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Burner Design, Operation and Maintenance on Ammonia Plants

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Burner Design, Operation and Maintenance on Ammonia Plants

Brief History
Reformer Burner Types/Design
Types of Reformers
Combustion Characteristics
Excess Air/Heater Efficiency
Maintenance, Good Practice
Low Nox Equipment
Summary

Published in: Technology
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Burner Design, Operation and Maintenance on Ammonia Plants

  1. 1. Burner Design, Operation and Maintenance on Ammonia Plants
  2. 2.  Brief History  Reformer Burner Types/Design  Types of Reformers  Combustion Characteristics  Excess Air/Heater Efficiency  Maintenance, Good Practice  Low Nox Equipment  Summary WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  3. 3. Usage of Fuels on Ammonia Plants Worldwide 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Total No Plants Natural Gas Heavy Fuel Oil Naphtha Syngas Others Fuels NumberofOperatingPlants WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  4. 4. CURRENT LEGISLATION LIMITS Country Start Year Heat release Furnace Capacity NOx CO (ppm) Particulates mg/Nm3 Gas Oil Gas Oil Gas Oil France 1998 >170 MMBtuh 171 219 - - 5 50 UK 1998 Any 146 219 115 1999 Any 97 171 80 Germany 1996 <170 MMBtuh 122 80 219 85 50 <340 MMBtuh 97 50 5 TA Luft >170:<1020 mmBtuh 171 219 25 87 5-100 50 97 171 25 87 5-100 50 Market demand All 39 73 5 50 171 5 50 Eastern Europe As Germany Italy 1992 >170:<1020 mmBtuh 171 219 5 50 USA - All 30-100 WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  5. 5.  Brief History  Burner design  Burner Types  Types of Reformers  Combustion Characteristics  Heater Efficiency  Maintenance, Good Practice  Low Nox Equipment  Summary WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  6. 6. ◦ Historically trial and error ◦ Empirical methods now backed up with the following sciences  Chemical engineering  Process engineering  Thermodynamics  Materials engineering ◦ A good understanding of the above creates good combustion WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  7. 7. ◦ Computational fluid Dynamic’s (CFD) is playing a strong role. Good but be cautious ◦ Can be difficult to predict upsets  Good for replacing flow modelling  Model the Burner and the Furnace box to ensure best possible results ◦ Becoming an essential tool for waste incineration predictions WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  8. 8.  Burner testing in the manufacturer’s facility should always be considered  Confirms burner performance  Turndown  CO,CO2,NOX Etc  Always use the specified fuels that are to be used in service  Highlights flame envelope and lift off limits, pilot/light up issues.  Air flow distribution WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  9. 9.  Brief History  Burner design  Types of Reformers Reformer  Burner Types/Design  Combustion Characteristics  Heater Efficiency  Maintenance, Good Practice  Low Nox Equipment  Summary WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  10. 10. Side Fired Top Fired Terraced wall WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  11. 11.  Natural Draft  Forced Draft  Premix  Post Mix  Low Nox ◦ Fluegas Recirculation ◦ Staged Air ◦ Staged fuel  Single fuel/Dual fuel WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  12. 12. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  13. 13. Gas Nozzle Primary Air Primary Air Pre-Mix Burners Venturi Primary Fuel • Fuel & air mixed before combustion zone • Fuel pressure drop occurs in the nozzle. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  14. 14. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  15. 15. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  16. 16. Premix Gas Burner WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  17. 17. Nozzle Mix Gas Burner Included Angle Burner Block Burner Throat Port Circle Heater Refractory Flame Holder Pilot Gas Air Fuel Connection FUEL WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  18. 18. Nozzle Mix Gas Burner
  19. 19. Nozzle Mix Gas Burner Top or Bottom Fired WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  20. 20. Nozzle Mix Gas Burner Side fired WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  21. 21. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  22. 22. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  23. 23. Nozzle Mixing Gas Burner Advantages • No possibility of flashback • To some extent, the ability to burn a wide variety of fuels with differing heating values. • A high turndown ratio WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  24. 24.  Brief History  Reformer Burner Types/Design  Types of Reformers  Combustion Characteristics  Heater Efficiency  Maintenance, Good Practice  Low Nox Equipment  Summary WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  25. 25.  Increasing excess air • reduces flame length • reduces particulates • increases NOx to a peak, further introduction of air leads to a reduction • Increasing liberation • increases flame length WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  26. 26. • Increasing fuel viscosity • increases flame length • increases particulates • reduces NOx levels • Increasing combustion air temperature • reduces particulates • increases NOx levels WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  27. 27. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  28. 28. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  29. 29.  Brief History  Reformer Burner Types/Design  Types of Reformers  Combustion Characteristics  Heater Efficiency  Maintenance, Good Practice  Low Nox Equipment  Summary WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  30. 30. Draught Inches WG -13 -27 -41 -55 Top firebox Bottom Firebox FD Section Atmosphere After Convection After damper After ID Fan Atmosphere 13 27 41 55 83 WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  31. 31. x100 outputGross outputUseful Efficiency       = Heater Efficiency WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  32. 32.  Brief History  Reformer Burner Types/Design  Types of Reformers  Combustion Characteristics  Heater Efficiency  Maintenance, Good Practice  Low Nox Equipment  Summary WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  33. 33. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  34. 34. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  35. 35.  Burners can be maintained on or off line ◦ On line less popular due to safety concerns, guns can be with drawn ◦ basic tip changes can be carried out ◦ potential to change burner settings WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  36. 36. ◦ Off line during shutdowns (every 3-4 years) ◦ Relatively easy to perform  Need for access ◦ Important to maintain settings  tile to gun position  tip port dimensions  surface finish of holes  centricity of gun  condition of tile and security of fixings  condition of metallurgy (oxidation) WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  37. 37. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  38. 38. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  39. 39. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  40. 40. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  41. 41. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  42. 42. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  43. 43.  Check Burner gas Pressures ◦ at the burners, not the just the rail pressure  Check Combustion air pressures ◦ All to often the system is not balanced correctly  For oil firing ◦ it is very important atomising steam is dry and at the correct temperature WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  44. 44.  Brief History  Reformer Burner Types/Design  Types of Reformers  Combustion Characteristics  Heater Efficiency  Maintenance, Good Practice  Low Nox Equipment  Summary WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  45. 45. ◦ Currently being fitted on new plants ◦ More difficult to control ◦ The very nature of low Nox burner designs requires the flames to be produced in a much slower manner ◦ Even more sensitive to dimensional changes during maintenance, burner’s tend to be more complex ◦ Flames tend to be less well defined, with large whispery edges WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  46. 46.  Types ◦ Staged Air ◦ Staged Fuel ◦ Flue Gas Recirculation  Integral with the burner  external to the burner ◦ Combination of all above WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  47. 47.  Brief History  Reformer Burner Types/Design  Types of Reformers  Combustion Characteristics  Heater Efficiency  Maintenance, Good Practice  Low Nox Equipment  Summary WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  48. 48.  Good Combustion, this can only be achieved if the following is considered.  Attention to detail ◦ Good maintenance ◦ Good operation ◦ Good design  Partnership between:- Operation, Maintenance and Design. WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  49. 49. ◦ You've carefully thought out all the angles ◦ You've done it a thousand times ◦ It comes naturally to you ◦ You know what you're doing, its what you've been trained to do your whole life ◦ Nothing could possibly go wrong, right ? WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM
  50. 50. Think Again ! WWW.GBHENTERPRISES.COM

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