COMBUSTION OF GASEOUS FUELS

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COMBUSTION OF GASEOUS FUELS
COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURE
TYPES OF COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES
FLAMMABILITY LIMITS
- FLAMMABILITY LIMITS: Definition
- LEAN AND RICH FLAMMABILITY LIMITS
- EXPLOSION LIMIT
- FLAMMABILITY LIMITS: examples
IGNITION
- IGNITION PHENOMENA
- MINIMUM ENERGY of IGNITION
- MINIMUM IGNITION ENERGY OF GASES
- SELFIGNITION
PROPAGATION OF COMBUSTION
- Deflagration
-FLAME
- FLAME STRUCTURE
- LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLAMES
- PREMIXED AND DIFFUSION FLAMES
- Detonation
- Glow ....

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COMBUSTION OF GASEOUS FUELS

  1. 1. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium By Gerard B. Hawkins Executive Director www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  2. 2. RENALT ENERGY COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURE Definition: a mixture of fuel and oxidizer is combustible when combustion is developing in it after an ignition source vanishes. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  3. 3. RENALT ENERGY TYPES OF COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  4. 4. RENALT ENERGY FLAMMABILITY LIMITS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  5. 5. RENALT ENERGY FLAMMABILITY LIMITS: DEFINITION Flame can occur only in mixture within a certain composition range: flammability limits. Flammability limits refer to the composition range within which ignition and flame propagation can be brought by external ignition (e.g. by spark). www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  6. 6. RENALT ENERGY LEAN AND RICH FLAMMABILITY LIMITS LFL – minimum percentage of fuel by volume in the mixture RFL – maximum percentage of fuel by volume in the mixture (for solid fuels could be expressed in g/m3) www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  7. 7. RENALT ENERGY EXPLOSION LIMIT Explosion limits mean the same as flammability limits: LEL – lower explosion limit means the same as lean flammability limit. UEL – upper explosion limit means the same as rich flammability limit. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  8. 8. RENALT ENERGY FLAMMABILITY LIMITS: EXAMPLES www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  9. 9. RENALT ENERGY IGNITION Definition: Ignition means local initiation of the combustion process in a combustible mixture. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  10. 10. RENALT ENERGY IGNITION PHENOMENA Two ignition types can be distinguished: -external ignition (e.g. spark ...), - selfignition www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  11. 11. RENALT ENERGY MINIMUM ENERGY of IGNITION Two ignition types can be distinguished: E min – is minimum of energy, which discharged in a combustible mixture causes it’s ignition. E min – is measured in J. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  12. 12. RENALT ENERGY MINIMUM IGNITION ENERGY OF GASES www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  13. 13. RENALT ENERGY SELFIGNITION www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  14. 14. RENALT ENERGY PROPAGATION OF COMBUSTION 1. Deflagration 2. Detonation 3. Glow www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  15. 15. RENALT ENERGY DEFLAGRATION 1. Deflagration is propagation of a combustion process by flame. 2. Mechanism of propagation has thermal character: by heat conduction. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  16. 16. RENALT ENERGY FLAME www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  17. 17. RENALT ENERGY DETONATION www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  18. 18. RENALT ENERGY FLAME STRUCTURE www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  19. 19. RENALT ENERGY LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLAMES www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  20. 20. RENALT ENERGY PREMIXED AND DIFFUSION FLAMES Considering preparation of combustible mixture there are two principal types of flames: - premixed, - diffusion flames. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  21. 21. RENALT ENERGY FLAMES www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  22. 22. RENALT ENERGY PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAME www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  23. 23. RENALT ENERGY STRUCTURE OF PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAME www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  24. 24. RENALT ENERGY STRUCTURE OF PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAME www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  25. 25. RENALT ENERGY SPEED OF PREMIXED, LAMINAR FLAME www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  26. 26. RENALT ENERGY PREMIXED, LAMINAR FLAME ABOVE THE BUNSEN BURNER www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  27. 27. RENALT ENERGY PREMIXED, LAMINAR FLAME ABOVE THE BUNSEN BURNER www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  28. 28. RENALT ENERGY STRUCTURE OF DIFFUSION, LAMINAR FLAME www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  29. 29. RENALT ENERGY STRUCTURE OF DIFFUSION, LAMINAR FLAME www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  30. 30. RENALT ENERGY STRUCTURE OF DIFFUSION, LAMINAR FLAME Diffusion flame height vs. gas outflow velocity www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  31. 31. RENALT ENERGY LIMITED DIFFUSION, TURBULENT FLAME Lifted diffusion flame turbulization www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  32. 32. RENALT ENERGY TURBULENT FLAME Surface area of turbulent flame www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  33. 33. RENALT ENERGY STRUCTURE OF DIFFUSION,TURBULENT FLAME www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  34. 34. RENALT ENERGY INFLUENCE OF TURBULENCE ON FLAME STRUCTURE www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  35. 35. RENALT ENERGY STABILITY OF GAS FLAMES Stability of premixed flame in an open space www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  36. 36. RENALT ENERGY GAS BURNERS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  37. 37. RENALT ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR GAS BURNERS Features of good burner: - stable and proper operation in the range of design parameters, - low emission of pollutant, - security of operation - long lifetime, - low level of noise. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  38. 38. RENALT ENERGY TYPES OF GAS BURNERS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  39. 39. RENALT ENERGY CLASSIFICATION OF GAS BURNERS DEPENDING ON APPLICATIONS •Compact burners (common use) •Low- emission burners •Start-up burners •Pilot burners •Special burners www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  40. 40. RENALT ENERGY PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF LOWPRESSURE JET-EJECTOR GAS BURNER www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  41. 41. RENALT ENERGY RANGE OF OPERATION LOW-RESSURE JET-EJECTOR GAS BURNER www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  42. 42. RENALT ENERGY SELECTION OF NOZZELS FOR LOWRESSURE JET-EJECTOR GAS BURNERS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  43. 43. RENALT ENERGY EXAMPLES OF LOW-RESSURE JETEJECTOR GAS BURNERS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  44. 44. RENALT ENERGY LOW-RESSURE JET-EJECTOR GAS BURNERS Domestic ovens burners www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  45. 45. RENALT ENERGY HIGH-RESSURE JET-EJECTOR GAS BURNERS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  46. 46. RENALT ENERGY NOZZLE-MIX JET BURNERS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  47. 47. RENALT ENERGY NOZZLE-MIX SWIRL BURNERS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  48. 48. RENALT ENERGY COMPACT BURNER www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  49. 49. RENALT ENERGY DUCT BURNER - IDEA www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  50. 50. RENALT ENERGY DUCT BURNERS - SOLUTIONS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  51. 51. RENALT ENERGY WASTE GAS BURNER www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  52. 52. RENALT ENERGY RADIATING TUBES www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  53. 53. RENALT ENERGY GAS FLARES www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  54. 54. RENALT ENERGY PILOT BURNERS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  55. 55. RENALT ENERGY GAS LAMPS www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  56. 56. RENALT ENERGY NEW COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES: FLAMELESS COMBUSTION •Diluted combustion •Highly preheated combustion www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  57. 57. RENALT ENERGY FLAMELESS COMBUSTION flame combustion flameless combustion www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  58. 58. RENALT ENERGY CONDITIONS OF FLAMELESS COMBUSTION temperature of air must be higher than selfignition temperature (800-1000 o C), intensive recirculation in flame region should secured,  burning at low oxygen concentration, below 2-5 % vol.,  system of air and gas nozzles should allow to extend the combustion process on the whole furnace. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  59. 59. RENALT ENERGY RULES OF FLAMELESS COMBUSTION T pow – air temp. T procesu – process temp. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  60. 60. RENALT ENERGY RANGE OF FLAMELESS COMBUSTION www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  61. 61. RENALT ENERGY EFFECTS OF FLAMELESS COMBUSTION  increase of thermal efficiency,  saving of fuel: 15-30%,  increase of furnace capacity: 25%,  uniform temperature distribution in the furnace, low NOx concentration in flue gas  an order lower than using low-NOx combustion systems,  two orders lower than using conventional burners. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  62. 62. RENALT ENERGY NOx CONCENTRATION IN FLUE GAS DEPENDING ON THE TEMPERATURE 1- conventional burner, 2- air staging, 3- flameless combustion www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  63. 63. RENALT ENERGY APPLICATION OF FLAMELESS COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY At present:  In glass industry (burners of 200-300kW),  In ceramic industry (burners of 200-300kW),  In metallurgy (burners of 6-8 MW),  In petrochemistry. In the future:  In power plants (PF boilers),  In the waste incinerators. www.renaltenergy.com A Business Unit of GBH Enterprises, Ltd.
  64. 64. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium "RENALT ENERGY" - providing integrated solutions to "Green" petrochemicals, integrated Bio-Refining /conventional oil Refining, and Biomass-to-chemicals, primarily through Energy and Process Consultancy. Biomass-to-"Green" chemicals: Biomass-to-chemicals refers to the process of producing chemicals from Biomass. The major Biomass to-chemicals processes utilized in worldwide, with our strategic focus on, Biomass-to-methanol, MTO and MTP processes that produce the same chemical products, such as ethylene and propylene, as the petrochemical facilities, due to better cost efficiencies and greater demand for these chemicals. www.renaltenergy.com
  65. 65. RENALT ENERGY Renewable and Alternative Energy for the New Millennium We also have interest in, Biomass-to-olefins, Biomass-toPVC, Biomass to-aromatics and Biomass-to-ammonia/urea processes. We provide a broad range of integrated services spanning the project life-cycle from feasibility studies, consulting services, provision of proprietary technologies, design, engineering, and after-sale technical support. Executive Director GBH Enterprises, Ltd. RenAlt Energy Office: +1-312-235-2610 Cell: +52 55 2108 3070 Hawkins@renaltenergy.com www.renaltenergy.com www.renaltenergy.com

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