1 Distillation Columns
6.2 Water Cooled Condensers
6.3 Refrigerant Condensers

7 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
7.1 Heat Transfer Resistances
7.2 Pressure Drop
7.3 Handling of Inerts
7.4 Vapor Inlet Design
7.5 Drainage of Condensate

8 SUMMARY OF TYPES AVAILABLE
8.1 Direct Contact Condensers
8.2 Shell and Tube Exchangers
8.3 Air Cooled Heat Exchangers
8.4 Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers
8.5 Internal Condensers
8.6 Plate Heat Exchangers
8.7 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
8.8 Other Compact Designs

9 BIBLIOGRAPHY

FIGURES
1 DIRECT CONTACT CONDENSER WITH INDIRECT COOLER FOR RECYCLED CONDENSATE
2 SPRAY CONDENSER
3 TRAY TYPE CONDENSER
4 THREE PASS TUBE SIDE CONDENSER WITH INTERPASS LUTING FOR CONDENSATE DRAINAGE
5 CROSS FLOW CONDENSER WITH SINGLE PASS COOLANT

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Selection and Design of Condensers

  1. 1. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Process Engineering Guide: GBHE-PEG-HEA-508 Selection and Design of Condensers Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  2. 2. Process Engineering Guide: Selection and Design of Condensers CONTENTS SECTION 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE 3 1 SCOPE 3 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION 3 3 DEFINITIONS 3 4 CHOICE OF COOLANT 4 5 LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS 5 5.1 5.2 Distillation Column Condensers Other Process Condensers 5 5 6 CONTROL 5 6.1 6.2 6.3 Distillation Columns Water Cooled Condensers Refrigerant Condensers 5 5 6 7 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 6 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Heat Transfer Resistances Pressure Drop Handling of Inerts Vapor Inlet Design Drainage of Condensate 6 7 7 8 8 8 SUMMARY OF TYPES AVAILABLE 9 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  3. 3. 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 Direct Contact Condensers Shell and Tube Exchangers Air Cooled Heat Exchangers Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers Internal Condensers Plate Heat Exchangers Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers Other Compact Designs 9 11 15 15 16 16 16 16 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 17 FIGURES 1 DIRECT CONTACT CONDENSER WITH INDIRECT COOLER FOR RECYCLED CONDENSATE 9 2 SPRAY CONDENSER 10 3 TRAY TYPE CONDENSER 10 4 THREE PASS TUBE SIDE CONDENSER WITH INTERPASS LUTING FOR CONDENSATE DRAINAGE 12 CROSS FLOW CONDENSER WITH SINGLE PASS COOLANT 13 5 DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS PROCESS ENGINEERING GUIDE 18 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  4. 4. 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE This Process Engineering Guide is one of a series on heat transfer prepared for GBH Enterprises. 1 SCOPE This Guide is designed as an aid to the selection of condensers for process duties. It describes the various factors which influence the choice of exchanger, giving some of the options and detailing their merits and draw-backs. For more general information on selection of heat exchanger type see GBHE-PEG-HEA506. The Guide also gives advice on design methods for condensers. It does not attempt to give detailed design procedures, most of which are in any case performed by computer programs, but points the reader to sources of information. It does give advice on many of the additional design features which are not covered by the programs. General recommendations on computer programs for exchanger design are given in GBHE-PEG-HEA-502. 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION This Guide is intended for process engineers and plant operating personnel in GBH Enterprises world-wide, who may be involved in the specification or design of condensers. 3 DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this Guide, the following definitions apply: HTFS Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Service. A co-operative research organization, in the UK, involved in research into the fundamentals of heat transfer and two phase flow and the production of design guides and computer programs for the design of industrial heat exchange equipment. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  5. 5. HTRI Heat Transfer Research incorporated. A co-operative research organization, based in the USA, involved in research into heat transfer in industrial sized equipment, and the production of design guides and computer programs for the design of such equipment. TEMA The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers’ Association. An organization of US manufacturers of shell and tube exchangers. Their publication ‘Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association’ is widely accepted as the basis specification of heat exchangers 4 CHOICE OF COOLANT The choice of coolant is obviously Influenced by the condensing temperature of the process stream. In the case of multi-component systems, which condense over a temperature range, the key temperature is the final temperature to which the product is to be cooled. For temperatures above ambient the choice is usually between air and cooling tower water. GBHE-PEG-HEA-513 discusses the relative merits of air and water cooling. This indicates that water is likely to be more economic if the condensing temperature is less than 20°C above the design air temperature, and air if it is more than 30°C above. These figures are ‘rules of thumb’, and may be influenced by layout considerations. See Clause 5. For condensing temperatures less than 5 - 10°C above the supply temperature of the cooling water the size of a water cooled exchanger may become excessive, and it will be economical to use some form of refrigeration. The cold service fluid used in the process exchangers may be either a single phase liquid or a boiling liquid. For single phase liquid coolants, chilled water can be provided at down to 2 5°C; below that, either a brine such as 25% CaCl2, or an organic liquid such as trichloroethylene or kerosene is used. With boiling liquid coolants, the working fluid of the refrigeration plant is generally used directly as the coolant, the process exchanger becoming the evaporator of the refrigeration cycle, and the vapor being returned to the suction of the compressor. Typical fluids are halocarbons, such as R22 or KLEA 134A, or ammonia. On some plants, e.g. olefins, process fluids such as ethylene may be used as the boiling refrigerant. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  6. 6. For condensers for fluids with a wide condensing range, cooling to low temperatures, it may prove more economic to perform the condensation in two stages, taking out most of the heat load in an air or water cooled unit, and following it with a refrigerated condenser for the final cooling. This will reduce the load on the refrigeration system, which is an expensive form of cooling. A combination of air cooling followed by water cooling is sometimes used for wide temperature ranges above ambient. However, GBHE-PEG-HEA-513 suggests that this is often not economic. In recent years there has been an increased tendency to heat integration on plants. If a suitable process stream is available, it can be used as the coolant. However, it should be remembered that the control requirements of the plant may impose a fluctuating demand on the coolant, which may influence the operability of the total exchanger network. A special case of heat integration in distillation columns is mechanical vapor re-compression, where the overhead vapor is compressed and condensed at a higher temperature to provide the heat input to the column reboiler. 5 LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS 5.1 Distillation Column Condensers One of the major factors influencing the layout, and sometimes the choice, of the condenser for a distillation column is whether the reflux liquid is to return to the column under gravity, or a pumped reflux system is to be used. In the former case, the condenser has to be mounted above the top plate of a trayed column or the distributor of a packed column. The use of a gravity reflux return may also impose a lower design pressure drop for the condenser than is necessary for a pumped system. With a pumped reflux system, the designer has more flexibility. However, the potential savings in mounting the condenser near grade level must be offset against need for a pump and the increased cost of vapor and liquid pipework to link the condenser with the top of the column. Moreover, a pumped reflux system usually requires a reflux drum; for a gravity return system, particularly if the top product is to be removed as vapor, it may be possible to dispense with this. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  7. 7. With a free standing column, a pumped reflux system has to be used unless either the column is located close to a structure as high as the column on which the condenser can be mounted, or the condenser is supported directly from the column. The latter favors either an internal condenser or a reflux condenser (dephlegmator), where the condensate flows counter-current to the vapors. See GBHE-PEG-HEA-516 for a discussion of reflux condensation. Air cooled exchangers require a relatively large plot area. Because of this, it may be difficult to find a suitable location for one which would allow gravity condensate return. 5.2 Other Process Condensers For most other plant condenser duties, layout does not have a major influence on the choice of condenser: the structure is usually present to support any design at a suitable elevation. 6 CONTROL 6.1 Distillation Columns The operation of a distillation column is usually coupled to the column pressure control. There are many ways in which this can be done. The choice of method depends amongst other factors on whether the vapor is totally condensed, or the top product leaves as a vapor. Some of the methods can be applied to any type of condenser, but others are specific to certain designs. Reference [1] and GBHE-PEG-MAS-608 give good reviews of alternative methods, discussing their advantages and drawbacks. 6.2 Water Cooled Condensers It is often necessary to control the heat load on a condenser, for example if it is a partial condenser. With a single phase coolant the obvious way to do this is to throttle back the supply of coolant. However, if the coolant side is prone to fouling which is velocity dependent, this can cause problems. Cooling water is particularly bad in this respect; low velocities may lead to both high fouling and corrosion of metals. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  8. 8. It is preferable to control the heat load either by bypassing the hot fluid or by recycling the cooling water round the exchanger, thus maintaining an optimum velocity. See GBHE-PEG-HEA-511 for more details. 6.3 Refrigerant Condensers When using a boiling refrigerant as coolant, it is usually necessary to ensure that complete evaporation of the liquid refrigerant takes place, to avoid returning liquid to the compressor suction. This requires control of the refrigerant feed rate to match the varying plant demands. Partly because of this, most process refrigerant cooled exchangers are designed as shell and tube exchangers with shell side boiling, usually as kettle boilers, as this allows easy control of the liquid level and disengagement of the vapor. Control of heat load can be effected by varying the pressure, and hence evaporation temperature, of the refrigerant. 7 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 7.1 Heat Transfer Resistances The heat transfer resistance on the condensing side of an exchanger is made up from two parts (apart from fouling): the resistance of the condensate film and the resistance of the vapor film between the bulk vapor and the vapor-condensate interface. For a single component, there is no vapor film resistance, but for multicomponent systems, including single condensables with inerts, it can be substantial. The value of the condensate film resistance depends on the geometry of the condensing surface, and on whether the process is dominated by gravity or vapor shear. In the absence of vapor shear, on vertical surfaces the condensate film resistance initially rises with increased condensate loading, and then falls again. On the outside of horizontal tubes, or inside horizontal passages, the resistance generally rises with increased loading. Vapor shear effects reduce the resistance, unless the vapor is flowing counter-current to the condensate, when they may increase it. Further information on the condensate film resistance can be found in References [2], [3] and [4] Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  9. 9. The vapor phase resistance for multi-component condensation arises from the difference in composition between the bulk vapor and the interface, and is complicated by mass transfer effects. The full analysis for other than binary systems is extremely complex; even for binary mixtures the calculations are tedious. It is therefore usual for engineering calculations to use an approximate method known as either the Silver or Bell and Ghally method, which is given in Reference [5] In its simplest form, this relates the local vapor film heat transfer coefficient α f to the heat transfer coefficient that the gas/vapor phase would have at that point in the exchanger in the absence of liquid film and condensation α g by the equation: Later workers refined this approach, introducing additional correction terms. Details of the modified method as used in the HTFS computer programs may be found in Reference [6]. It can be seen from the above that high condensing side coefficients are favored by high vapor velocities, both to improve the condensate film coefficient and to give a good gas phase coefficient. Unfortunately, pressure drop also rises with vapor velocity, limiting the velocity that can be used. During the course of condensation, the vapor flow falls, causing a reduction in coefficients. This can be particularly important in the latter stages of a condensation with small quantities of non-condensables present, where very poor coefficients can result. These effects can be reduced in some designs of condenser by reducing the flow area as the condensation proceeds. For example, the number of channels per pass in a multi-pass exchanger can be reduced for the later passes. For a shell and tube exchanger with condensing on the shell side, the baffle pitch can be decreased at the cold end of the exchanger. Where it is not practical to reduce the flow area, it may be worth considering dividing the duty into two, with a small vent condenser following the main unit. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  10. 10. Although experience indicates that the Silver/Bell and Ghally method, as used in most computer programs, generally results in a reasonable estimate of the heat duty of the exchanger, it cannot give accurate information on non-equilibrium effects. In practice, the exit condensate is generally at a lower temperature than the vapor, and the vapor may be super- or sub-saturated with respect to one or more components. This can be particularly important when the vent from a condenser is exiting to the environment. Unfortunately, suitable reliable programs for calculating these cases are not available and hand calculations are difficult. If this is important, a heat transfer specialist should be consulted. 7.2 Pressure Drop A high pressure drop is usually undesirable in a condenser; the condensing temperature falls with reducing pressure, lowering the temperature driving force for the condensation. Moreover, for a given flowrate the pressure drop rises as the pressure falls. This can be particularly critical for vacuum condensers. As the high velocities which tend to give high pressure drops also result in good heat transfer, some compromise may be necessary, but particular attention should be given to minimizing the parasitic pressure losses which occur in regions away from the heat transfer surface, such as the nozzle pressure drops. The acceleration component of the pressure gradient in a condenser is positive, due to momentum recovery. The maximum accelerational pressure rise is equal to two inlet velocity heads. Depending on the magnitude of the frictional terms, the static pressure in a condenser can actually rise as the condensation proceeds. 7.3 Handling of lnerts Many process fluids, even when nominally totally condensable, contain trace quantities of non-condensable gases, often referred to as ‘inerts’. Unless some care is taken at the design stage these may build up in the exchanger and, by lowering the local dew point, result in significant loss of performance. lnerts can generally be removed from an exchanger by a suitable purge, either continuous or intermittent, depending on the inlet concentration. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  11. 11. Bell in Reference [7] claims that more than half of all the operational troubles with condensers are caused by poor venting. He states the four principles of condenser venting as: (a) All vapors to be condensed contain non-condensable gases (b) Condensers must be constructed positively to guide the non-condensable gases to a convenient. identifiable point or region in the condenser. (c) The vent must be located in that region. (d) A vent condenser may be required. 7.4 Vapor Inlet Design Because the volume flow rate decreases as the condensation proceeds, it is economical to employ a high vapor velocity at the inlet. However, this may present problems: (a) High velocities may result in excessive pressure drop. (b) There may be erosion damage due to impingement of liquid droplets in the incoming vapor. An impingement plate is ALWAYS required for the inlet nozzle of a shell and tube condenser with shell side condensation unless it can be guaranteed that the vapor is always significantly superheated, say by 50°C or more. Even then, a plate will be necessary if the product of the fluid density and the square of the nozzle velocity exceeds the TEMA recommended maximum of 2200 kg/m.s2. (c) Vibration damage may occur, particularly with shell and tube exchangers. For shell and tube exchangers, a vibration analysis should always be performed using either the methods within the computer programs or a suitable hand method such as Reference [8]. (d) Mal-distribution may occur. This problem is particularly important for condensers with a large number of parallel flow channels, such as shell and tube exchangers with tube side condensation. It arises if the jet of vapor issuing from the inlet nozzle has a momentum that is high relative to the pressure drop in the tubes. If the nozzle is parallel to the tubes, the flowrate in the tubes immediately opposite the nozzle can be well above the mean flowrate, giving severe mal-distribution. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  12. 12. This can result in accumulation of non-condensable gases in the tubes subjected to lower flow rates, resulting in severe downgrading of the condenser performance. To avoid severe mal-distribution, the total pressure drop across the tubes should be at least five times the inlet nozzle pressure drop. Mal-distribution can be reduced by fitting restriction devices into each tube inlet, by the use of a perforated deflector plate in the inlet header, by increasing the size of the inlet nozzle or by using a radial nozzle. 7.5 Drainage of Condensate If condensate and uncondensed vapors and gases are to be withdrawn from the condenser through a single nozzle, this must be adequately sized for the flow, remembering that two phase pressure drops are considerably greater than single phase ones. It is more usual to arrange for vapor-liquid disengagement within the exchanger, with separate outlet nozzles for the two phases. If liquid carry-over with the vapors is undesirable, a demister before the vapor outlet, or a separate separator may be necessary. The liquid outlet should be designed to avoid carry under of the vapors, using the recommendations in GBHE-PEG-FLO-301 for self-venting flow. A vortex breaker is recommended; for shell side condensation in a shell and tube exchanger this is not necessary provided that the bottom tubes are close to the outlet, but is required if tubes have been removed in this region to aid condensate drainage. 8 SUMMARY OF TYPES AVAILABLE 8.1 Direct Contact Condensers Direct contact condensers are the simplest and cheapest form of condenser. They are also less prone than other types to problems associated with dirty or corrosive fluids. However, they are only suitable where there is no objection to mixing the process fluid and the coolant. They are mainly used in vacuum or low pressure applications, particularly for condensing steam; a typical example is for the final condenser in a multi-effect evaporation train in the production of salt. For vacuum duties, it is usual to mount the condenser at a sufficient elevation to enable the coolant and condensate to flow by gravity through a ‘barometric leg’, thus obviating the need for a pump. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  13. 13. Another area of use for direct contact condensers is as a quench condenser for a hot corrosive gas. Although principally used for condensing steam, organic vapors can also be condensed. If water is used as the coolant and the organic material is immiscible with water, a phase separator will be necessary. Often, however, the product itself is used as the coolant, the mixture of freshly condensed material and recycled cold product being passed through a separate single phase cooler and a portion returned to the condenser. See Figure 1. This may enable a large surface condenser to be replaced by a simple direct condenser and a small cooler. FIGURE 1 DIRECT CONTACT CONDENSER WITH INDIRECT COOLER FOR The most common form of direct contact condenser is the spray chamber shown in Figure 2. The key to this design is to produce fine sprays which are positioned so that the liquid is well distributed. This produces a large surface area for heat and mass transfer. The liquid pressure must be considerably above that of the vapor to ensure a good spray. However, too fine a spray results in excessive liquid carryover. Design methods for spray condensers are given in References [9] and [10]. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  14. 14. FIGURE 2 SPRAY CONDENSER The spray condenser has the disadvantage that the nozzles can block if using a dirty coolant such as river water. The tray type of direct condenser shown in Figure 3 does not have this limitation. Unfortunately, it does not produce a very high interfacial area. References [9] and [10] can be used for design of this type also. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  15. 15. FIGURE 3 TRAY TYPE CONDENSER Reference [11] describes a design of direct contact condenser in which the interfacial area is created by feeding the liquid over a set of V-notch weirs mounted at the top of the chamber. This design probably produces an interfacial area between that of the tray and spray designs. A packed column gives the highest thermal efficiency of all types of direct contact condenser, with evenly distributed counter-current flow of vapor and liquid, a high interfacial area and a good heat transfer coefficient. However, it is more expensive than the other designs, and gives a larger pressure drop. The simplest method of contacting a high pressure vapor with a liquid is to bubble it through the liquid in some sort of sparge device. The major drawbacks of such devices are the noise and possible cavitation damage associated with collapse of the vapor bubbles. In can be particularly difficult to design equipment to operate reasonably over a wide turndown range. Reference [12] gives some useful advice on design of sparging systems for condensable vapors or very soluble gases. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  16. 16. 8.2 Shell and Tube Exchangers With shell and tube condensers, there is a choice between shell side or tube side condensation. Tube side condensation is favored when the condensing fluid is at high pressure, is corrosive or prone to cause fouling. Shell side condensation is generally used for low pressures, and almost always for vacuum duties. There are two basic types of shell side condenser, cross-flow condensers and baffled exchangers where the overall flow direction is along the shell. Shell and tube condensers can be rated using commercially available computer programs. 8.2.1 Tube Side Condensation Vertical tube side condensers are almost always designed as single pass units, usually with co-current downwards flow of condensate and vapor. It is feasible to design a two pass condenser with vertical up-flow in the first pass and down-flow in the second, provided that it can be guaranteed that the vapor velocity at the top of the first pass is sufficient to carry the condensate upwards, but this is not recommended. Some condensers are built in which substantially all the condensation takes place in a down-flow pass with condensate removal from the base. The non-condensables then flow back up a second pass having far fewer tubes to effect a final cooling. This second pass operates with a counter-current flow of condensate and vapor. The design of such units cannot be performed directly with computer programs. See GBHE-PEG-HEA-516 for a discussion of reflux condensers (dephlegmators) in which the condensate and vapors flow counter-current. For single pass down flow, the cheapest designs are generally obtained by using the maximum allowable tube length, subject to pressure drop constraints. Use of shorter tubes may result in a substantial increase in required heat transfer surface, particularly for condensation with inerts. Horizontal tube side condensers give the designer more flexibility in principle, as multi-pass units are possible. However, except for two pass U-tube designs, problems can arise in distribution of the two phase mixture after the first pass. Computer programs for the rating of condensers generally assume a uniform distribution of liquid and vapor, but in practice, most of the liquid will flow in the lower tubes of the second and subsequent passes. For a multi-component mixture, this means that the vapor in the upper tubes will contain less of the heavier components, and so be more difficult to condense. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  17. 17. There are also problems with assessing the pressure drop, as different tubes will have different flow rates and vapor fractions. Reference [13] recommends the removal of condensate from the end of each pass in a multi-pass exchanger, with suitable luting where the individual condensate streams are combined to prevent vapor bypassing. (See Figure 4). Although this does get round the problem of phase distribution, because the composition and flowrate will vary from pass to pass, each pass will have to be modeled separately; conventional computer programs are not suitable directly for this task, although they can assist, given some skill on the part of the designer. If this approach is used, there is a possibility that the mixed stream from the different passes will flash when the mixing takes place. A check on the vaporliquid equilibrium of the mixture should be made. FIGURE 4 THREE PASS TUBE SIDE CONDENSER WITH INTERPASS LUTING FOR CONDENSATE DRAINAGE A multi-pass design allows the number of tubes per pass to be reduced in later passes, to maintain the vapor velocity, and hence heat transfer coefficient. However, none of the computer programs available is able directly to model exchangers with differing numbers of tubes per pass, so some ingenuity is necessary on the part of the designer. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  18. 18. 8.2.2 Cross-flow Shell Side Condensers (TEMA X Shell Type) This type of condenser is used for condensing large volume flowrate vapors containing only small quantities of incondensable gases where only a low pressure drop can be tolerated, particularly in vacuum duties. The most common application is steam turbine exhaust condensers in the power industry. The main problems in the design are: (a) Avoiding a very high cross flow velocity in the inlet region, which could lead to tube damage from erosion or vibration. This is usually done by providing multiple inlet nozzles to spread the vapor along the shell. Suitable impingement devices should be provided for each nozzle. There should be an adequate number of support plates along the shell to prevent serious tube vibration. These must be shaped to support all the tubes, but cut clear of the upper and lower spaces where there are no tubes, to allow longitudinal flow of vapor and condensate. (b) Minimizing the pressure drop, to avoid loss of temperature difference. (c) Avoiding stagnant regions where inerts can accumulate. There should be a positive flow of vapor towards the vent region, which should be maintained as cold as possible to reduce the condensable components as far as possible. In some designs, particularly with a single pass coolant, inclined longitudinal baffles running the full length of the shell are used in the region near the vents, as shown in Figure 5. Because of the high concentration of incondensable gases in the region of the vent, the heat flux to these tubes will be low, so the coolant in these tubes will not heat up much, thus reducing the temperature of the vent stream. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  19. 19. FIGURE 5 CROSS FLOW CONDENSER WITH SINGLE PASS COOLANT 8.2.3 Baffled Shell Side Condensers The most common type of condenser in the process industries is the horizontal shell side condenser. Vertical shell side condensation is normally limited to the heating of vertical boilers etc., usually with condensing steam. For process duties, a nominally horizontal design is more usual, although the exchanger is generally inclined at a small angle, say 5°, to assist drainage. The baffles should have a vertical cut, and have a triangular notch in the bottom to assist in the drainage of condensate. This should have a minimum size of 20 mm for clean fluids and 40 mm for dirty fluids. At the cold end of the shell, the baffle spacing can be reduced to maintain an adequate vapor velocity. Note: Commercially available programs can presently model variable baffle pitch. An impingement plate in the shell opposite the inlet nozzle just above the first row of tubes is mandatory unless using a vapor belt inlet. With small nozzles, this should be slightly bigger than the nozzle; with large nozzles it should extend to the shell to avoid a high velocity stream impacting the outer tubes. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  20. 20. Tubes are removed from the top of the shell (assuming a top vapor inlet) to avoid excessive pressure drop of the incoming fluid and to reduce the velocities off the impingement plate. Tubes may be removed from the bottom of the shell to assist condensate drainage. The spaces left by the removal of tubes and the pass partition lanes for multi-pass designs represent by-pass routes for the vapor. Sealing devices or longitudinal baffles may be necessary to reduce by-passing. A vent should be provided on the top of the shell at the cold end, opposite the liquid nozzle. The liquid nozzle should be sized for self venting flow as in GBHEPEG-FLO-301, with a vortex breaker unless the tubes extend to close to the liquid nozzle. The exchanger should be mounted to give a slight downwards slope to the cold end, to assist in drainage. Most process shell and tube exchangers are of TEMA E-type, with a single side pass. For large volumes of vapors or low pressure drops, it may be preferable to use a split flow arrangement (TEMA J-shell). See GBHE-PEG-HEA-506 for more information on the TEMA designations. 8.2.4 Extended Surfaces If the heat transfer resistance on the condensing side is dominant, it may be worth considering the use of extended surfaces. The most common form of this is the use of low-finned tubing. This is produced by rolling from a thick walled base tube to give fin heights typically around 1 mm and frequencies from 400 1500 fins per meter. The ends of the tubes are left plain for joining to the tubesheets, and sometimes a plain section is left at each baffle position. The tubes come in standard fin sizes and frequencies; consult manufacturers’ brochures for exact dimensions. The finned tubing typically has an outside area from 1.5 to 4 times that of the plain tube. Finned tubing is normally used in horizontal exchangers, as this gives good condensate drainage. The fins provide additional surface, and also may give some direct increase In local coefficient. This is evidenced by the fact that the enhancement in the condensing heat transfer coefficient, based on the plain tube area, may be even greater than the increase in area, but generally it is less, due to flooding of the lower portion of each tube by condensate. This flooding is the result of hold-up of condensate by capillary forces. There is a theoretical optimum fin spacing for a given fluid which will result in the smallest exchanger. The optimum depends on the surface tension of the fluid. Finned tubes are likely to be of most benefit for low surface tension fluids which have less tendency to flood. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  21. 21. Low-fin tubing is more expensive per meter than plain tubing. However, its use will result in a smaller exchanger. Whether there is an overall saving can only be determined by performing designs for both plain and enhanced tubes. 8.2.5 Subcooling It is often desired to subcool the condensate from a condenser. The condensate from a vertical tube side exchanger is usually subcooled to some extent, and designs can be performed to give reasonable levels of subcooling. Note: Caution: some commercially available programs severely underestimates the performance in the subcooling zone, as their model is based on full bore pipe flow rather than the film flow which usually occurs. In horizontal tube side condensers, subcooling can be achieved by arranging for the last pass to run full of condensate. It may be advantageous to reduce the number of tubes in this pass to give a reasonable velocity. Note: The computer programs cannot directly model exchangers with different numbers of tubes per pass. Subcooling can be done in shell side condensation by arranging for the condensate to maintain a level in the shell above the bottom few rows of tubes. However, it must be remembered that this is not a very efficient way of performing the subcooling. The liquid velocities in the bottom of the shell are low, so that cooling is performed mainly by natural convection. It is not possible to predict with any certainty what level of subcooling will be achieved, and the calculations of subcooling in the thermal rating programs are based on a physical model of the system which does not correspond to reality. If shell side subcooling is used, it will usually be necessary to arrange for level control of the condensate in the shell. Any level control device should preferably be adjustable. Designs have been produced in which the lower’ part of the shell is separated from the condensing region by a horizontal baffle, open to the upper part in the last baffle space from the vapor inlet end. Condensate is then directed back along the shell below this baffle. Extra cross baffles are used to give a good flow pattern and hence heat transfer to subcool the condensate. This type of design is frequently used for the design of boiler feed water heaters, and has been used for process condensers. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  22. 22. There are no computer programs that we are aware of suitable for modeling this design except for the special case of steam condensation. If it is essential to guarantee a given level of subcooling, it is preferable to perform this part of the heat duty in a separate exchanger designed for the purpose. Vertical shell side condensers, such as steam heated vaporizers, are sometimes designed to have a variable level of condensate as a means of controlling the heat duty (see GBHE-PEG-HEA-515). This will lead to some subcooling of the condensate. Again, it is not possible to predict this with great accuracy. 8.3 Air Cooled Heat Exchangers Consult GBHE-PEG-HEA-513 for full information on air cooled heat exchangers, including their use as condensers. Note: Commercially available programs: air cooled exchanger rating subroutines allows for different numbers of tubes per pass. It is normal design practice to have fewer tubes in the subcooling pass(es) than in the condensing pass(es). 8.4 Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers There are several forms of exchanger based on the spiral plate concept. All of these are suitable for condensation duties, but have different merits. The first of these, referred to as Type I by Alfa Laval, one of the principal manufacturers of spiral plate exchangers, has spiral flow on both sides. This results in almost pure countercurrent flow, and is thus suitable for duties which require a long flow path, such as wide condensing range mixtures. The Alfa Lava1 Type II has spiral flow on the coolant side, but the condensate flows in cross flow, with a relatively short flow path. It is normally used where there is a very large volume of vapor to be handled with low pressure drop. It will be better suited to single component systems than wide condensing range mixtures. It can also be mounted directly onto a distillation column to act as a dephlegmator. See GBHE-PEG-HEA-516 for more details. The Alfa Lava1 Type III offers on the process side a combination of cross flow for the initial bulk condensation followed by counter-current spiral flow to subcool the condensate and non-condensables. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  23. 23. The Alfa Lava1 Type G is designed specifically as a condenser for mounting directly onto distillation columns or reactors. Unlike the Type II, it is not a dephlegmator. Instead, the incoming vapor is directed up a central tube and can then be allowed to flow back down the spiral, in cross flow to the coolant and cocurrent with the condensate, outward in spiral flow counter-current to the coolant as in Type I or a combination as in Type III. As explained in GBHE-PEG-HEA-506, spiral plate exchangers are considered proprietary items, and are designed by the manufacturers. 8.5 Internal Condensers Rather than provide a separate heat exchanger, it is possible to mount a cooling bundle inside the top of a distillation column. In large diameter columns this can be in the form of a horizontal tube bundle. For smaller columns a vertical bundle is used, generally in the form of a set of U tubes. The latter is a more common arrangement. This design acts as a dephlegmator. The design of such a unit is discussed in GBHE-PEG-HEA-516. In some cases, to avoid the problems with dephlegmators such as flooding, internal baffling is used to direct the vapor past the bundle and back in downwards flow. 8.6 Plate Heat Exchangers Experience of the use of plate heat exchangers for condensing duties, other than using steam for heating, is limited. Brazed plate exchangers are used as condensers in some small refrigeration units. The relatively high pressure drop usually associated with plate exchangers will reduce their applicability. However, some of the plate manufacturers are pursuing a policy of extending the use of plate exchangers into new areas, developing modified forms of plate where necessary, so this situation could change. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  24. 24. 8.7 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers Plate-fin exchangers are well established as condensers in the cryogenics industry, but the restriction until recently to aluminium as a material of construction has limited their applications elsewhere. With the development of the large brazed stainless steel units from various manufacturers, recently, and the continuing work by others to produce an all stainless exchanger, other outlets should be considered. 8.8 Other Compact Designs Experience in the use of other compact exchangers in condensing duties is at present very limited. As condensing duties are usually non-fouling, the small passage size of many compact designs should not be a limitation, although fouling from the coolant side, especially cooling water could be a problem. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  25. 25. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  26. 26. DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS PROCESS ENGINEERING GUIDE This Process Engineering Guide makes reference to the following documents: PROCESS ENGINEERING GUIDES GBHE-PEG-FLO-301 Overflows and Gravity Drainage Systems (referred to in 7.5 and 8.2.3) GBHE-PEG-HEA-502 Computer Programs for the Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers (referred to in Clause 1) GBHE-PEG-HEA-506 Selection of Heat Exchanger Type (referred to in Clause 1, 8.2.3 and 8.4) GBHE-PEG-HEA-511 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Using Cooling Water (referred to in 6.2) GBHE-PEG-HEA-513 Air Cooled Heat Exchanger Design (referred to in Clause 4 and 8.3) GBHE-PEG-HEA-515 The Design and Layout of Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers (referred to in 8.2.5) GBHE-PEG-HEA-516 Refluxing Condensation Systems (Dephlegmators) (referred to in 5.1, 8.2.1, 8.4 and 8.5) GBHE-PEG-MAS-608 Control of Continuous Distillation Columns (referred to in 6.1) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  27. 27. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com

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